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l. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide to the Natural World. 2. The Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemistry and Life.
How Does Science Impact the Everyday World? What Does the Public Think, and Know, about Science? What Is Science? Biology. Special Qualities of Biology.
I. ESSENTIAL PARTS: ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND CELLS.
The Nature of Matter: The Atom. Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding. Some Qualities of Chemical Compounds. 3. Water, pH, and Biological Molecules.
The Importance of Water to Life. Acids and Bases Are Important to Life. Carbon Is a Central Element in Life. The Molecules of Life: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids. 4. Life's Home: The Cell.
Cells Are the Working Units of Life. All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic. The Eukaryotic Cell. A Tour of the Animal Cell: Along the Protein Production Path. Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures. The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding. The Plant Cell. Cell Communication: Why Cells Need Not Be Islands. 5. Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane.
6. Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Energy.
The Importance of Activity at the Cell's Periphery. Why Do We Need the Plasma Membrane? Four Components of the Plasma Membrane. Moving Materials In and Out: Diffusions and Gradients. How Do Materials Get In and Out of the Cell? Getting the Big Stuff In and Out.
II. ENERGY AND ITS TRANSFORMATIONS.
Energy Is Central to Life. What Is Energy? How Is Energy Used by Living Things? The Energy Currency Molecule: ATP. Efficient Energy Use in Living Things: Enzymes. Lowering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes. Regulating Enzymatic Activity. 7. Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food.
Energizing ATP: Adding a Phosphate Group to ADP. Electrons Fall Down the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP. The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain. First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis. Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle. Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain. Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathways. 8. The Green World's Gift: Photosynthesis.
9. Introduction to Genetics; Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
Photosynthesis and Energy. The Components of Photosynthesis. Stage 1:The Steps of the Light-Dependent Reactions. What Makes the Light-Dependent Reactions So Important? Stage 2 of Photosynthesis: The Light-Independent Reactions. Photorespiration: Undercutting Photosynthesis. A Different Kind of Photosynthesis: The C4 Pathway. Another Photosynthetic Variation: CAM Plants.
III. HOW LIFE GOES ON: GENETICS.
An Introduction to Genetics. An Introduction to Cell Division. DNA Is Packaged in Chromosomes. Mitosis and Cytokinesis. Variations in Cell Division. 10. Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Meiosis.
An Overview of Meiosis. The Steps in Meiosis. What Is the Significance of Meiosis? Gamete Formation in Humans. Life Cycles: Humans and Other Organisms. 11. The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Discoveries.
Mendel and the Black Box. The Experimental Subjects: Pisum sativum. Starting the Experiments: Yellow and Green Peas. Another Generation for Mendel. Crosses Involving Two Characters. Reception of Mendel's Ideas. Incomplete Dominance. Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance. Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance. Genes and Environment. One Gene, Several Effects: Pleiotropy. 12. Chromosomes and Inheritance.
Sex-Linked Inheritance in Humans. Autosomal Genetic Disorders. Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy. Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy. Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes. 13. DNA Structure and Replication.
What Do Genes Do, and What Are They Made of? Watson and Crick: The Double Helix. The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement. Mutations: Another Name for a Permanent Change in DNA Structure. 14. How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Transcription, Translation, and Regulation.
The Structure of Proteins. Protein Synthesis in Overview: Transcription and Translation. The Importance of the Genetic Code. A Closer Look at Protein Synthesis. Genetic Regulation. The Magnitude of the Metabolic Operation. What Is a Gene? 15. The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Biotechnology.
16. An Introduction to Evolution: Charles Darwin, Evolutionary Thought, and the Evidence for Evolution.
What Is Biotechnology? Some Tools of Biotechnology. Cloning and the Wider World of Biotechnology. Other Biotechnology Processes: PCR. Visualizing DNA Sequences. Decoding the Human Genome. The Next Phase in Genetics: Genomics and Proteomics. Genetically Modified Foods. Ethical Questions in Biotechnology.
IV. LIFE'S ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE: EVOLUTION AND THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE.
