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Designed to work with Biology for the Informed Citizen with Physiology by Donna M. Bozzone and Douglas S. Green, this Study Guide provides students with brief summaries and step-by-step analyses of each chapter, additional review questions, and thoughtful advice and study tips. The Study Guide is authored by Sharon Gilman, who is also the author of the book's test item file, a resource for instructors that includes over 1200 questions for easy student evaluation.
Donna M. Bozzone is Professor of Biology at Saint Michael's College. She specializes in cell and developmental biology and has written three books on cancer and is the consulting editor for the nine-volume series Biology of Cancer.
The late Douglas S. Green was Professor of Biology at Saint Michael's College. He specialized in evolution, ecology, and bioinformatics.
Table of Contents
Preface UNIT 1. THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF LIFE
CHAPTER 1. The Nature of Biology and Evolution: Why Does Biology Matter to You? case study The "Infidelity Gene" 1.1. How Does Biology Affect Your Life? 1.2. What Are the Features of Life? 1.3. How Do Organisms Function? Atoms, Chemical Bonding and Molecules Macromolecules Cells Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Energy Extraction and Use 1.4. How Do Organisms Reproduce? Inheritance Reproduction 1.5. How Does Life Evolve? Darwin's Theory Extending Darwin's Theory Through Time Evolution Is the Unifying Theme of Biology 1.6. What Patterns of Diversity Are Found in Nature? Life Is Diverse Evolutionary Diversification Leads to Degrees of Relatedness Organizing Hierarchies in the Diversity of Life :: Biology in Perspective Technology Connection: Identifying the "Infidelity Gene" Scientist Spotlight: Carol W. Greider (1961-) Life Application: Determining When Life Has Ended How Do We Know? Spontaneous Generation
CHAPTER 2. The Nature of Science: How Do We Know How the World Works? case study The Mysterious Case of Childbed Fever 2.1. How Would a Scientist Investigate Childbed Fever? Looking for Clues Possible Causes "Cadaverous Particles" 2.2. How Does Science Work? Observations and Facts Hypotheses and Predictions Testing Evaluation and Interpretation of Results Scientific Theories 2.3. What Assumptions Does Science Make About Nature? Cause and Effect Consistency and Repeatability Materialism 2.4. What Are the Principal Features of Science? Empirical Evidence Testability Generality 2.5. How Does Science Differ from Other Ways of Knowing? 2.6. How Does Science Differ from Pseudoscience and Quackery? :: Biology in Perspective Life Application: Childbed Fever Scientist Spotlight: Robert Koch (1843-1910) How Do We Know? Hypothesis Testing and Scientific Proof Technology Connection: Throat Cultures
UNIT 2. REPRODUCTION, INHERITANCE, AND EVOLUTION
CHAPTER 3. Human Development: How Do Cells Make a Person? case study Unusually Close Sisters 3.1. What Are the Units of Life? 3.2. What Cell Structures Play a Role in Embryo Development? Cell Membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Endomembrane System Cytoskeleton 3.3. How Do Eggs and Sperm Form? Meiosis I: The First Round of Cell Division Meiosis II: The Second Round of Cell Division 3.4. What Happens in Fertilization? 3.5. How Does an Embryo Form and Ultimately Become a Fetus? Mitosis Gastrulation and Organ Formation Differentiation Gene Expression 3.6. What Are the Key Events of Pregnancy? Embryonic Development: Conception to Eight Weeks Fetal Development: Three Months to Nine Months 3.7. What Happens in Labor and Delivery? 3.8. How Do Twins Form? 3.9. What Can Conjoined Twins Tell Us About Biology and Ourselves? Explanations for Conjoining What Conjoining May Tell Us About Biology What Conjoining May Tell Us About Ourselves :: Biology in Perspective Scientist Spotlight: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) How Do We Know? Eggs and Sperm Are Both Needed for Fertilization Technology Connection: Ultrasound Life Application: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
