CART

(0) items

Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology"

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131414495

ISBN10:
0131414496
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $160.00

Buy Used Textbook

(Recommended)
Usually Ships in 2-3 Business Days
U9780131414495
$112.00

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $3.96
See Prices

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2009.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to inclue any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

Related Products


  • Biology : A Guide to the Natural World
    Biology : A Guide to the Natural World
  • Biology A Guide to the Natural World Plus MasteringBiology -- Access Card Package
    Biology A Guide to the Natural World Plus MasteringBiology -- Access Card Package
  • Biology A Guide to the Natural World Technology Update with MasteringBiology with eText -- Access Card Package
    Biology A Guide to the Natural World Technology Update with MasteringBiology with eText -- Access Card Package
  • Biology Guide To The Natl World W/ Mstrgbiol
    Biology Guide To The Natl World W/ Mstrgbiol
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with MasteringBiology
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with MasteringBiology
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with MasteringBiology®
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with MasteringBiology®
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World with mybiology"
  • Biology: A Guide to the Natural World,  The Custom Core Edition
    Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, The Custom Core Edition
  • Biology: Guide To The Natural World
    Biology: Guide To The Natural World
  • Blackboard Student Access Kit for Biology A Guide to the Natural World
    Blackboard Student Access Kit for Biology A Guide to the Natural World
  • Current Issues in Biology Volume 5
    Current Issues in Biology Volume 5
  • Masteringbiology Student Access Kit
    Masteringbiology Student Access Kit
  • MasteringBiology with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Biology A Guide to the Natural World
    MasteringBiology with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Biology A Guide to the Natural World
  • MasteringBiology with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Biology A Guide to the Natural World Technology Update
    MasteringBiology with Pearson eText -- Standalone Access Card -- for Biology A Guide to the Natural World Technology Update
  • MasteringBiology™ with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
    MasteringBiology™ with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Biology: A Guide to the Natural World
  • Student Access Kit for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World, Pearson EText
    Student Access Kit for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World, Pearson EText
  • Study Guide for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World
    Study Guide for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World
  • WebCT Student Access Kit for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World
    WebCT Student Access Kit for Biology : A Guide to the Natural World




