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Biology: Science for Life with Physiology with mybiology"

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780132257701

ISBN10:
013225770X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $128.40

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Summary

na

Table of Contents

Preface v
Can Science Cure the Common Cold? Introduction to the Scientific Method
1(21)
The Process of Science
2(13)
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
3(2)
The Experimental Method
5(5)
Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses
10(2)
Understanding Statistics
12(3)
Evaluating Scientific Information
15(4)
Information from Anecdotes
16(1)
Science in the News
16(1)
Understanding Science from Secondary Sources
17(2)
Is There a Cure for The Common Cold?
19(3)
Chapter Review
19(3)
Unit One Chemistry and Cells
Are We Alone in the Universe? Water, Biochemistry, and Cells
22(22)
What Does Life Require?
24(11)
A Definition of Life
24(1)
The Properties of Water
25(2)
Organic Chemistry
27(2)
Structure and Function of Macromolecules
29(6)
Life on Earth
35(9)
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
35(1)
Cell Structure
35(5)
The Tree of Life and Evolutionary Theory
40(1)
Chapter Review
41(3)
The Only Diet You Will Ever Need Nutrients, Enzymes and Metabolism, and Transport Across Membranes
44(26)
Nutrients
46(8)
Macronutrients
46(4)
Micronutrients
50(2)
Processed Versus Whole Foods
52(2)
Enzymes and Metabolism
54(4)
Enzymes
54(2)
Calories and Metabolic Rate
56(2)
Transport Across Membranes
58(2)
Passive Transport: Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis
58(1)
Active Transport: Pumping Substances Across the Membrane
59(1)
Exocytosis and Endocytosis: Movement of Large Molecules Across the Membrane
60(1)
Body Fat and Health
60(10)
Evaluating How Much Body Fat Is Healthful
62(1)
Obesity
62(4)
Anorexia and Bulimia
66(1)
Chapter Review
67(3)
Is the Earth Warming? The Greenhouse Effect, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis
70(30)
The Greenhouse Effect
72(5)
Water, Heat, and Temperature
72(1)
Carbon Dioxide
73(2)
The Greenhouse Effect, Organisms, and Their Environments
75(2)
Cellular Respiration
77(11)
Structure and Function of ATP
77(2)
A General Overview of Cellular Respiration
79(1)
Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport
80(7)
Global Warming and Cellular Respiration
87(1)
Photosynthesis
88(7)
A General Overview of Photosynthesis
88(1)
The Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle
89(3)
Global Warming and Photosynthesis
92(3)
Decreasing the Effects of Global Warming
95(5)
Essay 4.1 Metabolism Without Oxygen: Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation
82(16)
Chapter Review
98(2)
Unit Two Genetics
Cancer DNA Synthesis, Mitosis, and Meiosis
100(36)
What Is Cancer?
103(2)
Cell Division Overview
105(3)
DNA Replication
106(2)
The Cell Cycle and Mitosis
108(4)
Interphase
108(1)
Mitosis
109(2)
Cytokinesis
111(1)
Cell Cycle Control and Mutation
112(5)
Controls in the Cell Cycle
112(1)
Mutations to Cell-Cycle Control Genes
113(4)
Cancer Detection and Treatment
117(6)
Detection Methods: Biopsy
117(4)
Treatment Methods: Chemotherapy and Radiation
121(2)
Meiosis
123(13)
Interphase
127(1)
Meiosis I
127(1)
Meiosis II
127(3)
Crossing Over and Random Alignment
130
Essay 5.1 Cancer Risk Factors
118(15)
Chapter Review
133(3)
Are You Only as Smart as Your Genes? Mendelian and Quantitative Genetics
136(30)
The Inheritance of Traits
138(8)
Genes and Chromosomes
139(3)
Diversity in Offspring: Segregation, Independent Assortment, Crossing Over, and Random Fertilization
142(4)
Mendelian Genetics: When the Role of Genes Is Clear
146(7)
Genotype and Phenotype
148(1)
Genetic Diseases in Humans
149(1)
Using Punnett Squares to Predict Offspring Genotypes
150(3)
Quantitative Genetics: When Genes and Environment Interact
153(6)
Quantitative Traits
153(1)
Why Traits Are Quantitative
154(2)
Using Heritability to Analyze Inheritance
156(1)
Calculating Heritability in Human Populations
157(2)
Genes, Environment, and the Individual
159(7)
The Use and Misuse of Heritability
160(2)
How Do Genes Matter?