CHAPTER 4. Inheritance, Genes, and Physical Characteristics: Does Disease Have a Genetic Basis? case study Sickle Cell Disease, Malaria, and Human Evolution 4.1. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? How Sickling Happens Sickle Cell Disease and Inheritance 4.2. Could Molecular Medicine Prevent Sickle Cell Disease? 4.3. Where Is Our Genetic Information Stored? 4.4. How Did Mendel Discover the Rules of Inheritance? Mendel's Experiments Gametes and Monohybrids Mendel's Rules 4.5. How Much Do Mendel's Rules Explain? Alleles Can Interact, and So Can Genes Genes May Aff ect More Than One Characteristic Gene Expression Depends on the Environment 4.6. What Are Genes Made Of? 4.7. How Does DNA Function? Transformation The "Transforming Substance" 4.8. What Processes Must DNA Accomplish? Replication Mutation Protein Production 4.9. Why Is Protein Structure So Important? :: Biology in Perspective Technology Connection: Electrophoresis How Do We Know? Pedigree Analysis Scientist Spotlight: Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) Life Application: The Effectiveness of Genetic Screening
CHAPTER 5. Cancer: How Can It Be Prevented, Diagnosed, and Treated? case study Xeroderma pigmentosum 5.1. How Does Cancer Make You Sick? 5.2. How Do Cancer Cells Differ from Normal Cells? 5.3. What Is the Life Cycle of a Cell? The Molecules That Regulate Cell Division The Cell Cycle 5.4. In What Ways Is Cancer a Genetic Disorder? Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes Chromosomal Abnormalities 5.5. What Risk Factors Are Associated with Cancer? Smoking Diet and Exercise Excessive Alcohol Use Radiation Infection Workplace Carcinogens and Pollution Inheritance Age Poverty 5.6. How Is Cancer Diagnosed? 5.7. How Is Cancer Treated? Surgery Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Cancer Treatments on the Horizon Why Cancer Treatments Sometimes Fail 5.8. How Can Cancer Be Prevented? :: Biology in Perspective How Do We Know? Cancer-Causing Genes from Malfunctioning Normal Genes Scientist Spotlight: Peyton Rous (1879-1970) Technology Connection: Computerized Tomography (CT) Scans Life Application: Chemoprevention
CHAPTER 6. Reproduction: What Kind of Baby Is It? case study The Fastest Woman on Earth 6.1. How Do Males and Females Form? The Stages of Sex Determination Chromosome Instructions Hormone Instructions 6.2. What Happens If the Hormonal Signals Are Missing or Misread? Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome Pseudohermaphroditism 6.3. How Do Men Produce Sperm? The Testes Sperm and Semen Hormones and Sperm Production 6.4. How Do Women Produce Eggs? The Ovaries The Ovarian Cycle The Uterine Cycle Hormones and Pregnancy 6.5. How Can Pregnancy Be Prevented? Surgery Hormones Barrier Other 6.6. What Causes Infertility, and How Can It Be Treated? Causes of Infertility Infertility Treatments 6.7. How Can We Tell If a Fetus or Baby Is Healthy? Blood and Urine Tests Screens and Diagnostic Tests Newborn Tests 6.8. What Tests Are on the Horizon? :: Biology in Perspective Life Application: Gender Testing in Sports How Do We Know? The Female Reproductive Tract Helps Sperm Find an Egg Technology Connection: Home Pregnancy Tests Scientist Spotlight: Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)
