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Biology : Concepts and Connections with Mybiology

by ; ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780805371604

ISBN10:
0805371605
Format:
Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
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Summary

Biology: Concepts and Connectionsinvites readers into the world of biology with a new revision of this best-selling text. It is known for scientific accuracy and currency; a modular presentation that helps readers to focus on the main concepts; and art that teaches better than any other book.Biology: Exploring Life, THE LIFE OF THE CELL, The Chemical Basis of Life, The Molecules of Cells, A Tour of the Cell, The Working Cell, How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy, Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food, CELLULAR REPRODUCTION AND GENETICS, The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance, Patterns of Inheritance, Molecular Biology of the Gene, The Control of Gene Expression, DNA Technology and Genomics, CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION, How Populations Evolve, The Origin of Species, Tracing Evolutionary History, THE EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, The Origin and Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists, Plants, Fungi, and the Colonization of Land, The Evolution of Animal Diversity, Human Evolution, ANIMALS: FORM AND FUNCTION, Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function, Nutrition and Digestion, Gas Exchange, Circulation, The Immune System, Control of the Internal Environment, Chemical Regulation, Reproduction and Embryonic Development, Nervous Systems, The Senses, How Animals Move, PLANTS: FORM AND FUNCTION, Plant Structure, Reproduction, and Development, Plant Nutrition and Transport, Control Systems in Plants, ECOLOGY, The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environments, Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment, Population Dynamics, Communities and Ecosystems, Conservation BiologyFor all readers interested in the world of biology.

Table of Contents

Biology: Exploring Life
1(15)
Essay A Big-Billed Bird Rebounds
1(1)
The Scope of Biology
2(1)
Life's levels of organization define the scope of biology
2(1)
Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs
3(1)
Cells are the structural and functional units of life
4(1)
Evolution, Unity, and Diversity
4(1)
The unity of life: All forms of life have common features
4(2)
The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains
6(2)
Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life
8(1)
The Process of Science
9(1)
Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature
9(1)
With hypothesis-based science, we pose and test hypotheses
10(2)
Biology and Everyday Life
12(1)
Connection Biology is connected to our lives in many ways
12(4)
Chapter Review
13(3)
UNIT I The Life of the Cell
The Chemical Basis of Life
16(16)
Essay Nature's Chemical Language
16(2)
Elements, Atoms, and Molecules
18(1)
Living organisms are composed of about 25 chemical elements
18(1)
Connection Trace elements are common additives to food and water
18(1)
Elements can combine to form compounds
19(1)
Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons
20(1)
Connection Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us
21(1)
Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom
22(1)
Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge
22(1)
Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing
23(1)
Unequal electron sharing creates polar molecules
24(1)
Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life
24(1)
Water's Life-Supporting Properties
25(1)
Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive
25(1)
Water's hydrogen bonds moderate temperature
25(1)
Ice is less dense than liquid water
26(1)
Water is the solvent of life
26(1)
The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions
27(1)
Connection Acid precipitation threatens the environment
28(1)
Chemical Reactions
29(1)
Chemical reactions change the composition of matter
29(3)
Chapter Review
30(2)
The Molecules of Cells
32(18)
Essay Got Lactose?
32(2)
Introduction to Organic Compounds
34(1)
Life's molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon
34(1)
Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds
35(1)
Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules
36(1)
Carbohydrates
37(1)
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates
37(1)
Cells link two single sugars to form disaccharides
38(1)
Connection How sweet is sweet?
38(1)
Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units
39(1)
Lipids
40(1)
Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage molecules
40(1)
Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids are lipids with a variety of functions
41(1)
Connection Anabolic steroids pose health risks
41(1)
Proteins
42(1)
Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life
42(1)
Proteins are made from amino acids linked by peptide bonds
42(1)
A protein's specific shape determines its function
43(1)
A protein's shape depends on four levels of structure
44(2)
Talking About Science Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding of the chemistry of life
46(1)
Nucleic Acids
47(1)
Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides
47(3)
Chapter Review
48(2)
A Tour of the Cell
50(20)
Essay The Art of Looking at Cells
50(2)
Introduction to the Cell
52(1)
Microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell
52(2)
Most cells are microscopic
54(1)
Prokaryotic cells are structurally simpler than eukaryotic cells
55(1)
Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments
56(2)
Organelles of the Endomembrane System
58(1)
The nucleus is the cell's genetic control center
58(1)
Overview: Many cell organelles are connected through the endomembrane system
58(1)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions
58(1)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins
59(1)
The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products
60(1)
Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell
60(1)
Connection Abnormal lysosomes can cause fatal diseases
61(1)
Vacuoles function in the general maintenance of the cell
62(1)
A review of the endomembrane system
62(1)
Energy-Converting Organelles
63(1)
Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy
63(1)
Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food
63(1)
The Cytoskeleton and Related Structures
64(1)
The cell's internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities
64(1)
Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend
65(1)
Cell Surfaces and Junctions
66(1)
Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells
66(1)
Functional Categories of Organelles
67(1)
Eukaryotic organelles comprise four functional categories
67(3)
Chapter Review
68(2)
The Working Cell
70(18)
Essay Cool ``Fires'' Attract Mates and Meals
70(2)
Energy and the Cell
72(1)
Energy is the capacity to perform work
72(1)
Two laws govern energy transformations
73(2)
Chemical reactions either store or release energy
75(1)
ATP shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work
75(1)
How Enzymes Function
76(1)
Enzymes speed up the cell's chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers
76(1)
A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction
77(1)
The cellular environment affects enzyme activity
77(1)
Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action
78(1)
Connection Many poisons, pesticides, and drugs are enzyme inhibitors
78(1)
Membrane Structure and Function
79(1)
Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells
79(1)
Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer
79(1)
The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins
80(1)
Proteins make the membrane a mosaic of function
80(1)
Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane
81(1)
Transport proteins may facilitate diffusion across membranes
82(1)
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane
82(1)
Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms
83(1)
Cells expend energy for active transport
84(1)
Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules
84(1)
Connection Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol
85(1)
Chloroplasts and mitochondria make energy available for cellular work
86(2)
Chapter Review
86(2)
How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy
88(18)
Essay How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter?