162
Essay 6.1 Gregor Mendel
147(16)
Chapter Review
163(3)
DNA Detective Extensions of Mendelism, Sex Linkage, Pedigree Analysis, and DNA Fingerprinting
166(26)
Extensions of Mendelian Genetics
168(4)
Sex Determination and Sex Linkage
172(6)
Sex Determination
172(2)
Meiosis and Sex Chromosomes
174(2)
Sex Linkage
176(2)
Pedigrees
178(3)
DNA Fingerprinting
181(11)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
182(1)
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Analysis
183(1)
Gel Electrophoresis
183(2)
Meiosis and DNA Fingerprinting
185
Essay 7.1 Blood Group Genetics
171(3)
Essay 7.2 Chromosomal Anomalies
174(4)
Essay 7.3 X Inactivation
178(12)
Chapter Review
190(2)
Genetic Engineering Transcription, Translation, and Genetically Modified Organisms
192(32)
Genetic Engineers
194(1)
Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression
194(10)
From Gene to Protein
195(2)
Transcription
197(1)
Translation
197(3)
Mutations
200(2)
Regulating Gene Expression
202(2)
Producing Recombinant Proteins
204(4)
Cloning a Gene Using Bacteria
204(3)
FDA Regulations
207(1)
Basic Versus Applied Research
207(1)
Genetic Engineers Can Modify Foods
208(7)
Why Genetically Modify Crop Plants?
208(2)
Modifying Crop Plants with the Ti Plasmid and Gene Gun
210(1)
Effect of GMOs on Health
210(3)
GM Crops and the Environment
213(2)
Genetic Engineers Can Modify Humans
215(9)
The Human Genome Project
215(1)
Gene Therapy
216(2)
Cloning Humans
218(2)
Essay 8.1 Stem Cells
220(1)
Chapter Review
221(3)
Unit Three Evolution
Where Did We Come From? The Evidence for Evolution
224(32)
What Is Evolution?
226(3)
The Process of Evolution
226(1)
The Theory of Evolution
227(2)
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
229(2)
Early Views of Evolution
229(1)
The Voyage of the Beagle
229(1)
Developing the Hypothesis of Common Descent
230(1)
Evaluating the Evidence for Common Descent
231(19)
Biological Classification Suggests Evolutionary Relationships
234(3)
Evidence of Homology
237(5)
Evidence from Biogeography
242(2)
Evidence from the Fossil Record
244(6)
Are Alternatives to the Theory of Evolution Equally Valid?
250(6)
The Static Model and Transformation Hypotheses
250(1)
The Separate Types and Common Descent Hypotheses
250(1)
The Best Scientific Explanation for the Diversity of Life
251
Essay 9.1 Argument from Design
232(20)
Essay 9.2 The Origin of Life
252(1)
Chapter Review
253(3)
An Evolving Enemy Natural Selection
256(26)
AIDS and HIV
258(4)
AIDS Is a Disease of the Immune System
258(1)
HIV Causes AIDS
259(2)
The Course of HIV Infection
261(1)
The Theory of Natural Selection
262(10)
Four Observations and an Inference
263(3)
Testing Natural Selection
266(1)
The Modern Understanding of Natural Selection
267(1)
Subtleties of Natural Selection
268(4)
Natural Selection and HIV
272(1)
HIV Fits Darwin's Observations
272(1)
The Evolutionary Arms Race
272(1)
How Understanding Evolution Can Help Prevent AIDS
273(9)
Single Drug Therapy Selects for Drug Resistance
273(2)
Combination Drug Therapy Can Slow HIV Evolution
275(1)
Problems with Combination Drug Therapy
276(1)
Preventing AIDS
277
Essay 10.1 The Evidence Linking HIV to AIDS
259(20)
Chapter Review
279(3)
Who Am I? Species and Races
282(34)
What Is a Species?