Summary

Biology: A Guide to the Natural World remains the only book written and illustrated from the ground up for those with little knowledge of biology. The Third Edition retains its best features--rich, full-color art, an accessible writing style, and a full complement of digital resources--while substantially updating the content throughout to emphasize the relevancy of biology to readers' lives. A seven-part organization covers essential parts: atoms, molecules, and cells; energy and its transformation; how life goes on: genetics; life's organizing principle: evolution and the diversity of life; a bounty that feeds us all: plants; what makes the organism tick? animal anatomy and physiology; and the living world as a whole: ecology and behavior. For the promotion of biological literacy--to make individuals aware that they need it to participate in the workforce, make everyday decisions, and make informed choices at the ballot box.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Chapter 1 Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide to the Natural World 2(16)
1.1 How Does Science Impact the Everyday World?
3(3)
What Do Americans Know about Science?
5(1)
1.2 What Is Science?
6(4)
Science as a Body of Knowledge
6(1)
Science as a Process: Arriving at Scientific Insights
7(2)
From Hypothesis to Theory
9(1)
1.3 The Nature of Biology
10(3)
Life Is Highly Organized, in a Hierarchical Manner
12(1)
1.4 Special Qualities of Biology
13(2)
Biology's Chief Unifying Principle
14(1)
1.5 The Organization of This Book
15(1)
Chapter Review
16
ESSAY Lung Cancer, Smoking, and Statistics in Science
10
Unit 1 Essential Parts: Atoms, Molecules, and Cells
Chapter 2 The Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemistry and Life
18(16)
2.1 The Nature of Matter: The Atom
20(1)
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
20(1)
Fundamental Forms of Matter: The Element
21(2)
2.2 Matter Is Transformed through Chemical Bonding
23(1)
Energy Always Seeks Its Lowest State
24(1)
Seeking a Full Outer Shell: Covalent Bonding
24(1)
Reactive and Unreactive Elements
25(1)
Polar and Nonpolar Bonding
25(1)
Ionic Bonding: When Electrons Are Lost or Gained
27(1)
A Third Form of Bonding: Hydrogen Bonding
29(1)
2.3 Some Qualities of Chemical Compounds
29(1)
Molecules Have a Three-Dimensional Shape
29(1)
Molecular Shape Is Very Important in Biology
29(1)
Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions
30(1)
On to Some Detail Regarding Water
30(2)
Chapter Review
32
ESSAYS Notating Chemistry
26(4)
Free Radicals
30(4)
Chapter 3 Life's Components: Water, pH, and Biological Molecules
34(34)
3.1 The Importance of Water to Life
35(1)
Water Is a Major Player in Many of Life's Processes
35(1)
Water's Structure Gives It Many Unusual Properties
36(1)
Two Important Terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
38(1)
3.2 Acids and Bases Are Important to Life
38(1)
Acids Yield Hydrogen Ions in Solution; Bases Accept Them
38(1)
Many Common Substances Can Be Ranked According to How Acidic or Basic They Are
40(1)
The pH Scale Allows Us to Quantify How Acidic or Basic Compounds Are
40(1)
Some Terms Used When Dealing with pH
40(1)
Why does pH Matter?
40(2)
3.3 Carbon Is a Central Element in Life
42(1)
Carbon as a Starting Ingredient
42(3)
3.4 Functional Groups
45(1)
3.5 Carbohydrates
46(1)
Carbohydrates: From Simple Sugars to Cellulose
46(3)
3.6 Lipids
49(1)
One Class of Lipids Is the Glycerides
49(1)
Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids: A Linkage with Solids and Liquids and with Health
50(1)
Energy Use and Energy Storage via Lipids and Carbohydrates
51(1)
A Second Class of Lipids Is the Steroids
52(1)
A Third Class of Lipids Is the Phospholipids
55(1)
3.7 Proteins
56(1)
Proteins Are Made from Chains of Amino Acids
56(1)
A Group of Only 20 Amino Acids Is the Basis for All Proteins in Living Things
57(1)
Shape Is Critical to the Functioning of All Proteins
58(1)
There Are Four Levels of Protein Structure
58(1)
Proteins Can Come Undone
58(1)
Lipoproteins and Glycoproteins
58(2)
3.8 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
60(1)
DNA Provides Information for the Structure of Proteins
60(1)
The Structural Unit of DNA Is the Nucleotide
60(1)
On to Cells
60(3)
Chapter Review
63
ESSAYS Acid Rain: When Water Is Trouble
42(12)
From Trans Fats to Omega-3's: Fats and Health
54(12)
MEDIALAB You Are What You Eat: Food and the Molecules of Life
66(2)
Chapter 4 Life's Home: The Cell
68(30)
4.1 Cells Are the Working Units of Life
69(1)
4.2 All Cells Are Either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
70(1)
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Differences
70(5)
4.3 The Eukaryotic Cell
75(1)
The Animal Cell
75(1)
4.4 A Tour of the Animal Cell Along the Protein Production Path
75(1)
Beginning in the Control Center: The Nucleus
76(1)
Messenger RNA
76(1)
Ribosomes
77(1)
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
78(1)
A Pause for the Nucleolus
78(1)
Elegant Transportation: Transport Vesicles
79(1)
Downstream from the Rough ER: The Golgi Complex
79(1)
From the Golgi to the Surface
80(1)
4.5 Outside the Protein Production Path: Other Cell Structures
80(1)
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
80(1)
Tiny Acid Vats: Lysosomes and Cellular Recycling
80(1)
Extracting Energy from Food: Mitochondria
81(1)
4.6 The Cytoskeleton: Internal Scaffolding
82(1)
Microfilaments
83(1)
Intermediate filaments
84(1)
Microtubules
84(1)
Cell Extensions Made of Microtubules: Cilia and Flagella
84(1)
In Summary: Structures in the Animal Cell
85(1)
4.7 The Plant Cell
86(1)
The Cell Wall
87(1)
The Central Vacuole
88(1)
Plastids
89(1)
4.8 Cell-to-Cell Communication
90(1)
Communication among Plant Cells
90(1)
Communication among Animal Cells
90(1)
How Did We Learn?
90(1)
On to the Periphery
91(2)
Chapter Review
93
ESSAYS The Size of Cells
72(12)
The Stranger within: Endosymbiosis
84(8)
How Did We Learn? First Sightings: Anton van Leeuwenhoek
92(4)
MEDIALAB Would we miss them If they were gone? Organelles
96(2)
Chapter 5 Life's Border: The Plasma Membrane
98(20)
5.1 The Nature of the Plasma Membrane
100(1)
First Component: The Phospholipid Bilayer
100(1)
Second Component: Cholesterol
100(1)
Third Component: Proteins
101(1)
Fourth Component: The Glycocalyx
103(1)
The Fluid-Mosaic Membrane Model
103(1)
5.2 Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis
103(1)
Random Movement and Even Distribution
104(1)
Diffusion through Membranes
104(1)
5.3 Moving Smaller Substances in and Out
105(1)
Passive Transport
106(1)
Active Transport
106(2)
5.4 Getting the Big Stuff in and Out
108(1)
Movement Out: Exocytosis
108(1)
Movement In: Endocytosis
108(3)
How Did We Learn?
111(1)
Onto Energy
111(1)
Chapter Review
112
ESSAY How Did We Learn? The Fluid-Mosaic Model of the Plasma Membrane
110(6)
MEDIALAB Balancing Your Imports and Exports: Membrane Transport