Evolution and Its Core Principles. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution. Evolutionary Thinking before Darwin. Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage. Alfred Russet Wallace. Descent with Modification Is Accepted. Darwin Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection. Opposition to the Theory of Evolution. The Evidence for Evolution. 17. The Means of Evolution: Microevolution.
What Is It That Evolves? Evolution as a Change in the Frequency of Alleles. Five Agents of Microevolution. What Is Evolutionary Fitness? Three Modes of Natural Selection. 18. The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevolution.
What Is a Species? How Do New Species Arise? When Is Speciation Likely to Occur? The Categorization of Earth's Living Things. Constructing Evolutionary Histories: Classical Taxonomy and Cladistics. 19. A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life on Earth.
The Geologic Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages. Tracing the History of Life on Earth: How Did Life Begin? The Tree of Life. A Long First Period: The Precambrian. The Cambrian Explosion: A Real Milestone or the Appearance of One? The Movement onto the Land: Plants First. Animals Follow Plants onto the Land. The Evolution of Human Beings. 20. Pond Dwellers, Log Eaters, and Self-Feeders: The Diversity of Life.
Viruses: Making a Living by Hijacking Cells. Domain Bacteria: Masters of Every Environment. Domain Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center. Domain Eukarya: Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals. Kingdom Protista: An Undefinable Collection. Kingdom Fungi: Life as a Web of Slender Threads. Kingdom Plantae: The Foundation for Much of Life. 21. Movers and Shakers: The Animal Kingdom.
22. An Introduction to Flowering Plants.
What Is An Animal? Animal Types: The Family Tree. Phylum Porifera: The Sponges. Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms. Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms. Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More. Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms. Phylum Arthropoda: So Many, but Why? Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More. Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals with Backbones.
V. A BOUNTY THAT FEEDS US ALL: PLANTS.
The Importance of Plants. The Structure of Flowering Plants. How Flowering Plants Function. Responding to External Signals. 23. Form and Function in Flowering Plants.
24. Introduction to Animal Anatomy and Physiology: The Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems.
Two Ways of Categorizing Flowering Plants. There Are Three Fundamental Types of Plant Cells. The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types. How a Plant Grows: Apical Meristems Give Rise to the Entire Plant. Secondary Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissues. How the Plant's Vascular System Functions. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. Embryo, Seed, and Fruit: The Developing Plant.
VI. WHAT MAKES THE ORGANISM TICK? ANIMAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY.
The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology. What Are the General Characteristics of Humans? Animal Architecture and Organization. The Animal Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types. A Summary of the Organ Systems of the Human Body. The Integumentary System: Skin and More. Body Support and the Skeleton. Muscles and Movement. 25. Control and Defense: The Nervous, Endocrine, and Immune Systems.
Overview of the Nervous System. How Does Nervous-System Communication Work? The Spinal Cord. The Autonomic Nervous System. The Human Brain. The Nervous System in Action: Our Sense of Vision. The Endocrine System: Hormones and How They Work. How Is Hormone Secretion Controlled? The Immune System: Defending the Body from Invaders. Nonspecific Defenses of the Immune System. Specific Defenses of the Immune System. Antibody-Mediated and Cell-Mediated Immunity. Antibody-Mediated Immunity in Detail. Cell-Mediated Immunity in Detail. Allergies and Autoimmune Disorders. AIDS: Attacking the Defenders. 26. Transport, Nutrition, and Exchange: Blood, Breath, Digestion, and Elimination.
The Cardiovascular System and Body Transport. The Heart and the Circulation of Blood. The Heart's Own Blood Supply: What Is a Heart Attack? Getting the Goods to and from the Cells: The Capillary Beds. The Respiratory System and the Exchange of Gases. The Digestive System. Components of the Digestive System. Different Digestive Processes for Different Foods and Nutrients. The Urinary System in Overview. How the Kidneys Function. Urine Transport, Storage, and Excretion. 27. An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal Development.