284(9)
The Biological Species Concept
284(4)
The Process of Speciation
288(5)
The Race Concept in Biology
293(2)
Humans and the Race Concept
295(11)
The Morphological Species Concept
296(1)
Modern Humans: A History
297(1)
Genetic Evidence of Divergence
298(2)
Human Races Are Not Biological Groups
300(3)
Human Races Have Never Been Truly Isolated
303(3)
Why Human Groups Differ
306(7)
Natural Selection
306(2)
Convergent Evolution
308(1)
Genetic Drift
309(3)
Sexual Selection
312(1)
Assortative Mating
312(1)
Race in Human Society
313(3)
Essay 11.1 The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
304(10)
Chapter Review
314(2)
Prospecting for Biological Gold Biodiversity and Classification
316(28)
Biological Classification
318(5)
How Many Species Exist?
318(2)
Kingdoms and Domains
320(3)
The Diversity of Life
323(13)
Bacteria and Archaea
323(2)
Protista
325(3)
Animalia
328(3)
Fungi
331(1)
Plantae
332(4)
Learning About Species
336(8)
Fishing for Useful Products
337(1)
Understanding Ecology
337(1)
Reconstructing Evolutionary History
338(2)
Learning from the Shamans
340
Essay 12.1 Diversity's Rocky Road
334(8)
Chapter Review
342(2)
Unit Four Ecology
Is the Human Population Too Large? Population Ecology
344(14)
A Growing Human Population
346(4)
Population Structure
346(1)
Population Growth
347(2)
The Demographic Transition
349(1)
Limits to Population Growth
350(3)
Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth
350(1)
Earth's Carrying Capacity for Humans
351(2)
The Future of the Human Population
353(5)
A Possible Population Crash?
353(2)
Avoiding Disaster
355(1)
Chapter Review
356(2)
Is Earth Experiencing a Biodiversity Crisis? Community Ecology, Ecosystem Ecology, and Conservation Biology
358(32)
The Sixth Extinction
360(8)
Measuring Extinction Rates
361(2)
Habitat Loss and Food Chains
363(4)
Other Human Causes of Extinction
367(1)
The Consequences of Extinction
368(11)
Loss of Resources
368(2)
Disruption of Ecological Communities
370(6)
Changed Ecosystems
376(2)
Psychological Effects
378(1)
Saving Species
379(7)
Protecting Habitat
379(2)
Protection from Environmental Disasters
381(1)
Protection from Loss of Genetic Diversity
382(4)
Protecting Biodiversity Versus Meeting Human Needs
386(4)
Chapter Review
388(2)
Where Do You Live? Climate and Biomes
390(30)
Global and Regional Climate
392(8)
Temperature
393(5)
Precipitation
398(2)
Terrestrial Biomes
400(9)
Forests and Shrublands
400(5)
Grasslands
405(1)
Desert
406(2)
Tundra
408(1)
Aquatic Biomes
409(5)
Freshwater
409(2)
Saltwater
411(3)
Human Habitats
414(6)
Energy and Natural Resources
414(1)
Waste Production
415
Essay 15.1 Wildfire!
405(13)
Chapter Review
418(2)
Unit Five Animal Structure and Function
Organ Donation Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems
420(22)
Tissues
422(6)
Epithelial Tissue
422(1)
Connective Tissue
423(2)
Muscle Tissue
425(1)
Nervous Tissue
426(1)
Tissue Donation
427(1)
Organs and Organ Systems
428(8)
Organs: The Liver as a Model Organ
429(1)
Organ Systems: The Digestive System
429(7)
Regulating the Internal Environment
436(6)
Negative Feedback
436(1)
Positive Feedback
437(1)
Organ Donation
438
Essay 16.1 Focus on Evolution: The Digestive System
432(7)
Chapter Review
439(3)
Clearing the Air Respiratory, Circulatory, and Excretory Systems
442(26)
Effects of Smoke on the Respiratory System
444(11)
What Happens When You Take a Breath?
445(5)
Gas Exchange
450(2)
Smoke Particles and Lung Function
452(2)
How Do We Know That Tobacco Smoke Kills?