116(2)
Unit 2 Energy and Its Transformations
Chapter 6 Life's Mainspring: An Introduction to Energy
118(14)
6.1 Energy Is Central to Life
119(1)
6.2 What Is Energy?
120(1)
The Forms of Energy
120(1)
The Study of Energy: Thermodynamics
120(1)
The Consequences of Thermodynamics
121(1)
6.3 How Is Energy Used by Living Things?
122(1)
Up and Down the Great Energy Hill
122(1)
Coupled Reactions
123(1)
6.4 The Energy Currency Molecule: ATP
123(1)
How ATP Functions
124(1)
The ATP/ADP Cycle
124(1)
ATP as Money
124(1)
Between Food and ATP
124(1)
6.5 Efficient Energy Use in Living Things: Enzymes
125(1)
Accelerating Reactions
125(1)
Specific Tasks and Metabolic Pathways
125(1)
6.5 Lowering the Activation Barrier through Enzymes
126(1)
How Do Enzymes Work?
126(1)
An Enzyme in Action: Chymotrypsin
127(1)
6.7 Regulating Enzymatic Activity
127(1)
Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
128(1)
On to Energy Harvesting
128(1)
Chapter Review
129(3)
Chapter 7 Vital Harvest: Deriving Energy from Food
132(20)
7.1 Energizing ATP
134(1)
7.2 Electrons Fall Down the Energy Hill to Drive the Uphill Production of ATP
134(1)
The Great Energy Conveyors: Redox Reactions
135(1)
Many Molecules Can Oxidize Other Molecules
135(1)
7.3 The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain
136(1)
Glycolysis: First to Evolve, Less Efficient
138(1)
7.4 First Stage of Respiration: Glycolysis
138(1)
7.5 Second Stage of Respiration: The Krebs Cycle
138(1)
Site of Action Moves from the Cytosol to the Mitochondria
141(1)
Between Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle, an Intermediate Step
141(1)
Into the Krebs Cycle: Why Is It a Cycle?
142(1)
7.6 Third Stage of Respiration: The Electron Transport Chain
143(1)
Where's the ATP?
144(1)
Bountiful Harvest: ATP Accounting
145(1)
Finally, Oxygen Is Reduced, Producing Water
146(1)
7.7 Other Foods, Other Respiratory Pathways
146(1)
Alternate Respiratory Pathways: Fats as an Example
146(1)
What Happens When Less Energy Is Needed?
146(1)
On to Photosynthesis
147(1)
Chapter Review
147
ESSAYS When Energy Harvesting Ends at Glycolysis, Beer Can Be the Result
140(4)
Energy and Exercise
144(6)
MEDIALAB Dietary Fad or Miracle Drug? Using Science to Understand Metabolism
150(2)
Chapter 8 The Green World's Gift: Photosynthesis
152(18)
8.1 Photosynthesis and Energy
153(1)
From Plants, a Great Bounty for Animals
154(1)
Up and Down the Energy Hill Again
154(1)
8.2 The Components of Photosynthesis
154(1)
Where in the Plant Does Photosynthesis Occur?
154(1)
There Are Two Essential Stages in Photosynthesis
156(1)
The Working Units of the Light Reactions
156(1)
Energy Transfer in Photosynthesis Works through Redox Reactions
157(1)
8.3 Stage The Steps of the Light Reactions
157(1)
A Chain of Redox Reactions and Another Boost from the Sun
158(1)
The Physical Movement of Electrons in the Light Reactions
158(1)
8.4 What Makes the Light Reactions So Important?
158(1)
The Splitting of Water: Electrons and Oxygen
158(1)
The Transformation of Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
158(1)
Production of ATP
158(1)
8.5 Stage 2: The Calvin Cycle
159(1)
Energized Sugar Comes from a Cycle of Reactions
159(2)
8.6 Photorespiration and the C4 Pathway
161(1)
The C4 Pathway Is Not Always Advantageous
162(1)
8.7 Another Photosynthetic Variation: CAM Plants
162(1)
How Did We Learn?
162(1)
Closing Thoughts on Photosynthesis and Energy
163(3)
Chapter Review
166
ESSAY How Did We Learn? Plants Make Their Own Food, But How?
164(4)
MEDIALAB Capturing Sunlight to Make Food: Photosynthesis
168(2)
Unit 3 How Life Goes On: Genetics
Chapter 9 An Introduction to Genetics: Genes, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis
170(20)
9.1 An Introduction to Genetics
171(1)
DNA Contains Instructions for Protein Production
172(1)
Genetics as Information Management
173(1)
From One Gene to a Collection
174(1)
The Path of Study in Genetics
174(1)
9.2 An Introduction to Cell Division
174(1)
The Replication of DNA
175(1)
9.3 DNA Is Packaged in Chromosomes
175(1)
Matched Pairs of Chromosomes
177(1)
Chromosome Duplication as a Part of Cell Division
178(1)
9.4 Mitosis and Cytokinesis
179(1)
The Phases of Mitosis
180(1)
Cytokinesis
181(1)
9.5 Variations in Cell Division
182(1)
Plant Cells
182(1)
Prokaryotes
183(1)
Variations in the Frequency of Cell Division
184(1)
On to Meiosis
184(1)
Chapter Review
185
ESSAY When the Cell Cycle Runs Amok: Cancer
184(4)
MEDIALAB Too Much Division: The Cell Cycle and Cancer
188(2)
Chapter 10 Preparing for Sexual Reproduction: Meiosis
190(16)
10.1 An Overview of Meiosis
192(1)
Some Helpful Terms
192(1)
10.2 The Steps in Meiosis
192(3)
Meiosis I
195(1)
Meiosis I1
196(1)
10.3 What Is the Significance of Meiosis?
196(1)
Genetic Diversity through Crossing Over
196(1)
Genetic Diversity through Independent Assortment
197(1)
From Genetic Diversity, a Visible Diversity in the Living World
198(1)
10.4 Meiosis and Sex Outcome
198(1)
10.5 Gamete Formation in Humans
199(1)
Sperm Formation
200(1)
Egg Formation
201(1)
One Egg, Several Polar Bodies
201(1)
10.6 Life Cycles: Humans and Other Organisms
202(1)
Not All Reproduction Is Sexual
202(1)
Variations in Sexual Reproduction
202(1)
On to Patterns of Inheritance
202(1)
Chapter Review
203(3)
Chapter 11 The First Geneticist: Mendel and His Discoveries
206(24)
11.1 Mendel and the Black Box
208(1)
11.2 The Experimental Subjects: Pisum sativum
208(2)
Phenotype and Genotype
210(1)
11.3 Starting the Experiments: Yellow and Green Peas
210(1)
Parental, F1, and F2 Generations
210(1)
Interpreting the F, and F2 Results
211(1)
11.4 Another Generation for Mendel
212(1)
Mendel's Generations in Pictures
212(3)
The Law of Segregation
215(1)
11.5 Crosses Involving Two Characters
215(1)
Crosses for Seed Color and Seed Shape
216(1)
The Law of Independent Assortment
217(1)
11.6 Reception of Mendel's Ideas
217(1)
11.7 Incomplete Dominance
217(1)
Genes Code for Proteins
218(2)
11.8 Lessons from Blood Types: Codominance
220(1)
Getting Both Types of Surface Proteins
220(1)
Dominant and Recessive Alleles
220(1)
11.9 Multiple Alleles and Polygenic Inheritance
221(1)
11.10 Genes and Environment
222(1)
11.11 One Gene, Several Effects: Pleiotropy
223(1)
On to the Chromosome
223(1)
Chapter Review
223
ESSAYS Proportions and Their Causes: The Rules of Multiplication and Addition
214(5)
Why So Unrecognized?
219(9)
MEDIALAB Where Did I Get This Nose? Understanding Mendelian Genetics
228(2)
Chapter 12 Units of Heredity: Chromosomes and Inheritance
230(20)
12.1 X-Linked Inheritance in Humans
232(1)
The Genetics of Color Vision
232(1)
Alleles and Recessive Disorders
232(1)
12.2 Autosomal Genetic Disorders
233(1)
Sickle-Cell Anemia
234(1)
Dominant Disorders
234(1)
12.3 Tracking Traits with Pedigrees
235(1)
12.4 Aberrations in Chromosomal Sets: Polyploidy
236(1)
12.5 Incorrect Chromosome Number: Aneuploidy
237(1)
Aneuploidy's Main Cause: Nondisjunction
237(1)