CHAPTER 7. Plants, Agriculture, and Genetic Engineering: Can We Create Better Plants and Animals? case study Golden Rice 7.1. Why Are Plants Such Good Sources of Food? Roots Stems Leaves Flowers 7.2. How Do Plants Make Food? Overview of Photosynthesis Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle The Role of Cells in Photosynthesis The Role of Leaves in Photosynthesis 7.3. What Are the Goals of Genetic Engineering in Plants? Pesticide Production Herbicide Resistance Increased Nutritional Value 7.4. How Was Golden Rice Engineered? Defi ne the Problem Clone the Genes Package the Genes Transform the Cells Confi rm the Strain 7.5. How Else Is Genetic Engineering Being Used? Medicine Industry Research Novelty Construction of an Organism's Genome 7.6. What Are the Risks of Genetic Engineering? Safety Economic Considerations Effectiveness 7.7. How Ethical Is Genetic Engineering? Genetic Engineering and Our Environment Genetic Engineering and Human Life :: Biology in Perspective Scientist Spotlight: Kary Mullis (1944-) Technology Connection: How to Transform Cells Life Application: From Teosinte to Maize How Do We Know? Evaluating the Safety of Genetically Engineered Products
CHAPTER 8. Health Care and the Human Genome: How Will We Use Our New Medical and Genetic Skills? case study Carrie Buck and the American Eugenics Movement 8.1. Do Complex Human Characteristics Have a Genetic Basis? Genetic Determinism Defining Normal 8.2. What Is Gene Therapy? Somatic Gene Therapy Germ-Line Gene Therapy 8.3. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Genetically Altering Humans? Somatic Gene Therapy Germ-Line Gene Therapy 8.4. How Can Stem Cells and Cloning Be Used to Alter People? Stem Cells Cloning 8.5. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Stem Cell Research? Benefits Risks 8.6. What Other Challenges Result from Advances in Medical Technology? Privacy Accessibility Danger of a New Eugenics Movement :: Biology in Perspective Scientist Spotlight: Nancy Wexler (1945-) Life Application: Sex Selection How Do We Know? How Human Embryonic Stem Cells Can Be Directed to Form Specialized Cells Technology Connection: Who's the Daddy?
CHAPTER 9. Evolution: How Do Species Arise and Adapt? case study Lactose Intolerance and the Geographic Variation of Human Traits 9.1. How Does Your Body Reflect an Evolutionary History? Human (and Mammalian) Testes Hang Loose You Can Get Scurvy, but Your Pet Can't (Unless You Have Guinea Pigs) Your Eye Is Organized Backward 9.2. What Convinced Darwin of the Fact of Evolution? The Voyage of the Beagle Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection The Modern Synthesis 9.3. How Do Humans Adapt to Their Environment? Lactase Persistence Malaria and Oxidizing Drugs 9.4. How Does Natural Selection Produce Adaptations? The Grants' 40-Year Study of Natural Selection Fitness and Natural Selection Limits of Natural Selection 9.5. What Are Random Events in Evolution? 9.6. What Is the Evidence for Speciation? Biological Species Concept Evidence for Speciation 9.7. How Do New Species Arise? Genetic Isolation Genetic Divergence Secondary Contact 9.8. Why Is It So Difficult for the Public to Accept Evolution? :: Biology in Perspective Scientist Spotlight: Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) How Do We Know? Constructing Evolutionary Trees Technology Connection: Genbank Life Application: Public Acceptance of Evolution
CHAPTER 10. The Evolution of Disease: Why Do We Get Sick? case study Deadly Malaria 10.1. In What Ways Is Your Body an Ecosystem? The Many Species That Live and Evolve in Your Body The Ecology of Our Resident Species Species That Cause Disease 10.2. Why Do Diseases Evolve Resistance to Antibiotics? How Resistance Evolves Where Resistant Bacteria Come From Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics Why Not All Bacteria Are Resistant to Antibiotics Antibiotics in the Environment 10.3. Why Are Some Diseases More Deadly Than Others? Why Some Diseases Become Milder over Time The Trade-Off Hypothesis of Reproduction Versus Transmission 10.4. Where Do New Diseases Come From? Sources of New Diseases Stages of a New Disease HIV/AIDS 10.5. How Can Evolution Help Us Control Disease? Antibiotic Resistance Vaccinations Controlling the Spread of Disease to Select for Milder Forms :: Biology in Perspective How Do We Know? The Many Species That Live on You Life Application: Malaria and DDT Scientist Spotlight: Paul W. Ewald (1953-) Technology Connection: How Vaccines Are Made