88(2)
Introduction to Cellular Respiration
90(1)
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life
90(1)
Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide
90(1)
Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules
91(1)
Connection The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities
91(1)
Cells tap energy from electrons ``falling'' from organic fuels to oxygen
92(1)
Stages of Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
93(1)
Overview: Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages
93(1)
Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
94(2)
Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid cycle
96(1)
The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules
96(2)
Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation
98(1)
Connection Certain poisons interrupt critical events in cellular respiration
99(1)
Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP
100(1)
Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to cellular respiration
101(1)
Interconnections Between Molecular Breakdown and Synthesis
102(1)
Cells use many kinds of organic molecules as fuel for cellular respiration
102(1)
Food molecules provide raw materials for biosynthesis
103(1)
The fuel for respiration ultimately comes from photosynthesis
103(3)
Chapter Review
104(2)
Photosynthesis: Using Light to Make Food
106(18)
Essay Plant Power
106(2)
An Overview of Photosynthesis
108(1)
Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere
108(1)
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts
109(1)
Plants produce O2 gas by splitting water
110(1)
Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration
110(1)
Overview: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH
111(1)
The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
112(1)
Visible radiation drives the light reactions
112(1)
Photosystems capture solar power
113(1)
In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP and NADPH
114(1)
Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions
115(1)
The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 to Sugars
116(1)
ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle
116(1)
Photosynthesis Reviewed and Extended
117(1)
Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules
117(1)
C4 and CAM plants have special adaptations that save water
118(1)
Photosynthesis, Solar Radiation, and Earth's Atmosphere
119(1)
Connection Photosynthesis moderates global warming
119(1)
Talking About Science Mario Molina talks about Earth's protective ozone layer
120(4)
Chapter Review
121(3)
UNIT II Cellular Reproduction and Genetics
The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance
124(28)
Essay Rain Forest Rescue
124(2)
Connections Between Cell Division and Reproduction
126(1)
Like begets like, more or less
126(1)
Cells arise only from preexisting cells
127(1)
Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission
127(1)
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Mitosis
128(1)
The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell division
128(1)
The cell cycle multiplies cells
129(1)
Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes
130(2)
Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells
132(1)
Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division
133(1)
Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system
134(1)
Connection Growing out of control, cancer cells produce malignant tumors
135(1)
Review of the functions of mitosis: Growth, cell replacement, and asexual reproduction
136(1)
Meiosis and Crossing Over
136(1)
Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs
136(1)
Gametes have a single set of chromosomes
137(1)
Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid
138(2)
Review: A comparison of mitosis and meiosis
140(1)
Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring
141(1)
Homologous chromosomes carry different versions of genes
142(1)
Crossing over further increases genetic variability
142(2)
Alterations of Chromosome Number and Structure
144(1)
A karyotype is a photographic inventory of an individual's chromosomes
144(1)
Connection An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome
145(1)
Accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome number
146(1)
Connection Abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes do not usually affect survival
147(1)
Connection Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer
148(4)
Chapter Review
149(3)
Patterns of Inheritance
152(28)
Essay Purebreds and Mutts---A Difference of Heredity
152(2)
Mendel's Laws
154(1)
The science of genetics has ancient roots
154(1)
Experimental genetics began in an abbey garden
154(2)
Mendel's law of segregation describes the inheritance of a single characteristic
156(1)
Homologous chromosomes bear the two alleles for each characteristic
157(1)
The law of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two characteristics at once
158(1)
Geneticists use the testcross to determine unknown genotypes
159(1)
Mendel's laws reflect the rules of probability
160(1)
Connection Genetic traits in humans can be tracked through family pedigrees
161(1)
Connection Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene
162(2)
Connection New technologies can provide insight into one's genetic legacy
164(2)
Variations on Mendel's Laws
166(1)
The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple
166(1)
Incomplete dominance results in intermediate phenotypes
166(1)
Many genes have more than two alleles in the population
167(1)
A single gene may affect many phenotypic characteristics
168(1)
A single characteristic may be influenced by many genes
169(1)
The environment affects many characteristics
170(1)
Connection Genetic testing can detect disease-causing alleles
170(1)
The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
171(1)
Chromosome behavior accounts for Mendel's laws
171(1)
Genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
172(1)
Crossing over produces new combinations of alleles
172(2)
Geneticists use crossover data to map genes
174(1)
Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes
175(1)
Chromosomes determine sex in many species
175(1)
Sex-linked genes exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance
176(1)
Connection Sex-linked disorders affect mostly males
177(3)
Chapter Review
178(2)
Molecular Biology of the Gene
180(28)
Essay Sabotage Inside Our Cells
180(2)
The Structure of the Genetic Material
182(1)
Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material
182(2)
DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides
184(2)
DNA is a double-stranded helix
186(2)
DNA Replication
188(1)
DNA replication depends on specific base pairing
188(1)
DNA replication: A closer look
189(1)
The Flow of Genetic Information from DNA to RNA to Protein
190(1)
The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits
190(1)
Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
191(1)
The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life
192(1)
Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA
193(1)
Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus
194(1)
Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation
194(2)
Ribosomes build polypeptides
196(1)
An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message
196(1)
Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation
197(1)
Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA → RNA → protein
198(1)
Mutations can change the meaning of genes
199(1)
Microbial Genetics
200(1)
Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome
200(1)
Connection Many viruses cause disease in animals
201(1)
Connection Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests
202(1)
Connection Emerging viruses threaten human health
202(1)
The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template
203(1)
Bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways
204(1)
Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer
205(3)
Chapter Review
206(2)
The Control of Gene Expression
208(22)
Essay to Clone or Not to Clone?