The Consequences of Aneuploidy
238(1)
Abnormal Numbers of Sex Chromosomes
238(1)
12.6 Structural Aberrations in Chromosomes
239(1)
Deletions
239(1)
Inversions and Translocations
239(1)
Duplications
239(2)
How Did We Learn?
241(1)
Onto DNA
242(2)
Chapter Review
244
ESSAYS PGD: Screening for a Healthy Child
240(2)
How Did We Learn? Thomas Hunt Morgan: Using Fruit Flies to Look More Deeply into Genetics
242(6)
MEDIALAB Do We Know Too Much? Human Genetic Testing
248(2)
Chapter 13 Preserving Life's Information: DNA Structure and Replication
250(12)
13.1 What Do Genes Do, and What Are They Made of?
251(1)
DNA Structure and the Rise of Molecular Biology
252(1)
13.2 Watson and Crick: The Double Helix
253(1)
13.3 The Components of DNA and Their Arrangement
254(1)
The Structure of DNA Gives Away the Secret of Replication
255(1)
The Structure of DNA Gives Away the Secret of Protein Production
255(1)
The Building Blocks of DNA Replication
255(1)
13.4 Mutations: Another Name for a Permanent Change in DNA Structure
256(1)
Examples of Mutations: Cancer and Huntington
257(1)
Heritable and Non-Heritable Mutations
257(1)
What Causes Mutations?
258(1)
The Value of Mistakes: Evolutionary Adaptation
258(1)
How Did We Learn?
258(1)
On to How Genetic Information Is Put to Use
258(2)
Chapter Review
260
ESSAY How Did We Learn? Getting Clear about What Genes Do: Beadle and Tatum
259(3)
Chapter 14 How Proteins Are Made: Genetic Transcription, Translation, and Regulation
262(24)
14.1 The Structure of Proteins
263(1)
Synthesizing Many Proteins from 20 Amino Acids
264(1)
14.2 Protein Synthesis in Overview
264(2)
14.3 A Closer Look at Transcription
266(1)
Passing on the Message: Base Pairing Again
266(1)
Messenger RNA Processing
267(1)
A Triplet Code
268(1)
14.4 A Closer Look at Translation
268(1)
The Nature of tRNA
269(1)
The Structure of Ribosomes
270(1)
The Steps of Translation
271(2)
What Is a Gene?
273(1)
14.5 Genetic Regulation
274(1)
DNA Is the Cookbook, Not the Cook
274(1)
A Model System in Genetic Regulation: The Operon
274(3)
14.6 The Magnitude of the Genetic Operation
277(2)
Biotechnology Is Next
279(1)
Chapter Review
280
ESSAYS Learning to Read Nature's Rule Book: The Genetic Code
278(2)
Making Sense of "Junk" DNA
280(4)
MEDIALAB Can We Stop the Cycle? DNA to RNA to Protein
284(2)
Chapter 15 The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Biotechnology
286(22)
15.1 What Is Biotechnology?
289(1)
15.2 Transgenic Biotechnology
289(1)
A Biotech Tool: Restriction Enzymes
289(1)
Another Tool of Biotech: Plasmids
290(1)
Using Biotech's Tools: Getting Human Genes Into Plasmids
291(1)
Getting the Plasmids Back inside Cells, Turning out Protein
292(1)
A Plasmid Is One Kind of Cloning Vector
292(1)
Real-World Transgenic Biotechnology
292(1)
15.3 Reproductive Cloning
293(1)
Reproductive Cloning: How Dolly Was Cloned
293(2)
Cloning and Recombinant DNA
295(1)
Human Cloning
295(1)
Saving Endangered Species
295(1)
15.4 Forensic Biotechnology
296(1)
The Use of PCR
296(1)
Finding Individual Patterns
297(1)
15.5 Personalized Medicine
298(1)
Microarrays: Catching Genes in the Act
299(1)
15.6 Controversies in Biotechnology
300(1)
Genetically Modified Foods
300(1)
Cloning
301(1)
Genetic Profiles
301(2)
On to Evolution
303(1)
Chapter Review
303
ESSAY Visualizing DNA
302(4)
MEDIALAB Holding Out Promise or Peril? Biotechnology
306(2)
Unit 4 Life's Organizing Principle: Evolution and the Diversity of Life
Chapter 16 An Introduction to Evolution: Charles Darwin, Evolutionary Thought, and the Evidence for Evolution
308(18)
16.1 Evolution and Its Core Principles
310(1)
Common Descent with Modification
310(1)
Natural Selection
310(1)
The Importance of Evolution as a Concept
310
Evolution Affects Human Perspectives Regarding Life
31(280)
16.2 Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
311(1)
Darwin's Contribution
311(1)
Darwin's Journey of Discovery
311(1)
16.3 Evolutionary Thinking before Darwin
312(1)
Charles Lyell and Geology
312(1)
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Evolution
313(1)
Georges Cuvier and Extinction
313(1)
16.4 Darwin's Insights Following the Beagle's Voyage
314(1)
Perceiving Common Descent with Modification
314(1)
Perceiving Natural Selection
314(1)
16.5 Alfred Russel Wallace
315(1)
16.6 Descent with Modification Is Accepted
315(1)
16.7 Darwin Doubted: The Controversy over Natural Selection
316(1)
Coming to an Understanding of Genetics
316(1)
Vindicating Natural Selection's Role in Evolution
317(1)
Darwin Triumphant: The Modern Synthesis
317(1)
16.8 Opposition to the Theory of Evolution
317(1)
The False Notion of a Scientific Controversy
317(1)
16.9 The Evidence for Evolution
318(1)
Radiometric Dating
318(1)
Fossils
318(1)
Comparative Morphology and Embryology
319(1)
Evidence from Gene Modification
319(3)
Experimental Evidence
322(1)
On to How Evolution Works
322(1)
Chapter Review
323
ESSAY The Evolution of Human Skin Color
320(6)
Chapter 17 The Means of Evolution: Microevolution
326(22)
17.1 What Is It That Evolves?
327(1)
Populations Are the Essential Units That Evolve
328(1)
Genes Are the Raw Material of Evolution
328(1)
17.2 Evolution as a Change in the Frequency of Alleles
328(1)
17.3 Five Agents of Microevolution
329(1)
Mutations: Alterations in the Makeup of DNA
330(1)
Gene Flow: When One Population Joins Another
330(1)
Genetic Drift: The Instability of Small Populations
330(3)
Nonrandom Mating: When Mating Is Uneven across a Population
333(1)
Natural Selection: Evolution's Adaptive Mechanism
334(1)
17.4 What Is Evolutionary Fitness?
335(1)
Galapagos Finches: The Studies of Peter and Rosemary Grant
336(1)
17.5 Three Modes of Natural Selection
337(1)
Stabilizing Selection
338(1)
Directional Selection
338(1)
Disruptive Selection
338(1)
On to the Origin of Species
339(3)
Chapter Review
342
ESSAYS Lessons from the Cocker Spaniel: The Price of Inbreeding
334(6)
Detecting Evolution: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
340(6)
MEDIALAB Are Bacteria Winning the War? Natural Selection in Action
346(2)
Chapter 18 The Outcomes of Evolution: Macroevolution
348(20)
18.1 What Is a Species?
349(2)
18.2 How Do New Species Arise?
351(1)
The Role of Geographic Separation: Allopatric Speciation
351(1)
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Are Central to Speciation
352(1)
Six Intrinsic Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
352(1)
Sympatric Speciation
353(3)
Speciation through Hybridization
356(1)
18.3 When Is Speciation Likely to Occur?
357(1)
Specialists and Generalists
358(1)
New Environments: Adaptive Radiation
358(1)
Is Speciation Smooth or Jerky?
358(1)
18.4 The Categorization of Earth's Living Things
359(1)
Taxonomic Classification and the Degree of Relatedness
360(1)
A Taxonomic Example: The Common House Cat
361(1)
Constructing Evolutionary Histories
361(2)
18.5 Classical Taxonomy and Cladistics
363(1)
