9781420047813

Biomaterials: A Nano Approach

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781420047813

  • ISBN10:

    1420047817

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-06-14
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this book examines basic concepts, various processing methodologies, and techniques involved in the preparation and characterization of nanobiomaterials that are specific to biomedical applications. Biomaterials: A Nano Approach spans the historical development of biomaterials to current advances in the field. It describes how basic concepts in nanotechnology are applied to the processing of novel nanobiomaterials, including nanostructured metals and alloys. Presenting illustrative examples and a variety of applications, this text offers a solid framework for understanding present and future trends of biomaterials in human health care systems.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
About the Bookp. xix
Authorsp. xxi
Overview of Biomaterialsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Biomaterials: From Then to Nowp. 3
Impact of Biomaterialsp. 9
Characteristics of Biomaterialsp. 11
Classification of Biomaterialsp. 14
Metallic Biomaterialsp. 18
Ceramic Biomaterialsp. 19
Polymeric Biomaterialsp. 19
Composite Biomaterialsp. 20
Surface Modification of Biomaterialsp. 20
Recent Trends in Biomaterialsp. 22
Nanobiomaterials: A New Generation Biomaterialp. 22
Processing of Nanobiomaterialsp. 23
Sol-Gel Processingp. 23
Biomimetic Processingp. 24
Tissue Engineering Approachp. 26
Summaryp. 28
Glossaryp. 29
Referencesp. 32
Basics of Human Biologyp. 35
Introductionp. 35
Structure and Function of the Human Bodyp. 35
Chemical Levelp. 36
Cellular Levelp. 37
Nucleusp. 38
Cytoplasmp. 39
Cell Membranep. 39
Transport across the Cell Membranep. 40
Tissue Levelp. 41
Epithelial Tissuep. 42
Connective Tissuep. 43
Muscle Tissuep. 43
Nerve Tissuep. 44
Organ Levelp. 44
Skinp. 44
Bonep. 46
System Levelp. 49
Glossaryp. 51
Referencesp. 54
Further Readingp. 55
Degradation and Corrosion of Biomaterialsp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Surface Propertiesp. 57
Degradation of Biomaterialsp. 62
Corrosion of Biomaterialsp. 63
Galvanic Corrosionp. 66
Crevice Corrosionp. 66
Pitting Corrosionp. 66
Intergranular Corrosionp. 67
Stress Corrosionp. 67
Fretting Corrosionp. 68
Methods of Corrosion Testingp. 68
Biocompatibility of Implantsp. 70
In Vitro Test Methodsp. 71
In Vivo Test Methodsp. 73
Case Studyp. 74
Summaryp. 77
Glossaryp. 77
Referencesp. 78
Further Readingp. 79
Failure and Tribology of Biomaterialsp. 81
Introductionp. 81
Deformation Mechanicsp. 82
Elastic Deformationp. 84
Plastic Deformationp. 85
Deformation Analysis of Biomaterialsp. 86
Fracture Mechanicsp. 88
Classification of Fracturep. 91
Brittle Fracturep. 92
Ductile Fracturep. 93
Brittle to Ductile Transition of Biomaterialsp. 94
Fracture Toughnessp. 96
Toughness Analysis of Biomaterialsp. 100
Fatigue Mechanicsp. 104
Fatigue Analysis of Biomaterialsp. 107
Tribologyp. 109
Frictionp. 109
Wearp. 111
Tribological Analysis of Biomaterialsp. 114
Case Studyp. 117
Summaryp. 119
Glossaryp. 119
Referencesp. 121
Further Readingp. 121
Nanoscale Phenomenap. 123
Introductionp. 123
Nanoscale Phenomenap. 125
Properties at Nanoscalep. 126
Processing of Nanostructured Materialsp. 129
Top-Down Methodsp. 130
Bottom-Up Methodsp. 134
Characterization Techniquesp. 139
X-Ray Diffraction and Scattering Methodsp. 140
Electron Microscopyp. 141
Scanning Probe Microscopyp. 143
Light Scattering Techniquesp. 145
Gas Adsorption Measurementsp. 147
Environmental and Safety Aspects of Nanomaterialsp. 148
Summaryp. 155
Glossaryp. 155
Referencesp. 157
Further Readingp. 159
Metallic Biomaterialsp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Metallic Biomaterialsp. 161
Stainless Steelsp. 163
Cobalt-Chromium Alloysp. 168
Titanium and Titanium-Based Alloysp. 169
Shape Memory Alloysp. 172
Dental Amalgam Alloysp. 175
Noble and Other Metalsp. 175
Nanostructured Metallic Implantsp. 176
Case Studyp. 179
Summaryp. 183
Glossaryp. 184