208(2)
Gene Regulation
210(1)
Proteins interacting with DNA turn prokaryotic genes on or off in response to environmental changes
210(2)
Differentiation yields a variety of cell types, each expressing a different combination of genes
212(1)
Differentiated cells may retain all of their genetic potential
212(1)
DNA packing in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression
213(1)
In female mammals, one X chromosome is inactive in each cell
214(1)
Complex assemblies of proteins control eukaryotic transcription
214(1)
Eukaryotic RNA may be spliced in more than one way
215(1)
Translation and later stages of gene expression are also subject to regulation
216(1)
Review: Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in eukaryotes
217(1)
Animal Cloning
218(1)
Nuclear transplantation can be used to clone animals
218(1)
Connection Reproductive cloning has valuable applications, but human reproductive cloning raises ethical issues
218(1)
Connection Therapeutic cloning can produce stem cells with great medical potential
219(1)
The Genetic Control of Embryonic Development
220(1)
Cascades of gene expression and cell-to-cell signaling direct the development of an animal
220(1)
Signal transduction pathways convert messages received at the cell surface to responses within the cell
221(1)
Key developmental genes are very ancient
222(1)
The Genetic Basis of Cancer
222(1)
Cancer results from mutations in genes that control cell division
222(2)
Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins can interfere with normal signal transduction pathways
224(1)
Multiple genetic changes underlie the development of cancer
225(1)
Talking About Science Mary-Claire King discusses mutations that cause breast cancer
226(1)
Connection Avoiding carcinogens can reduce the risk of cancer
227(3)
Chapter Review
228(2)
DNA Technology and Genomics
230(24)
Essay DNA and Crime Scene Investigations
230(2)
Bacterial Plasmids and Gene Cloning
232(1)
Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: An overview
232(1)
Enzymes are used to ``cut and paste'' DNA
233(1)
Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: A closer look
234(1)
Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries
235(1)
Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for cloning
235(1)
Connection Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products
236(1)
Connection DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine
237(1)
Restriction Fragment Analysis and DNA Fingerprinting
238(1)
Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes
238(1)
Connection DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once
238(1)
Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size
239(1)
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms can be used to detect differences in DNA sequences
240(2)
Connection DNA technology is used in courts of law
242(1)
Connection Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases
243(1)
The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences
244(1)
Genomics
244(1)
Connection The Human Genome Project is an ambitious application of DNA technology
244(1)
Most of the human genome does not consist of genes
245(1)
Connection The science of genomics compares whole genomes
246(1)
Genetically Modified Organisms
247(1)
Connection Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture
247(1)
Connection Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?
248(1)
Talking About Science Genomics researcher Eric Lander discusses the Human Genome Project
249(5)
Chapter Review
249(5)
UNIT III Concepts of Evolution
Populations Evolve
254(24)
Essay Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted?
254(2)
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
256(1)
A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution
256(2)
Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution
258(2)
The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution
260(2)
A mass of other evidence reinforces the evolutionary view of life
262(2)
Connection Scientists can observe natural selection in action
264(1)
Population Genetics and The Modern Synthesis
265(1)
Populations are the units of evolution
265(1)
The gene pool of a nonevolving population remains constant over the generations
266(1)
Connection The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science
267(1)
In addition to natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can contribute to evolution
268(1)
Connection Endangered species often have reduced variation
269(1)
Variation and Natural Selection
270(1)
Variation is extensive in most populations
270(1)
Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation
270(2)
Connection The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious public health concern
272(1)
Diploidy and balancing selection preserve variation
272(1)
The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness
273(1)
Natural selection can alter variation in a population in three ways
274(1)
Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism
275(1)
Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms
275(3)
Chapter Review
276(2)
The Origin of Species
278(18)
Essay Mosquito Mystery
278(2)
The origin of species is the source of biological diversity
280(1)
Concepts of Species
280(1)
What is a species?