Another System for Interpreting the Evidence: Cladistics
363(1)
Should Anything but Relatedness Matter in Classification?
364(1)
On to the History of Life
364(1)
Chapter Review
365
ESSAY New Species through Genetic Accidents: Polyploidy
354(14)
Chapter 19 A Slow Unfolding: The History of Life on Earth
368(32)
19.1 The Geological Timescale: Life Marks Earth's Ages
371(1)
Features of the Timescale
371(3)
What Is Notable in Evolution Hinges on Values
374(1)
The Kingdoms of the Living World Fit into Three Domains
374(1)
19.2 How Did Life Begin?
374(1)
Life May Have Begun in Very Hot Water
375(2)
The RNA World
377(1)
19.3 The Tree of Life
378(1)
19.4 A Long First Period: The Precambrian
379(1)
Notable Precambrian Events
379(1)
19.5 The Cambrian Explosion
380(1)
19.6 The Movement onto the Land: Plants First
381(1)
Adaptations of Plants to the Land
381(1)
Another Plant Innovation: A Vascular System
382(1)
Plants with Seeds: The Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
382(1)
The Last Plant Revolution So Far: The Angiosperms
382(1)
19.7 Animals Follow Plants onto the Land
382(1)
Vertebrates Move onto Land
383(3)
The Primate Mammals
386(1)
19.8 The Evolution of Human Beings
386(4)
Interpreting the Evidence
390(1)
Tracing Human Evolution over Time
390(1)
Into the Genus Homo: Habilis and Ergaster
391(1)
Migration from Africa
392(1)
Into Europe
392(1)
The Neanderthals
392(2)
Modern Homo Sapiens
394(1)
On to the Diversity of Life
395(1)
Chapter Review
396
ESSAY Physical Forces and Evolution
372(30)
Fossils and Molecular Clocks: Dating Life's Passages
376(24)
Chapter 20 Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, and Protists: The Diversity of Life 1
400(24)
20.1 Life's Categories and the Importance of Microbes
402(1)
20.2 Viruses: Making a Living by Hijacking Cells
403(1)
HIV: The AIDS Virus
404(1)
Viral Diversity
405(1)
The Effects of Viruses
406(1)
20.3 Bacteria: Masters of Every Environment
406(3)
Bacterial Diversity
409(1)
20.4 Intimate Strangers: Humans and Bacteria
410(1)
20.5 Bacteria and Human Disease
411(1)
Killing Pathogenic Bacteria: Antibiotics
412(1)
The Threat of Antibiotic Resistance
412(1)
20.6 Archaea: From Marginal Player to Center Stage
413(1)
Prospecting for "Extremophiles"
414(1)
20.7 Protists: Pioneers in Diversifying Life
414(1)
20.8 Protists and Sexual Reproduction
415(1)
20.9 Plant-Like Protists
416(1)
20.10 Animal-Like Protists
417(1)
20.11 Fungus-Like Protists
418(3)
How Did We Learn? Pencillin
421(1)
On To Fungi and Plants
421(1)
Chapter Review
421
ESSAYS Not Alive, but Deadly: Prions and "Mad Cow" Disease
407(1)
Unwanted Guest: The Persistence of Herpes
408(2)
Modes of Nutrition: How Organisms Get What They Need to Survive
410(9)
How Did We Learn? The Discovery of Penicillin
419(5)
Chapter 21 Fungi and Plants: The Diversity of Life 2
424(20)
21.1 The Fungii: Life as a Web of Slender Threads
426(1)
21.2 Roles of Fungi in Society and Nature
427(1)
21.3 Structure and Reproduction in Fungi
428(1)
The Life Cycle of a Fungus
428(2)
21.4 Categories of Fungi
430(2)
21.5 Fungal Associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae
432(1)
Lichens
432(1)
Mycorrhizae
432(1)
21.6 Plants: The Foundation for Much of Life
433(1)
The Characteristics of Plants
433(2)
21.7 Types of Plants
435(1)
Bryophytes: Amphibians of the Plant World
435(1)
Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns and Their Relatives
436(1)
The First Seed Plants: The Gymnosperms
437(1)
Reproduction through Pollen and Seeds
437(2)
21.8 Angiosperm-Animal Interactions
439(1)
Seed Endosperm: More Animal Food from Angiosperms
440(1)
Fruit: An Inducement for Seed Dispersal
440(1)
On to a Look at Animals
440(1)
Chapter Review
441
ESSAY A Psychedelic Drug from an Ancient Source
430(14)
Chapter 22 Animals: The Diversity of Life 3
444(36)
22.1 What Is an Animal?
446(1)
22.2 Animal Types: The Family Tree
446(1)
Additions 1 and 2: Tissue and Symmetry
447(1)
Addition 3: Bilateral Symmetry
448(1)
Addition 4: A Body Cavity
449(1)
A Split in the Animal Kingdom: Protostomes and Deuterostomes
450(1)
22.3 Phylum Porifera: The Sponges
450(2)
22.4 Phylum Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Others
452(2)
22.5 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms
454(2)
22.6 Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms
456(2)
22.7 Phylum Mollusca: Snails, Oysters, Squid, and More
458(2)
22.8 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms
460(1)
22.9 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects, Lobsters, Spiders, and More
460(2)
Subphylum Uniramia: Insects First
462(1)
Other Uniramians: Millipedes and Centipedes
462(1)
Subphylum Crustacea: Shrimp, Lobsters, Crabs, Barnacles and More
463(1)
Subphylum Chelicerata: Spiders,Ticks, Mites, Horseshoe Crabs, and More
464(1)
22.10 Phylum Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and More
465(1)
22.11 Phylum Chordata: Mostly Animals with Backbones
466(1)
What Is a Vertebrate?
467(1)
Diversity among the Vertebrates
468(6)
On to Plants
474(2)
Chapter Review
476
ESSAY Redrawing the Animal Family Tree
449(31)
Unit 5 A Bounty That Feeds Us All: Plants
Chapter 23 The Angiosperms: An Introduction to Flowering Plants
480(22)
23.1 The Importance of Plants
482(1)
A Focus on Flowering Plants
482(1)
23.2 The Structure of Flowering Plants
483(1)
The Basic Division: Roots and Shoots
483(1)
Roots: Absorbing the Vital Water
484(1)
Shoots: Leaves, Stems, and Flowers
485(3)
23.3 Basic Functions in Flowering Plants
488(1)
Reproduction in Angiosperms
488(2)
Plant Plumbing: The Transport System
490(1)
Communication: Hormones Affect Many Aspects of Plant Functioning
491(2)
Plant Growth: Indeterminate and at the Tips
493(1)
Defense and Cooperation
494(1)
23.4 Responding to External Signals
495(1)
Responding to Gravity: Gravitropism
495(1)
Responding to Light: Phototropism
496(1)
Responding to Contact: Thigmotropism
497(1)
Responding to the Passage of the Seasons
497(1)
On to a More Detailed Picture of Plants
498(1)
Chapter Review
499
ESSAYS What Is Plant Food?
486(6)
Keeping Cut Flowers Fresh
492(2)
Ripening Fruit Is a Gas
494(8)
Chapter 24 The Angiosperms: Form and Function in Flowering Plants
502(32)
24.1 Two Ways of Categorizing Flowering Plants
504(1)
The Life Spans of Angiosperms: Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials
504(1)
A Basic Difference among Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
504(2)
24.2 There Are Three Fundamental Types of Plant Cells
506(1)
Parenchyma Cells
506(1)
Sclerenchyma Cells
506(1)
Collenchyma Cells
506(1)
Parenchyma as Starting-State Cells
506(1)
24.3 The Plant Body and Its Tissue Types
507(1)
First: A Distinction Between Primary and Secondary Growth Tissue
507(1)
Dermal Tissue Is the Plant's Interface with the Outside World
507(1)
Ground Tissue Forms the Bulk of the Primary Plant
508(1)
Vascular Tissue Forms the Plant's Transport System
508(2)
Meristematic Tissue and Primary Plant Growth
