9781464126093

Biology: How Life Works

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  • ISBN13:

    9781464126093

  • ISBN10:

    1464126097

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/19/2015
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman

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Summary

Biology: How Life Works was written in response to recent and exciting changes in biology, education, and technology with the goal of helping students to think like biologists. The text, visual program, and assessments were developed together to provide students with the best resources to gain an understanding of modern biology.

Content is selected carefully, is integrated to illustrate the connections between concepts, and follows six themes that are crucial to biology: the scientific method, chemical and physical principles, cells, evolution, ecological systems, and human impact.

The second edition continues this approach, but includes expanded coverage of ecology, new in-class activities to assist instructors in active teaching, new pedagogical support for visual synthesis maps, and expanded and improved assessment.

Author Biography

James R. Morris is Associate Professor in the Biology Department at Brandeis University. He teaches a wide variety of courses for majors and non-majors in evolution, genetics, genomics, anatomy, and health sciences. In addition, he teaches a first-year seminar focusing on Darwin’s On the Origin of Species. He is the recipient of numerous teaching awards from Harvard and Brandeis. His research focuses on the rapidly growing field of epigenetics, making use of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. He currently pursues this research with undergraduates in order to give them the opportunity to do genuine, laboratory-based research early in their scientific careers. Dr. Morris received a Ph.D. in genetics from Harvard University and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School. In addition, he was a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, gave talks to the public on current science at the Museum of Science in Boston, and works on promoting public understanding of personal genetics and genomics.

Daniel L. Hartl is the Higgins Professor of Biology in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. He has taught highly popular courses in genetics and evolution at the introductory and advanced levels. His lab studies molecular evolutionary genetics and population genetics and genomics. Dr. Hartl is the recipient of the Samuel Weiner Outstanding Scholar Award and the Medal of the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohm Naples. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served as President of the Genetics Society of America and President of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Dr. Hartl’s Ph.D. was awarded by the University of Wisconsin, and he did post-doctoral studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, he served on the faculties of the University of Minnesota, Purdue University, and Washington University Medical School. In addition to publishing more than 350 scientific articles, Dr. Hartl has authored or coauthored 30 books.

Andrew H. Knoll is the Fisher Professor of Natural History in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. He is also Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Dr. Knoll teaches introductory courses in both departments. His research focuses on the early evolution of life, Precambrian environmental history, and the interconnections between the two. He has also worked extensively on the early evolution of animals, mass extinction, and plant evolution. He currently serves on the science team for NASA’s mission to Mars. Dr. Knoll received the Phi Beta Kappa Book Award in Science for Life on a Young Planet. Other honors include the Paleontological Society Medal and Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society, London. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He received his Ph.D from Harvard University and then taught at Oberlin College before returning to Harvard. 

Robert A. Lue is Professor in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Director of Life Science Education at Harvard University. He regularly teaches in Harvard’s first-year Life Sciences program and upper-level courses in cell biology. He has a longstanding commitment to interdisciplinary teaching and research, and chaired the faculty committee that developed an integrated science course to serve multiple science majors and premedical students. Dr. Lue has also developed award-winning multimedia, including the animation “The Inner Life of the Cell.” He has coauthored undergraduate biology textbooks and chaired education conferences on college biology for the National Academies and the National Science Foundation, and diversity in science for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health. He also founded and directs a Harvard life sciences outreach program that serves over fifty high schools. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Table of Contents

1. Life: Chemical, Cellular, and Evolutionary Foundations

Case 1 The First Cell: Life’s Origins

2. The Molecules of Life

New coverage of functional groups

3. Nucleic Acids and Transcription

Nucleotides now shown at physiological pH

4. Translation and Protein Structure

Amino acids now shown at physiological pH

5. Organizing Principles: Lipids, Membranes, and Cell Compartments

6. Making Life Work: Capturing and Using Energy

7. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Energy from Carbohydrates and Other Fuel Molecules

8. Photosynthesis: Using Sunlight to Build Carbohydrates

The story of the evolution of photosynthesis now brought together in a single major section at the end of the chapter (Section 8.5).