454(1)
Spreading the Effects of Smoke: The Cardiovascular System
455(7)
Structure of the Cardiovascular System
455(5)
Movement of Materials Through the Cardiovascular System
460(1)
Smoke and Cardiovascular Disease
460(2)
Removing of Toxins from the Body: The Excretory System
462(6)
Kidney Structure and Function
462(1)
Smoking and the Excretory System
463
Essay 17.1 Focus on Evolution: The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
446(19)
Chapter Review
465(3)
Will Mad Cow Disease Become an Epidemic? Immune System, Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Pathogens
468(26)
Infectious Agents
470(9)
Bacteria
470(4)
Viruses
474(2)
Eukaryotic Pathogens
476(2)
Prions
478(1)
Epidemics
479(3)
Exposure to Infected Body Fluids
480(1)
Transmission Through an Intermediate Host
480(1)
Inhalation
481(1)
Ingestion
481(1)
The Body's Response to Infection: The Immune System
482(9)
First Line of Defense: Skin and Mucous Membranes
482(1)
Second Line of Defense: White Blood Cells, Proteins, and Inflammation
483(1)
Third Line of Defense: Lymphocytes
483(2)
Making B and T Cells
485(3)
Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity
488(2)
There Is No Immune Response to Prions
490(1)
Preventing the Spread of Prion Diseases
491(3)
Essay 18.1 Focus on Evolution: Antibiotic Resistance
473(18)
Chapter Review
491(3)
Sex Differences and Athleticism Endocrine, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
494(20)
The Endocrine System
496(4)
Hormones
496(2)
Endocrine Glands
498(2)
The Skeletal System
500(6)
The Human Skeleton
500(3)
Bone Structure and Remodeling
503(3)
The Muscular System
506(3)
Muscle Interaction with Bones
506(3)
Other Sex Differences That Influence Athleticism
509(5)
Body Fat Differences
509(1)
Cardiovascular Differences
510(1)
Group Differences and Individual Differences
510
Essay 19.1 Focus on Evolution: The Skeletal System
501(11)
Chapter Review
512(2)
Is There Something in the Water? Reproductive and Developmental Biology
514(32)
Principles of Animal Reproduction
516(4)
Asexual Reproduction
516(1)
Sexual Reproduction
517(2)
Environmental Contaminants and Sexual Reproduction
519(1)
Human Reproduction
520(15)
Human Reproductive Systems
520(3)
Gametogenesis
523(7)
The Menstrual Cycle
530(5)
Human Development
535(7)
Fertilization
535(2)
Human Embryonic Development
537(2)
Pregnancy
539(2)
Childbirth
541(1)
Is the Water Safe to Drink?
542(4)
Essay 20.1 Focus on Evolution: The Evolution of Two Different-Sized Gametes
518(25)
Chapter Review
543(3)
Attention Deficit Disorder Brain Structure and Function
546(24)
The Nervous System
548(5)
The Brain
553(4)
Cerebrum
554(1)
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
554(1)
Cerebellum
555(1)
Brain Stem
555(1)
ADD and Brain Structure and Function
556(1)
Neurons
557(9)
Neuron Structure
557(1)
Neuron Function
558(4)
Neurotransmission and Alzheimer's, Depression, Parkinson's, and ADD
562(1)
Ritalin®
562(4)
The Environment and ADD
566(4)
Essay 21.1 Focus on Evolution: The Nervous System
552(16)
Chapter Review
568(2)
Unit Six Plant Biology
Feeding the World Plant Structure and Growth
570(32)
Plants as Food
572(10)
The Evolution of Agriculture: Food Plant Diversity
572(2)
Plant Structure
574(3)
Plant Reproduction
577(5)
Plant Growth Requirements
582(11)
How Plants Grow
582(3)
Maximizing Plant Growth: Water, Nutrients, and Pest Control
585(8)
Designing Better Plants: Hybrids and Genetic Engineering
593(1)
The Future of Agriculture
593(9)
Modern Agriculture Causes Environmental Damage
593(2)
How to Reduce the Damage
595
Essay 22.1 Focus on Evolution: Plant Reproduction
578(21)
Chapter Review
599(3)
Growing a Green Thumb Plant Physiology
602
The Right Plant for the Place: Water Relations
604(9)
Transpiration
604(3)
Adaptations That Affect Transpiration
607(3)
Overwatering
610(1)
Water Inside Plant Cells
611(2)
A Beautiful Garden: Sap Translocation, Photoperiodism, and Flower and Fruit Production
613(6)
Translocation of Sugars and Nutrients
613(1)
Managing Translocation
614(3)
Photoperiodism
617(2)
Pleasing Forms: Tropisms and Hormones
619
Tropisms
619(1)
Hormones
620
Essay 23.1 Focus on Evolution: Plants on Land
606(17)
Chapter Review
623
Appendix: Metric System Conversions 1(1)
Answers to Learning the Basics 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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