510(1)
24.4 How a Plant Grows: Apical Meristems Give Rise to the Entire Plant
510(1)
A Closer Look at Root and Shoot Apical Meristems
511(2)
24.5 Secondary Growth Comes from a Thickening of Two Types of Tissues
513(1)
Secondary Growth through the Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
513(1)
Secondary Xylem Is Responsible for Most of a Plant's Widening
514(1)
Secondary Growth through the Cork Cambium: The Plant's Periphery
515(1)
24.6 How the Plant's Vascular System Functions
516(1)
How the Xylem Conducts Water
516(2)
Food the Plant Makes Is Conducted through Phloem
518(2)
24.7 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
520(1)
Flowering Plants Reproduce through an Alternation of Generations
521(1)
Development of the Male and Female Gametophyte Generation
522(2)
Fertilization of Two Sorts: A New Zygote and Food for It
524(1)
24.8 Embryo, Seed, and Fruit: The Developing Plant
525(1)
The Development of a Seed
525(1)
The Development of Fruit
525(2)
Fruits Serve in Protection and in Seed Dispersal
527(1)
Seed Dormancy Can Be Used to a Plant's Advantage
528(1)
On to Animals
528(1)
Chapter Review
529
ESSAYS A Tree's History Can Be Seen in Its Wood
515(3)
The Syrup for Your Pancakes Comes from Xylem
518(14)
MEDIALAB Why Do We Need Plants Anyway?
The Importance of Plant Diversity
532(2)
Unit 6 What Makes the Organism Tick? Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 25 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology: The Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
534(24)
25.1 The Disciplines of Anatomy and Physiology
536(1)
25.2 How Does the Body Regulate Itself?
536(1)
Large-Scale Features of the Body
537(1)
25.3 Levels of Physical Organization
537(1)
25.4 The Human Body Has Four Basic Tissue Types
538(1)
Epithelial Tissue
538(1)
Connective Tissue
538(1)
Muscle Tissue
538(2)
Nervous Tissue
540(1)
25.5 Organs Are Made of Several Kinds of Tissues
540(1)
25.6 Organs and Tissues Make up Organ Systems
540(1)
Organ Systems 1: Body Support and Movement-The-Integumentray, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
540
Organ Systems 2: Coordination, Regulation, and Defense-The Nervous, Endocrine, and Lymphatic Systems
41(501)
Organ Systems 3: Transport and Exchange with the Environment-The Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive, and Urinary Systems
542(1)
25.7 The Integumentary System: Skin and Its Accessories
543(1)
The Structure of Skin
543(1)
The Outermost Layer of Skin, the Epidermis
543(1)
Beneath the Epidermis: The Dermis and Hypodermis
544(1)
Accessory Structures of the Integumentary System
544(2)
25.8 The Skeletal System
546(1)
Function and Structure of Bones
547(1)
Practical Consequences of Bone Dynamics
548(1)
The Human Skeleton
548(2)
Joints
550(1)
25.9 The Muscular System
550(1)
The Makeup of Muscle
551(1)
How Muscles Work
551(2)
On to the Nervous and Endocrhic Systems
553(1)
Chapter Review
553
ESSAY There Is No Such Thing as a Fabulous Tan
545(13)
Chapter 26 Communication and Control: The Nervous and Endocrine Systems
558(32)
26.1 Structure of the Nervous System
560(2)
26.2 Cells of the Nervous System
562(1)
Anatomy of a Neuron
563(1)
The Nature of Glial Cells
563(1)
Nerves
564(1)
26.3 How Nervous-System Communication Works
564(1)
Communication within an Axon
564(1)
Movement Down the Axon
564(2)
Communication between Cells: The Synapse
566(1)
The Importance of Neurotransmitters
566(1)
26.4 The Spinal Cord
567(1)
The Spinal Cord and the Processing of Information
567(1)
Quick, Unconscious Action: Reflexes
568(1)
26.5 The Autonomic Nervous System
568(1)
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
569(1)
26.6 The Human Brain
569(1)
Six Major Regions of the Brain
570(1)
26.7 The Nervous System in Action: Our Senses
571(1)
26.8 Our Senses of Touch
572(1)
26.9 Our Sense of Smell
573(1)
26.10 Our Sense of Taste
574(1)
26.11 Our Sense of Hearing
575(2)
26.12 Our Sense of Vision
577(3)
26.13 The Endocrine System
580(1)
26.14 Types of Hormones
581(1)
26.15 How Is Hormone Secretion Controlled?
582(1)
Hormonal Hierarchy: The Hypothalamus
582(1)
The Pituitary Gland
582(2)
26.16 Hormones in Action: Two Examples
584(1)
Oxytocin: Many Roles in Reproduction
584(1)
Cortisol: Stress and Illness
584(2)
On to the Immune System
586(1)
Chapter Review
586
ESSAY Too Loud
575(15)
Chapter 27 Defending the Body: The Immune System
590(18)
27.1 Two Types of Immune Defense
592(1)
27.2 Nonspecific Defenses
593(1)
Nonspecific Cells and Proteins
593(1)
Nonspecific Defense and the Inflammatory Response
593(1)
27.3 Specific Defenses
594(1)
Antibody-Mediated and Cell-Mediated Immunity
595(2)
27.4 Antibody-Mediated Immunity
597(1)
The Fantastic Diversity of Antibodies
597(1)
The Cloning and Differentiation of B Cells
597(1)
The Action of the Antibodies
598(1)
27.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity
598(1)
Cells Bearing Invaders: Antigen-Presenting Cells
598(1)
HelperT Cells and CytotoxicT Cells
599(1)
27.6 AIDS: Attacking the Defenders
600(2)
27.7 The Immune System Can Cause Trouble
602(1)
On to Transport and Exchange
603(1)
Chapter Review
603(3)
MEDIALAB How Does Your Body Fight the Flu? Under-standing the Immune System
606(2)
Chapter 28 Transport and Exchange: Blood, Breath, Digestion, and Elimination
608(26)
28.1 The Cardiovascular System
609(1)
The Composition of Blood: Formed Elements and Plasma
610(1)
Formed Elements
610(1)
Blood's Other Major Component: Plasma
610(1)
28.2 Blood Vessels
611(1)
28.3 The Heart and Blood Circulation
612(1)
Following the Path of Circulation
613(1)
Valves Control the Flow of Blood
613(1)
28.4 What Is a Heart Attack?
613(1)
28.5 Distributing the Goods: The Capillary Beds
614(1)
Forces That Work on Exchange through Capillaries
615(1)
Muscles and Valves Work to Return Blood to the Heart
615(1)
28.6 The Respiratory System
616(1)
Structure of the Respiratory System
616(1)
28.7 Steps in Respiration
617(1)
First Step: Ventilation
617(1)
Next Steps: Exchange of Gases
618(1)
28.8 The Digestive System
618(1)
28.9 Structure of the Digestive System
619(1)
The Digestive Tract in Cross Section
619(1)
28.10 Steps in Digestion
620(1)
The Pharynx and Esophagus
620(1)
The Stomach
621(1)
The Small Intestine
621(1)
The Pancreas
622(1)
The Gallbladder and the Liver
622(1)
The Large Intestine
623(1)
28.11 The Urinary System in Overview
624(1)
28.12 Structure of the Urinary System
624(1)
28.13 How the Kidneys Function
625(1)
First Kidney Function: Filtration in Bowman's Capsule
625(2)
Second Kidney Function: Reabsorption from the Proximal Tubule
627(1)
Third Kidney Function: Secretion into the Nephron Tubule
627(1)
Fourth Kidney Function: Concentration in the Loop of Henle and the Collecting Duct
627(1)
28.14 Hormonal Control of Water Retention
628(1)
28.15 Urine Storage and Excretion
628(1)
The Urinary Bladder
628(1)
The Urethra
629(1)
Urine Excretion
629(1)
On to Development and Reproduction