UNIT 3. INTERACTING WITH NATURE
CHAPTER 11. Ecology: How Do We Benefit from a Functional Ecosystem? case study The Near-Extinction of Kirtland's Warbler 11.1. How Do Species Adapt to Their Habitat? Adapting to Physical Conditions Adapting to Limited Shelter 11.2. Why Do Species Compete? The Competitive Exclusion Principle Instances When Competitors May Coexist 11.3. How Do Species Exploit One Another? Population Cycles An Evolutionary Arms Race 11.4. When Can Species Cooperate? 11.5. How Do Ecological Interactions Affect Us? We Compete with Other Species We Develop Useful Products and Ideas as a Result of Exploitation Interactions We Capitalize on Mutualisms 11.6. What Does a Functioning Ecosystem Do? Exploitation Interactions Distribute Energy and Nutrients Ecosystems Recycle Material on a Global Scale 11.7. What Benefi ts Do We Get from a Functioning Ecosystem? Ecosystem Services Disruptions to Ecosystem Services Biodiversity :: Biology in Perspective Scientist Spotlight: Robert Helmer MacArthur (1930-1972) Technology Connection: Biological Control of Schistosomiasis How Do We Know? Long-Term Ecological Research Life Application: Ecology and Human Conflict
CHAPTER 12. Biodiversity and Human Affairs: How Is the Human Race Like a Meteorite? case study The Discovery of America 12.1. What Are the Components of Biodiversity? 12.2. What Areas Have the Highest Biodiversity? The Latitudinal Gradient Why the Gradient Exists 12.3. What Can Islands Tell Us About Biodiversity? 12.4. Why Do Diff erent Regions Have Different Species? Biogeographic Realms Wallace's Line 12.5. How Does Biodiversity Change Through Time? 12.6. Why Is Biodiversity Needed for a Healthy Ecosystem? Productivity, Stability, and Ecosystem Health Why Biodiversity Increases Productivity Why Biodiversity Increases Stability How Biodiversity Keeps the Food Web Intact 12.7. Why Should We Preserve Biodiversity? The Spotted Owl Controversy Long-Term Benefi ts of an Old-Growth Forest How Old-Growth Forests Provide Ecosystem Services 12.8. How Do We Keep Track of Biodiversity? The Species Diversity Index Indicator Species and Satellite Images 12.9. Why Might We Be Facing the Sixth Mass Extinction? The Blitzkrieg Hypothesis Background Extinction Human Activity Threatens Biodiversity 12.10. How Can We Preserve Biodiversity? :: Biology in Perspective Life Application: The Importance of Genetic Diversity How Do We Know? Experimental Island Zoogeography Technology Connection: Satellite Imagery Scientist Spotlight: E. O. Wilson (1929-)
CHAPTER 13, Human Population Growth: How Many People Can a Single Planet Hold? case study A Story About Bacteria 13.1. How Can Populations Grow So Fast? The Dif erence Between Linear and Exponential Growth Defining Growth Rate Determining Growth Rate Equilibrium Doubling Time 13.2. Why Don't Populations Grow Forever? The Eff ects of Population Density Logistic Growth Our Carrying Capacity 13.3. How Is Population Growth Influenced by Age and Sex? Age, Sex, and Population Growth Age Pyramids 13.4. Why Do Developing and Developed Countries Grow Differently? Total Fertility and Age at First Reproduction Fertility and Mortality Differences Family Planning Differences Demographic Transition 13.5. How Do We Use Information About Population Growth? The Constitution and the Census Planning for Population Shifts Resource Depletion The Limits to Growth :: Biology in Perspective How Do We Know? Modeling Population Growth Scientist Spotlight: Donella Meadows (1941-2001) Life Application: The Demographics of China Technology Connection: Male Contraception
Answers to Selected Questions Glossary Credits Index