280(2)
Reproductive barriers keep species separate
282(2)
Mechanisms of Speciation
284(1)
Geographic isolation can lead to speciation
284(1)
Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge
285(1)
New species can arise within the same geographic area as the parent species
286(1)
Connection Polyploid plants clothe and feed us
287(1)
Adaptive radiation may occur in new or newly vacated habitats
288(1)
Talking About Science Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of Darwin's finches
289(1)
The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy
290(1)
Macroevolution
291(1)
Evolutionary novelties may arise in several ways
291(1)
Genes that control development are important in evolution
292(1)
Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is goal directed
293(3)
Chapter Review
294(2)
Tracing Evolutionary History
296(18)
Essay Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers?
296(2)
Macroevolution and Earth's History
298(1)
The fossil record chronicles macroevolution
298(1)
The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time
299(1)
Continental drift has played a major role in macro-evolution
300(2)
Connection Tectonic trauma imperils local life
302(1)
Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms
302(2)
Phylogeny and Systematics
304(1)
Phylogenies are based on homologies in fossils and living organisms
304(1)
Systematics connects classification with evolutionary history
304(2)
Cladograms are diagrams based on shared characters among species
306(2)
Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics
308(2)
Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress
310(4)
Chapter Review
311(3)
UNIT IV The Evolution of Biological Diversity
The Origin and Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists
314(28)
Essay How Ancient Bacteria Changed the World
314(2)
Early Earth and the Origin of Life
316(1)
Life began on a young Earth
316(2)
How did life originate?
318(1)
Talking About Science Stanley Miller's experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth
318(2)
The first polymers may have formed on hot rocks or clay
320(1)
The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA
320(1)
Membrane-enclosed molecular cooperatives may have preceded the first cells
321(1)
Prokaryotes
322(1)
Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for billions of years
322(1)
Bacteria and archaea are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution
322(1)
Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes
323(1)
Various structural features contribute to the success of prokaryotes
324(2)
Prokaryotes obtain nourishment in a variety of ways
326(1)
Archaea thrive in extreme environments-and in other habitats
327(1)
Bacteria include a diverse assemblage of prokaryotes
328(1)
Connection Some bacteria cause disease
329(1)
Connection Bacteria can be used as biological weapons
330(1)
Connection Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment
330(2)
Protists
332(1)
The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes
332(1)
Protists are an extremely diverse assortment of eukaryotes
333(1)
A tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes includes multiple clades of protists
334(1)
Diplomonads and euglenozoans include some flagellated parasites
334(1)
Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane and include dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
335(1)
Stramenopiles are named for their ``hairy'' flagella and include the water molds, diatoms, and brown algae
336(1)
Amoebozoans have pseudopodia and include amoebas and slime molds
337(1)
Red algae and green algae are the closest relatives of land plants
338(1)
Multicellularity evolved several times in eukaryotes
339(3)
Chapter Review
340(2)
Plants, Fungi, and the Colonization of Land
342(24)
Essay Plants and Fungi-A Beneficial Partnership
342(2)
Plant Evolution and Diversity
344(1)
Plants evolved from green algae
344(1)
Plants have adaptations for life on land
344(2)
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom
346(2)
Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles
348(1)
Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant life cycles
348(1)
Mosses have a dominant gametophyte
348(1)
Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant sporophyte
349(1)
Seedless plants dominated vast ``coal forests''
350(1)
A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones
350(2)
The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm reproduction
352(1)
The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers
352(2)
The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal
354(1)
Connection Agriculture is based almost entirely on angiosperms
354(1)
Interactions with animals have profoundly influenced angiosperm evolution
355(1)
Connection Plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource
356(1)
Fungi
357(1)
Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies
357(1)
Fungi produce spores in both asexual and sexual life cycles
358(1)
Fungi can be classified into five groups
358(2)
Fungal groups differ in their life cycles and reproductive structures
360(1)
Connection Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals
361(1)
Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic organisms
362(1)
Fungi also form mutualistic relationships with animals
362(1)
Connection Fungi have enormous ecological benefits and practical uses
363(3)
Chapter Review
364(2)
The Evolution of Animal Diversity
366(32)
Essay What Am I?
366(2)
Animal Evolution and Diversity
368(1)
What is an animal?
368(1)
The ancestor of animals was probably a colonial, flagellated protist
369(1)
Animals can be characterized by basic features of their ``body plan''
370(1)
The body plans of animals can be used to build phylogenetic trees
371(1)
Invertebrates
372(1)
Sponges have a relatively simple, porous body
372(1)
Cnidarians are radial animals with tentacles and stinging cells
373(1)
Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals
374(1)
Nematodes have a pseudocoelom and a complete digestive tract
375(1)
Diverse molluscs are variations on a common body plan
376(2)
Annelids are segmented worms
378(2)
Arthropods are segmented animals with jointed appendages and an exoskeleton
380(2)
Insects are the most diverse group of organisms
382(2)
Echinoderms have spiny skin, an endoskeleton, and a water vascular system for movement
384(1)
Our own phylum, Chordata, is distinguished by four features
385(1)
Vertebrates
386(1)
Derived characters define the major clades of chordates
386(1)
Lampreys are vertebrates that lack hinged jaws
387(1)
Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe-fins
388(1)
Amphibians were the first tetrapods-vertebrates with two pairs of limbs
389(1)
Reptiles are amniotes-tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg
390(1)
Birds are feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight
391(1)
Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk
392(1)
Animal Phylogeny and Diversity Revisited
393(1)
An animal phylogenetic tree is a work in progress
393(1)
Connection Humans threaten animal diversity by introducing non-native species
394(4)
Chapter Review
395(3)
Human Evolution
398(14)
Essay How Are We Related to the Neanderthals?