629(1)
Chapter Review
630(4)
Chapter 29 An Amazingly Detailed Script: Animal Development
634(16)
29.1 General Processes in Development
636(1)
Two Cells Become One: Fertilization
636(1)
Three Phases of Early Embryonic Development
636(3)
Themes in Development: From General to Specific; Retention of Structures and Processes
639(1)
29.2 What Factors Underlie Development?
640(1)
The Process of Induction
640(1)
The Interaction of Genes and Proteins
640(1)
Three Lessons in One Gene
640(2)
29.3 Unity in Development: Homeobox Genes
642(1)
29.4 Developmental Tools: Sculpting the Body
643(1)
29.5 The Promise of Stem Cells
643(1)
Cell Fates: Determined and Committed
643(1)
The Breakthrough in Embryonic Stem Cells
644(1)
Adult Stem Cells
645(1)
The Ethical Debate over Embryonic Stem Cells
645(1)
The Future of Stem Cells
645(1)
On to Human Reproduction
646(1)
Chapter Review
646(4)
Chapter 30 How the Baby Came to Be: Human Reproduction
650(1)
30.1 Overview of Human Reproduction and Development
651(1)
Reproduction in Outline
652(1)
30.2 The Female Reproductive System
653(1)
The Female Reproductive Cycle
653(1)
How Does an Egg Develop?
654(1)
Changes through the Female Life Span
655(4)
30.3 The Male Reproductive System
659(1)
Structure of the Testes
659(1)
Male and Female Gamete Production Compared
660(1)
Further Development of Sperm
660(2)
Supporting Glands
662(1)
30.4 The Union of Sperm and Egg
662(1)
How Latecomers Are Kept Out
662(1)
30.5 Human Development Prior to Birth
662(3)
Early Development
665(1)
Development through the Trimesters
666(2)
30.6 The Birth of the Baby
668(1)
On to Ecology
669(1)
Chapter Review
670
ESSAYS Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle
656(5)
Methods of Contraception
661(3)
Sexually Transmitted Disease
664(10)
MEDIALAB Are Test Tube Babies the Solution? Understanding Reproductive Problems
674(2)
Unit 7 The Living World as a Whole: Ecology and Animal Behavior
Chapter 31 An Interactive Living World: Populations and Communities in Ecology
676(34)
31.1 The Study of Ecology
678(1)
Ecology Is Not Environmentalism
678(1)
Path of Study
678(1)
31.2 Populations: Size and Dynamics
679(1)
Estimating the Size of a Population
680(1)
Growth and Decline of Populations over Time
680(2)
Calculating Exponential Growth in a Population
682(1)
Logistical Growth of Populations: Reality Makes an Appearance
683(1)
31.3 r-Selected and K-Selected Species
684(1)
K-Selected, or Equilibrium, Species
685(1)
r-Selected, or Opportunist, Species
685(1)
Survivorship Curves: At What Point Does Death Come In the Life Span?
685(1)
31.1 Thinking about Human Populations
686(1)
Survivorship Curves Are Constructed from Life Tables
686(1)
Population Pyramids: What Proportion of a Population Is Young?
686(1)
The World's Human Population: Finally Stabilizing
687(1)
Human Population and the Environment
688(1)
31.5 Communities: Looking at the Interactions of Many Populations
689(1)
Large Numbers of a Few Species: Ecological Dominants
690(1)
Importance beyond Numbers: Keystone Species
690(1)
Variety in Communities: What Is Biodiversity?
691(1)
31.6 Types of Interaction among Community Members
692(1)
Two Important Community Concepts: Habitat and Niche
692(1)
Competition among Species in a Community
692(2)
Other Modes of Interaction: Predation and Parasitism
694(2)
Parasites: Making a Living from the Living
696(1)
The Effect of Predator-Prey Interactions on Evolution
696(2)
Beneficial Interactions: Mutualism and Commensalism
698(1)
Coevolution: Species Driving Each Other's Evolution
698(1)
31.7 Succession in Communities
699(1)
An Example of Primary Succession: Alaska's Glacier Bay
700(1)
Common Elements in Primary Succession
701(1)
Lessons in Succession from Mount St. Helens
701(2)
On to Ecosystems and Biomes
703(1)
Chapter Review
704
ESSAYS Purring Predators: Housecats and Their Prey
695(7)
Why Do Rabid Animals Go Crazy?
702(6)
MEDIALAB Can Earth Support All of Us? Population Growth Patterns
708(2)
Chapter 32 An Interactive Living World: Ecosystems and the Biosphere
710(40)
32.1 The Ecosystem Is the Fundamental Unit of Ecology
711(1)
32.2 Abiotic Factors Are a Major Component of Any Ecosystem
712(1)
The Cycling of Ecosystem Resources
712(6)
32.3 How Energy Flows through Ecosystems
718(1)
Producers, Consumers, and Trophic Levels
719(2)
Accounting for Energy Flow through the Trophic Levels
721(2)
Primary Productivity Varies across the Earth by Region
723(1)
32.4 Earth's Physical Environment
723(1)
Earth's Atmosphere
723(2)
The Worrisome Issue of Ozone Depletion
725(1)
The Worrisome Issue of Global Warming
725(3)
Earth's Climate: Why Are Some Areas Wet and Some Dry, Some Hot and Some Cold?
728(1)
The Circulation of the Atmosphere and Its Relation to Rain
729(1)
Mountain Chains Affect Precipitation Patterns
730(1)
The Importance of Climate to Life
730(1)
32.5 Earth's Biomes
731(1)
Cold and Lying Low: Tundra
731(1)
Northern Forests: Taiga
732(1)
Hot in Summer, Cold in Winter: Temperate Deciduous Forest
732(1)
Dry but Sometimes Very Fertile: Grassland
733(1)
Chaparral: Rainy Winters, Dry Summers
734(1)
The Challenge of Water: Deserts
734(1)
Lush Life, Now Threatened: Tropical Rain Forests
735(1)
32.6 Life in the Water: Aquatic Ecosystems
735(1)
Marine Ecosystems
735(4)
Freshwater Systems
739(3)
Life's Largest Scale: The Biosphere
742(1)
On to Animal Behavior
742(1)
Chapter Review
743
ESSAYS A Cut for the Middleman: Livestock and Food
724(12)
Good News about the Environment
736(3)
Our Overfished Oceans
739(9)
MEDIALAB El Niņo and the Greenhouse Effect: How Climate Affects Our Weather, Food, and Water Supplies
748(2)
Chapter 33 Animals and Their Actions: Animal Behavior
750
33.1 The Field of Animal Behavior
752(1)
Animal Behavior Asks What, Why, and How
752(1)
Proximate and Ultimate Causes
753(1)
Ultimate Cause and Natural Selection
754(1)
33.2 The Web of Behavioral Influences
754(1)
33.3 Internal Influences on Behavior
755(1)
Reflexes
755(1)
Action Patterns
755(1)
Orientation Behavior: Taxis
756(1)
Biological Rhythms: The Internal Clock
757(1)
Longer Internal Cycles: Annual Clocks
757(1)
The Effects of Hormones
758(1)
33.4 Learning and Behavior
759(1)
Establishing Relationships: Imprinting
759(1)
The Sensitive Period
760(1)
Other Forms of Learning
760(1)
33.5 Behavior in Action: How Birds Acquire Their Songs
761(4)
33.6 Social Behavior
765(1)
Why Live Alone-or Together?
765(1)
Dominance Hierarchies
766(1)
Territoriality
766(1)
Eusociality: Life in Animal Societies
766(2)
33.7 Altruism in the Animal Kingdom
768(2)
Inclusive Fitness at Work
770(1)
Reciprocal Altruism
771(1)
On to...the Rest of Life
771(3)
Chapter Review
774
ESSAYS Biological Rhythms and Sports
758(4)
Are Men "Naturally" Promiscuous and Women Reserved?
762(10)
How Did We Learn? How Do Sea Turtles Find Their Way?
772
Appendix AP-1
Answers to Multiple-Choice and Brief Review Questions A-1
Glossary G-1
Photo Credits PC-1
Index I-1