Referencesp. 185
Ceramic Biomaterialsp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Bioceramicsp. 187
Nearly Inert Bioceramicsp. 189
Porous Bioceramicsp. 193
Bioactive Bioceramicsp. 194
Bioactive Glassesp. 195
Calcium Phosphate Ceramicsp. 197
Bioresorbable Bioceramicsp. 200
Nanostructured Bioceramicsp. 201
Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Bioceramicsp. 201
Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Aluminap. 202
Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Calcium Phosphate Ceramicsp. 208
Case Studyp. 211
Summaryp. 212
Glossaryp. 213
Referencesp. 214
Polymeric Biomaterialsp. 217
Introductionp. 217
Polymerization Processp. 217
Addition Polymerizationp. 217
Condensation Polymerizationp. 218
Types of Polymersp. 219
Factors Influencing the Properties of Polymersp. 221
Molecular Weightp. 221
Molecular Structuresp. 221
Intermolecular Forcesp. 222
Polymer Crystallinityp. 223
Polymer Characterizationp. 224
Polymers as Biomaterialsp. 224
Classification of Polymeric Biomaterialsp. 225
Naturally Derived Polymersp. 226
Collagenp. 227
Gelatinp. 228
Chitosanp. 228
Synthetic Polymersp. 229
Nonbiodegradable Synthetic Polymersp. 229
Poly(methyl methacrylate)p. 229
Poly(ethylene)p. 230
Poly(ethylene terephthalate)p. 230
Biodegradable Synthetic Polymersp. 230
Poly(lactic acid)p. 230
Poly(glycolic acid)p. 231
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)p. 231
Polymeric Nanobiomaterialsp. 231
Processing of Polymer Nanofibers: Current Scenariosp. 232
Drawingp. 233
Template Synthesisp. 233
Self-Assemblyp. 237
Phase Separationp. 237
Electrospinning: A New Approachp. 239
Experimental Systemp. 240
Spinning Mechanismp. 240
Electrospun Polymer Nanofibrous Scaffoldsp. 248
Collagen Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 248
Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 250
Chitosan Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 250
Poly(L-lactic acid) Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 251
Poly(glycolic acid) Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 252
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanofibrous Scaffoldp. 254
Biomedical Applications of Polymer Nanofibersp. 254
Medical Prosthesesp. 255
Dental Restorationp. 256
Wound Dressingp. 256
Drug Deliveryp. 258
Tissue Scaffoldsp. 259
Summaryp. 259
Glossaryp. 260
Referencesp. 261
Composite Biomaterialsp. 263
Introductionp. 263
Classification of Composite Biomaterialsp. 265
Fibrous Composite Biomaterialsp. 265
Particulate Composite Biomaterialsp. 266
Biological Responses to Composite Biomaterialsp. 269
Biomedical Applications of Composite Biomaterialsp. 269
Bone Fracture Repairp. 271
Bone Plates and Screwsp. 273
Joint Replacementsp. 275
Total Hip Replacementp. 276
Bone Graft Materialsp. 278
Dental Applicationsp. 280
Dental Restorative Materialsp. 281
Dental Postp. 282
Dental Arch Wires and Bracketsp. 283
Evolution of Nanocomposite Biomaterialsp. 284
Nanocomposites: A New Class of Nanobiomaterialsp. 285
Conventional Nanocompositesp. 286
Biomimetic Nanocompositesp. 288
Tissue-Engineered Nanocompositesp. 290
Nanocomposites for Growth Factor Deliveryp. 292
Summaryp. 295
Glossaryp. 295
Referencesp. 297
Nanobiomaterials for Tissue Regenerationp. 299
Introductionp. 299
Concept of Tissue Engineeringp. 300
The Promise of Stem Cellsp. 301
Mesenchymal Stem Cellsp. 302
Nanobiomaterials: A New Generation Scaffolding Materialp. 304
Characteristics of a Scaffoldp. 305
Types of Scaffolding Materialsp. 306
Ceramic Nanobiomaterialsp. 307
Polymeric Nanobiomaterialsp. 307
Scaffold Designing Using Nanobiomaterialsp. 308
Tissue-Engineered Ceramic Nanobiomaterialsp. 308
Tissue-Engineered Polymeric Nanobiomaterialsp. 311
Patterning of Biomaterials for Cell Engineeringp. 314
Chemical Patterningp. 316
Patterning by Microcontact Printingp. 317
Topographical Patterningp. 320
Nanoimprint Lithographyp. 321
Tissue-Engineered Products: The Artificial Skin and Cartilagep. 324
Case Studyp. 326
Summaryp. 328
Glossaryp. 330
Referencesp. 333
Indexp. 335
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