398(2)
Primate Diversity
400(1)
The human story begins with our primate heritage
400(2)
Hominoids include humans and four other groups of apes
402(1)
Hominid Evolution
403(1)
The human branch of the primate tree is only a few million years old
403(1)
Upright posture evolved well before an enlarged brain in hominids
404(1)
Larger brains and reduced sexual dimorphism mark the evolution of Homo
404(1)
When and where did Homo sapiens arise?
405(1)
Connection Human skin colors reflect adaptations to varying amounts of sunlight
406(1)
Connection A genetic difference helped humans start speaking
406(1)
Our Cultural History and Its Consequences
407(1)
Culture gives humans enormous power to change the environment
407(1)
Scavenging, gathering, and hunting were the earliest human endeavors
407(1)
Agriculture was a major development in human history
408(1)
Development of complex tools affects human culture and the world
408(4)
Chapter Review
409(3)
UNIT V Animals: Form and Function
Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function
412(16)
Essay Climbing the Walls
412(2)
The Hierarchy of Structural Organization in an Animal
414(1)
Structure fits function in the animal body
414(1)
Animal structure has a hierarchy
415(1)
Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function
415(1)
Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
416(1)
Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues
417(1)
Muscle tissue functions in movement
418(1)
Nervous tissue forms a communication network
418(1)
Connection Artificial tissues have medical uses
419(1)
Organs are made up of tissues
419(1)
Organ systems work together to perform life's functions
420(2)
Connection New imaging technology reveals the inner body
422(2)
Exchanges with the External Environment
424(1)
Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their environment
424(1)
Animals regulate their internal environment
425(1)
Homeostasis depends on negative feedback
426(2)
Chapter Review
426(2)
Nutrition and Digestion
428(24)
Essay Getting Their Fill of Krill
428(2)
Obtaining and Processing Food
430(1)
Animals ingest their food in a variety of ways
430(1)
Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages
431(1)
Digestion occurs in specialized compartments
432(1)
Human Digestive System
433(1)
The human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands
433(1)
Digestion begins in the oral cavity
434(1)
The food and breathing passages both open into the pharynx
434(1)
Connection The Heimlich maneuver can save lives
435(1)
The esophagus squeezes food along to the stomach by peristalsis
435(1)
The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes
436(1)
Connection Bacterial infections can cause ulcers
437(1)
The small intestine is the major organ of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption
438(2)
The large intestine reclaims water and compacts the feces
440(1)
Diets and Digestive Adaptations
440(1)
Adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems reflect diet
440(2)
Nutrition
442(1)
Overview: A healthy diet satisfies three needs
442(1)
Chemical energy powers the body
442(1)
An animal's diet must supply essential nutrients
443(1)
Connection Vegetarians must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids
443(1)
A healthy diet includes 13 vitamins
444(1)
Essential minerals are required for many body functions
445(1)
Connection Do you need to take vitamin and mineral supplements?
446(1)
Connection What do food labels tell us?
446(1)
Connection Obesity is a human health problem
447(1)
Connection What are the health risks and benefits of fad diets?
448(1)
Connection Diet can influence cardiovascular disease and cancer
449(3)
Chapter Review
450(2)
Gas Exchange
452(14)
Essay Surviving in Thin Air
452(2)
Mechanisms of Gas Exchange
454(1)
Overview: Gas exchange involves breathing, transport of gases, and exchange of gases with tissue cells
454(1)
Animals exchange O2 and CO2 across moist body surfaces
454(2)
Gills are adapted for gas exchange in aquatic environments
456(1)
The tracheal system of insects provides direct exchange between the air and body cells
457(1)
Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs
458(1)
Connection Smoking is a deadly assault on our respiratory system
459(1)
Breathing ventilates the lungs
460(1)
Breathing is automatically controlled
461(1)
Transport of Gases in the Body
462(1)
Blood transports respiratory gases
462(1)
Hemoglobin carries O2 and helps transport CO2 and buffer the blood
462(1)
Connection The human fetus exchanges gases with the mother's bloodstream
463(3)
Chapter Review
464(2)
Circulation
466(18)
Essay How Does Gravity Affect Blood Circulation?
466(2)
The circulatory system connects with all body tissues
468(1)
Mechanisms of Internal Transport
468(1)
Several types of internal transport have evolved in animals
468(2)
Vertebrate cardiovascular systems reflect evolution
470(1)
The Mammalian Cardiovascular System
471(1)
The human heart and cardiovascular system are typical of mammals
471(1)
The structure of blood vessels fits their functions
472(1)
The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically
472(1)
The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat
473(1)
Connection What is a heart attack?