Excerpts

From the Author Book titles may be the first thing any reader sees in a book, but they're often the last thing an author ponders. Not so withBiology: A Guide to the Natural World.The title arrived fairly early on, courtesy of the muse, and then stuck because it so aptly expresses what I think is special about this book. Flip through these pages, and you'll see all the elements that student and teachers look for in any modern introductory textbook--rich, full-color art, an extensive study apparatus, and a full complement of digital learning tools. When you leaf slowly through the book and start to read a little of it, however, I think that something a little more subtle starts coming through. This second quality has to do with a sense of connection with students. The sensibility that I hope is apparent inA Guide to the Natural Worldis that there's a wonderful living world to be explored; that we who produced this book would like nothing better than to show this world to students; and that we want to take them on an instructive walk through this world, rather than a difficult march. All the members of the teams who produced the three editions ofA Guide to the Natural Worldworked with this idea in mind. We felt that we were taking students on a journey through the living world and that, rather like tour guides, we needed to be mindful of where students were at any given point. Would they remember this term from earlier in the chapter? Had we created enough of a bridge between one subject and the next? The idea was never to leave students with the feeling that they were wandering alone through terrain that lacked signposts. Rather, we aimed to give them the sense that they had a companion--this book--that would guide them through the subject of biology.A Guide to the Natural World,then, really is intended as a kind of guide, with its audience being students who are taking biology but not majoring in it. Biology is complex, however, and if students are to understand it at anything beyond the most superficial level, details are necessary. It won't do to make what one faculty member called "magical leaps" over the difficult parts of complex subjects. Our goal was to make the difficult comprehensible, not to make it disappear altogether. Thus, the reader will find in this book fairly detailed accounts of such subjects as cellular respiration, photosynthesis, immune-system function, and plant reproduction. It was in covering such topics that our concern for student comprehension was put to its greatest test. We like the way we handled these subjects and other key topics, however, and we hope readers will feel the same way. What's New in the Third Edition? The third edition of theGuidehas been substantially revised. Readers of this edition will find: Increased coverage of the diversity of the living world. Where once we had two chapters devoted to this subject, we now have three: one on animals, one on fungi and plants, and a third on microorganisms. This change has significantly increased our coverage of fungi and microorganisms. A new stand-alone chapter on the immune system. A general revision to the human anatomy and physiology unit that makes its coverage clearer and more relevant to the lives of students. All the major senses are now covered, whereas previously only vision was. A revamping of our biotechnology chapter, such that it now focuses on four sharply defined areas: transgenic biotechnology, reproductive cloning, forensic biotechnology, and personalized medicine. Substantially expanded coverage of human evolution. Information that has been updated, or that is new altogether, on such news-related subjects as oncogenes, dietary fats, human population growth, and global warming. As is apparent from this list, the relevance of biology to students was never far from


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...