General Processes in Development. What Factors Underlie Development? Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body. The Promise of Stem Cells. 28. How the Baby Came to Be: Human Reproduction.
29. An Interactive Living World: Populations and Communities in Ecology.
Overview of Human Reproduction and Development. The Female Reproductive System. The Male Reproductive System. The Union of Sperm and Egg. Human Development Prior to Birth. The Birth of the Baby.
VII. THE LIVING WORLD AS A WHOLE: ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR.
The Study of Ecology. Populations: Size and Dynamics. r-Selected and K-Selected Species. Thinking about Human Populations. Communities: Looking at the Interactions of Many Populations. Types of Interaction among Community Members. Succession in Communities. 30. An Interactive Living World: Ecosystems and the Biosphere.
The Ecosystem Is the Fundamental Unit of Ecology. Abiotic Factors Area Major Component of Any Ecosystem. How Energy Flows through Ecosystems. Earth's Physical Environment. Earth's Biomes. Life in the Water: Aquatic Ecosystems. 31. Animal Behavior.
The Field of Behavioral Biology. The Web of Behavioral Influences. Internal Influences on Behavior. Learning and Behavior. Behavior in Action: How Birds Acquire Their Songs. Social Behavior. Altruism in the Animal Kingdom.
From the Author Book titles may be the first thing anyreader sees in a book, but they're often the last thing an author ponders. Not so with Biology: A Guide to the Natural World.The title arrived fairly early on, courtesy of the muse, and then stuck because it so aptly expresses what I think is special about this book. Flip through these pages, and you'll see all the elements that students and teachers look for in any modern introductory textbook--rich, full-color art, an extensive study apparatus, and a full complement of digital learning tools. When you leaf slowly through the book and start to read a little of it, however, I think that something a little more subtle starts coming through. This second quality has to do with a sense of connection with students. The sensibility that I hope is apparent in A Guide to the Natural Worldis that there's a wonderful living world to be explored; that we who produced this book would like nothing better than to show this world to students; and that we want to take them on an instructive walk through this world, rather than a difficult march. All the members of the team who produced both the first, and now the second edition of A Guide to the Natural Worldworked with this idea in mind. We felt that we were taking students on a journey through the living world and that, rather like tour guides, we needed to be mindful of where students were at any given point. Would they remember this term from earlier in the chapter? Had we created enough of a bridge between one subject and the next? The idea was never to leave students with the feeling that they were wandering alone through terrain that lacked signposts. Rather, we aimed to give them the sense that they had a companion--this book--that would guide them through the subject of biology. A Guide to the Natural World,then, really is intended as a kind of guide, with its audience being students who are taking biology but not majoring in it. Biology is complex, however, and if students are to understand it at anything beyond the most superficial level, details are necessary. It won't do to make what one faculty member called "magical leaps" over the difficult parts of complex subjects. Our goal was to make the difficult comprehensible, not to make it disappear altogether. Thus, the reader will find in this book fairly detailed accounts of such subjects as cellular respiration, photosynthesis, immune-system function, and plant reproduction. It was in covering such topics that our concern for student comprehension was put to its greatest test. We like the way we handled these subjects and other key topics, however, and we hope readers will feel the same way. What's New in the Second Edition? Much has changed in the Guidefrom the first edition to the second. Here's a brief listing of the subject matter that is new in the second edition. Increased coverage of the diversity of the living world, including a new chapter on animal diversity A new chapter on animal behavior Increased coverage of human evolution Coverage of many of the new developments in biotechnology: stem-cell research, the possibility of human cloning and xenotransplantation, the results of the sequencing of the human genome, and the controversy surrounding genetically modified foods Expanded coverage of the issue of global warming Updated or new information on such issues as Mad Cow disease, acid rain, and fad diets Some detail on these additions probably is in order. Anyone who writes a textbook has to carry out a balancing act between putting in too much and putting in too little. Following publication of the first edition, faculty convinced us that we had erred on the side of too little in connection with two topics: the diversity of life and animal behavior. Therefore, with t