474(1)
Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls
475(1)
Connection Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems
476(1)
Smooth muscle controls the distribution of blood
477(1)
Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls
478(1)
Structure and Function of Blood
479(1)
Blood consists of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma
479(1)
Connection Too few or too many red blood cells can be unhealthy
480(1)
Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured
480(1)
Connection Stem cells offer a potential cure for blood cell diseases
481(3)
Chapter Review
482(2)
The Immune System
484(20)
Essay An AIDS Uproar
484(2)
Innate Defenses Against Infection
486(1)
Innate defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytic cells, and antimicrobial proteins
486(1)
The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces
487(1)
The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection
488(1)
Acquired Immunity
489(1)
The immune response counters specific invaders
489(1)
Lymphocytes mount a dual defense
490(1)
Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them
491(1)
Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens
492(2)
Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity
494(1)
Antibodies mark antigens for elimination
495(1)
Connection Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic
496(1)
Helper T cells stimulate humoral and cell-mediated immunity
497(1)
Connection HIV destroys helper T cells, compromising the body's defenses
498(1)
Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells
499(1)
Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer
499(1)
The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints
500(1)
Disorders of the Immune System
500(1)
Connection Malfunction or failure of the immune system causes disease
500(1)
Connection Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens
501(3)
Chapter Review
502(2)
Control of the Internal Environment
504(14)
Essay Let Sleeping Bears Lie
504(2)
Thermoregulation
506(1)
Heat is gained or lost in four ways
506(1)
Thermoregulation involves adaptations that balance heat gain and loss
506(1)
Reducing metabolic rate and body temperature saves energy
507(1)
Osmoregulation and Excretion
508(1)
Osmoregulation: Animals balance the gain and loss of water and solutes
508(1)
Connection Do we need to drink eight glasses of water each day?
509(1)
Animals must dispose of nitrogenous wastes
510(1)
The liver performs many functions, including the production of urea
511(1)
Connection Alcohol consumption can damage the liver
511(1)
The excretory system plays several major roles in homeostasis
512(1)
Overview: The key processes of the excretory system are filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
513(1)
From blood filtrate to urine: A closer look
514(1)
Connection Kidney dialysis can be a lifesaver
515(3)
Chapter Review
516(2)
Chemical Regulation
518(16)
Essay Testosterone and Male Aggression: Is There a Link?
518(2)
The Nature of Chemical Regulation
520(1)
Chemical signals coordinate body functions
520(1)
Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms
521(1)
The Vertebrate Endocrine System
522(1)
Overview: The vertebrate endocrine system
522(2)
The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and endocrine systems
524(2)
Hormones and Homeostasis
526(1)
The thyroid regulates development and metabolism
526(1)
Hormones from the thyroid and the parathyroids maintain calcium homeostasis
526(2)
Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels
528(1)
Connection Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder
529(1)
The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress
530(1)
Connection Glucocorticoids offer relief from pain, but not without serious risks
531(1)
The gonads secrete sex hormones
532(2)
Chapter Review
532(2)
Reproduction and Embryonic Development
534(30)
Essay Baby Bonanza
534(2)
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
536(1)
Sexual and asexual reproduction are both common among animals
536(2)
Human Reproduction
538(1)
Reproductive anatomy of the human female
538(2)
Reproductive anatomy of the human male
540(2)
The formation of sperm and ova requires meiosis
542(2)
Hormones synchronize cyclic changes in the ovary and uterus
544(2)
The human sexual response occurs in four phases
546(1)
Connection Sexual activity can transmit disease
546(1)
Connection Contraception can prevent unwanted pregnancy
547(1)
Principles of Embryonic Development
548(1)
Fertilization results in a zygote and triggers embryonic development
548(2)
Cleavage produces a ball of cells from the zygote
550(1)
Gastrulation produces a three-layered embryo
550(2)
Organs start to form after gastrulation
552(2)
Changes in cell shape, cell migration, and programmed cell death give form to the developing animal
554(1)
Embryonic induction initiates organ formation
554(1)
Pattern formation organizes the animal body
555(1)
Human Development
556(1)
The embryo and placenta take shape during the first month of pregnancy
556(2)
Human development from conception to birth is divided into three trimesters
558(2)
Childbirth is hormonally induced and occurs in three stages
560(1)
Connection Reproductive technology increases our reproductive options
561(3)
Chapter Review
562(2)
Nervous Systems
564(24)
Essay Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed?
564(2)
Nervous System Structure and Function
566(1)
Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands
566(1)
Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems
567(1)
Nerve Signals and Their Transmission
568(1)
A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane
568(1)
A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
568(2)
The action potential propagates itself along the neuron
570(1)
Neurons communicate at synapses
571(1)
Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible
572(1)
A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters
572(1)
Connection Many drugs act at chemical synapses
573(1)
An Overview of Animal Nervous Systems
574(1)
Nervous system organization usually correlates with body symmetry
574(1)
Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized
575(1)
The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy
576(1)
Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment
576(2)
The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube
578(1)
The Human Brain
578(1)
The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain
578(2)
The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interact ive regions
580(1)
Connection Injuries and brain operations provide insight into brain function
581(7)
Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal
582(1)
The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and learning
583(1)
Connection Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders
584(2)
Chapter Review
586(2)
The Senses
588(16)
Essay An Animal's Senses Guide Its Movement
588(2)
Sensory inputs become sensations and perceptions in the brain
590(1)
Sensory Reception
590(1)
Sensory receptors convert stimulus energy to action potentials
590(2)
Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli
592(2)
Vision
594(1)
Several types of eyes have evolved among invertebrates
594(1)
Vertebrates have single-lens eyes
594(1)
To focus, a lens changes position or shape
595(1)
Connection Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems
596(1)
Our photoreceptors are rods and cones
597(1)
Hearing and Balance
598(1)
The ear converts air pressure waves to action potentials that are perceived as sound
598(2)
The inner ear houses our organs of balance
600(1)
Connection What causes motion sickness?