Case 2: Cancer: When Good Cells Go Bad

9. Cell Signaling

10. Cell and Tissue Architecture: Cytoskeleton, Cell Junctions, and Extracellular Matrix

Chapters 9 and 10 have been streamlined to better match our mission statement.

11. Cell Division: Variations, Regulation, and Cancer

Case 3 You, From A to T: Your Personal Genome

12. DNA Replication and Manipulation

New inclusion of the trombone model of DNA replication

Addition of CRISPR technology

13. Genomes

Expanded coverage of retrotransposons and reverse transcriptase

14. Mutation and DNA Repair

15. Genetic Variation

16. Mendelian Inheritance

A new How Do We Know? figure explaining Mendel’s experimental results

17. Inheritance of Sex Chromosomes, Linked Genes, and Organelles

18. The Genetic and Environmental Basis of Complex Traits

19. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation

New discussion of the mechanism of X-inactivation

20. Genes and Development

Case 4 Malaria: Coevolution of Humans and a Parasite

21. Evolution: How Genotypes and Phenotypes Change Over Time

An expanded discussion of nonrandom mating and inbreeding depression

22. Species and Speciation

23. Evolutionary Patterns: Phylogeny and Fossils

Addition of the effect of mass extinctions on species diversity

24. Human Origins and Evolution

Updated discussion of the relationship between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, as well as Denisovans

25. Cycling Carbon

Significantly revised link between the carbon cycle, biodiversity, and ecology

Case 5 The Human Microbiome: Diversity Within

26. Bacteria and Archaea

27. Eukaryotic Cells: Origins and Diversity

New branching order of the eukaryote tree in this chapter and onward to reflect new research in the past three years

28. Being Multicellular

Case 6 Agriculture: Feeding a Growing Population

29. Plant Structure and Function: Moving Photosynthesis onto Land

A new discussion of plant nutrients

30. Plant Reproduction: Finding Mates and Dispersing Young

An enhanced discussion of seeds, including the development of the embryo and dispersal structures

New coverage of the genetic advantages of alternation of generations

Addition of apomixis

31. Plant Growth and Development

The section on the role of plant sensory systems in the timing of plant reproduction has been moved from Chapter 30 to Chapter 31.

32. Plant Defense: Keeping the World Green

33. Plant Diversity

Completely revised explanation of the basis for angiosperm diversity

Plant and animal diversity chapters (Chapters 33 and 44) now include a brief review of organismal form and function, allowing these chapters to be used on their own or before the physiology chapters.

34. Fungi: Structure, Function, and Diversity

Case 7 Predator-Prey: A Game of Life and Death

Brief descriptions of unfamiliar organisms and the major groups of organisms have been layered into the animal physiology chapters, to make it easier to teach physiology before diversity (Chapters 35-42).

35. Animal Nervous Systems

36. Animal Sensory Systems and Brain Function

37. Animal Movement: Muscles and Skeletons

38. Animal Endocrine Systems

39. Animal Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

A new section on the composition of blood

40. Animal Metabolism, Nutrition, and Digestion

41. Animal Renal Systems: Water and Waste

42. Animal Reproduction and Development

New diagrams of hormone feedback loops in the menstrual cycle

43. Animal Immune Systems

A new introduction to the immune system

Case 8 Biodiversity Hotspots: Rain Forests and Coral Reefs

44. Animal Diversity

A new discussion of nematodes

Introduction of a newly-discovered species, Dendrogramma enigmatica

45. Animal Behavior

46. Population Ecology

A new population growth equation

47. Species Interactions, Communities, and Ecosystems

A new discussion of facilitation

An expanded discussion of herbivory

A new example of microbial symbionts

A new discussion of biodiversity and its importance

48. Biomes and Global Ecology

An entirely new chapter on physical processes that underlie different biomes

  • Differential solar energy around the globe and seasonality
  • Wind and ocean currents
  • Effects of circulation and topography on rainfall
  • Expanded discussion of terrestrial biomes
  • Freshwater and marine biomes
  • Integration of concepts of biogeochemical cycles from Chapters 25 and 26 with ecological concepts
  • Global patterns of primary production
  • Global biodiversity

49. The Anthropocene: Humans as a Planetary Force

A new Core Concept and discussion of conservation biology

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