600(1)
Taste and Smell
601(1)
Taste and odor receptors detect chemicals present in solution or air
601(1)
Connection Our sense of taste may change as we age
601(1)
Review: The central nervous system couples stimulus with response
602(2)
Chapter Review
602(2)
How Animals Move
604(18)
Essay Elephants Do the ``Groucho Gait''
604(2)
Movement and Locomotion
606(1)
Diverse means of animal locomotion have evolved
606(2)
Skeletal Support
608(1)
Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection
608(2)
The human skeleton is a unique variation on an ancient theme
610(1)
Bones are complex living organs
611(1)
Connection Broken bones can heal themselves
612(1)
Connection Weak, brittle bones are a serious health problem, even in young people
612(1)
Muscle Contraction and Movement
613(1)
The skeleton and muscles interact in movement
613(1)
Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus
614(1)
A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments
614(2)
Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction
616(1)
Connection Athletic training increases strength and endurance
617(1)
The structure-function theme underlies all the parts and activities of an animal
618(4)
Chapter Review
619(3)
UNIT VI Plants: Form and Function
Plant Structure, Reproduction, and Development
622(22)
Essay A Gentle Giant
622(2)
Talking About Science Plant scientist Natasha Raikhel studies the Arabidopsis plant as a model biological system
624(1)
Plant Structure and Function
625(1)
The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots
625(1)
A typical plant body consists of roots and shoots
626(1)
Many plants have modified roots, stems, and leaves
627(1)
Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure and function
628(2)
Three tissue systems make up the plant body
630(2)
Plant Growth
632(1)
Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots
632(2)
Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants
634(2)
Reproduction of Flowering Plants
636(1)
Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering plant
636(1)
The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization
636(2)
The ovule develops into a seed
638(1)
The ovary develops into a fruit
639(1)
Seed germination continues the life cycle
640(1)
Asexual reproduction produces plant clones
641(1)
Connection Asexual reproduction is a mainstay of modern agriculture
642(2)
Chapter Review
642(2)
Plant Nutrition and Transport
644(18)
Essay Plants That Clean Up Poisons
644(2)
The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients
646(1)
Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air
646(1)
The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake
647(1)
Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels
648(1)
Guard cells control transpiration
649(1)
Phloem transports sugars
650(2)
Plant Nutrients and the Soil
652(1)
Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients
652(1)
Connection You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants
653(1)
Fertile soil supports plant growth
654(1)
Connection Soil conservation is essential to human life
655(1)
Connection Organic farmers must follow ecological principles
656(1)
Connection Agricultural research is improving the yields and nutritional values of crops
656(1)
Plant Nutrition and Symbiosis
657(1)
Fungi help most plants absorb nutrients from the soil
657(1)
Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen
658(1)
Legumes and certain other plants house nitrogen-fixing bacteria
658(1)
The plant kingdom includes parasites and carnivores
659(3)
Chapter Review
660(2)
Control Systems in Plants
662(20)
Essay What Are the Health Benefits of Soy?
662(2)
Plant Hormones
664(1)
Experiments-on how plants turn toward light led to the discovery of a plant hormone
664(2)
Five major types of hormones regulate plant growth and development
666(1)
Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots
666(2)
Cytokinins stimulate cell division
668(1)
Gibberellins affect stem elongation and have numerous other effects
668(1)
Abscisic acid inhibits many plant processes
669(1)
Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes
670(1)
Connection Plant hormones have many agricultural uses
671(1)
Growth Responses and Biological Rhythms in Plants
672(1)
Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli
672(1)
Plants have internal clocks
673(1)
Plants mark the seasons by measuring photoperiod
674(1)
Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock
675(1)
Talking About Science Joanne Chory studies the effects of light and hormones in the model plant Arabidopsis
676(1)
Plant Defenses
676(1)
Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in plants
676(2)
Talking About Science Plant biochemist Eloy Rodriguez studies how animals use defensive chemicals made by plants
678(4)
Chapter Review
678(4)
UNIT VII Ecology
Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environments
682(20)
Essay A Mysterious Giant of the Deep
682(2)
Ecologists study how organisms interact with their environment at several levels
684(1)
The Biosphere
684(1)
The biosphere is the total of all of Earth's ecosystems
684(1)
Connection Environmental problems reveal the limits of the biosphere
685(1)
Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere
686(1)
Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection
687(1)
Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities
688(2)
Aquatic Biomes
690(1)
Oceans occupy most of Earth's surface
690(2)
Freshwater biomes include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands
692(1)
Terrestrial Biomes
693(1)
Terrestrial biomes reflect regional variations in climate
693(1)
Tropical forests cluster near the equator
694(1)
Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees
694(1)
Deserts are defined by their dryness
695(1)
Spiny shrubs dominate the chaparral
696(1)
Temperate grasslands include the North American prairie
696(1)
Broadleaf trees dominate temperate forests
697(1)
Coniferous forests are often dominated by a few species of trees
698(1)
Long, bitter-cold winters characterize the tundra
698(1)
Talking About Science Ecologist Ariel Lugo studies tropical forests in Puerto Rico
699(3)
Chapter Review
700(2)
Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment
702(24)
Essay Leaping Herds of Herbivores
702(2)
The Scientific Study of Behavior
704(1)
Behavioral ecologists ask both proximate and ultimate questions
704(1)
Early behaviorists used experiments to study fixed action patterns
705(1)
Behavior is the result of both genes and environmental factors
706(1)
Learning
707(1)
Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to complex problem solving
707(1)
Imprinting is learning that involves innate behavior and experience
708(1)
Connection Imprinting poses problems and opportunities for conservation programs
709(1)
Animal movement may be a simple response to stimuli or involve spatial learning
710(1)
Movements of animals may depend on internal maps
711(1)
Animals may learn to associate a stimulus or behavior with a response
712(1)
Social learning involves observation and imitation of others
712(1)
Problem-solving behavior relies on cognition
713(1)
Foraging and Mating Behaviors
714(1)
Behavioral ecologists use cost-benefit analysis in studying foraging
714(1)
Mating behaviors enhance reproductive success
715(1)
Mating behavior often involves elaborate courtship rituals
716(1)
Social Behavior and Sociobiology
717(1)
Sociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary context
717(1)
Territorial behavior parcels space and resources
717(1)
Rituals involving agonistic behavior often resolve confrontations between competitors
718(1)
Dominance hierarchies are maintained by agonistic behavior
718(1)
Talking About Science Behavioral biologist Jane Goodall discusses dominance hierarchies and reconciliation behavior in chimpanzees
719(1)
Social behavior requires communication between animals
720(1)
Altruistic acts can often be explained by the concept of inclusive fitness
721(1)
Connection Both genes and culture contribute to human social behavior
722(1)
Talking About Science Edward O. Wilson promoted the field of sociobiology and is a leading conservation activist
723(3)
Chapter Review
724(2)
Population Dynamics
726(16)
Essay The Spread of Shakespeare's Starlings
726(2)
Population ecology studies how and why populations change
728(1)
Population Structure and Dynamics
728(1)
Density and dispersion patterns are important population variables
728(1)
Life tables track mortality and survivorship in populations
729(1)
Idealized models help us understand population growth
730(2)
Multiple factors may limit population growth
732(1)
Some populations have ``boom-and-bust'' cycles
733(1)
Life Histories and Their Evolution
734(1)
Evolution shapes life histories
734(1)
Connection Principles of population ecology have practical applications
735(1)
The Human Population
736(1)
Connection Human population growth has started to slow after centuries of exponential increase
736(2)
Birth and death rates and age structure affect population growth
738(4)
Chapter Review
740(2)
Communities and Ecosystems
742(22)
Essay Dining In
742(2)
Structural Features of Communities
744(1)
A community includes all the organisms inhabiting particular area
744(1)
Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited
745(1)
Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey
746(1)
Predation can maintain diversity in a community
747(1)
Herbivores and the plants they eat have various adaptations
748(1)
Symbiotic relationships help structure communities
748(2)
Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities
750(1)
Talking About Science Fire specialist Max Moritz discusses the role of fire in ecosystems
751(1)
Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics
752(1)
Food chains interconnect, forming food webs
753(1)
Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics
754(1)
Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling
754(1)
Primary production sets the energy budget for ecosystems
754(1)
Energy supply limits the length of food chains
755(1)
Connection A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans
756(1)
Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs
756(1)
Water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle
757(1)
The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration
758(1)
The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria
758(1)
The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock
759(1)
Ecosystem Alteration
760(1)
Connection Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling
760(1)
Talking About Science David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients on freshwater ecosystems
761(3)
Chapter Review
762(2)
Conservation Biology
764(1)
Essay Saving the Tiger
764(2)
The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview
766(1)
Human activities threaten Earth's biodiversity
766(1)
Biodiversity is vital to human welfare
767(1)
Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major threats to biodiversity
768(1)
Connection Pollution of the environment compounds our impact on other species
769(1)
Connection Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere
770(2)
Conservation of Populations and Species
772(1)
Two ways to study endangered populations are the small-population approach and the declining-population approach
772(1)
Identifying critical habitat factors can guide conservation efforts
773(1)
Managing and Restoring Ecosystems
774(1)
Sustaining ecosystems and landscapes is a conservation priority
774(1)
Protected areas are established to slow the loss of biodiversity
775(1)
Connection The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative seeks to preserve biodiversity by connecting protected areas
776(2)
The study of how to restore degraded habitats is a developing science
778(1)
Connection The Kissimmee River project is a case study in restoration ecology
779(1)
Zoned reserves are an attempt to reverse ecosystem disruption
780(1)
Sustainable development is an ultimate goal
781(1)
Chapter Review
782
Appendix 1 Metric Conversion Table
Appendix 2 The Amino Acids of Proteins
Appendix 3 Chapter Review Answers
Appendix 4 Credits
Glossary
Index


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