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Biomedical Ethics,9780072976441
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Biomedical Ethics

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072976441

ISBN10:
0072976446
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/2/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $132.98
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Summary

This best-selling anthology of readings with case studies provides insightful and comprehensive treatment of ethical issues in medicine. Appropriate for courses taught in philosophy departments as well as in schools on medicine and nursing, the collection covers provocative topics such as conflicts of interest in medicine, advance directives, physician-assisted suicide, and the rationing of health care. The effective pedagogical features include chapter introductions, argument sketches, explanations of medical terms, headnotes, and annotated bibliographies.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
General Introduction
1(58)
The Nature of Biomedical Ethics
1(3)
Recently Dominant Ethical Theories
4(22)
The Critical Assessment of Competing Ethical Theories
5(1)
Teleological Versus Deontological Theories
6(1)
Act-Utilitarianism
7(6)
Rule-Utilitarianism
13(4)
Kantian Deontology
17(6)
W. D. Ross's Theory of Prima Facie Duties
23(3)
The Principles of Biomedical Ethics
26(1)
Alternative Directions and Methods
27(11)
Virtue Ethics
28(2)
The Ethics of Care and Feminist Ethics
30(3)
Casuistry: Case-Based Reasoning In Historical Context
33(3)
Reflective Equilibrium and Appeals to Coherence
36(2)
Confronting Ethical Relativism
38(2)
Fundamental Concepts and Principles
40(13)
Autonomy
40(6)
Liberty-Limiting Principles
46(2)
Paternalism
48(5)
Notes
53(2)
Annotated Bibliography
55(2)
Appendix: Selected Reference Sources In Biomedical Ethics
57(2)
Print Resources
57(1)
Web Resources
57(2)
The Physician-Patient Relationship
59(103)
Introduction
59(11)
Physicians' Obligations and Virtues
59(1)
Paternalism and Respect for Patient Autonomy
60(2)
Truth Telling
62(2)
Informed Consent
64(3)
The Practice of Medicine in a Multicultural Society
67(1)
Contested Therapies Within the Physician-Patient Relationship
67(2)
Conflicts of Interest, Problems of Conscience, and Managed Care
69(1)
Notes
70(1)
Physicians' Obligations and Virtues
70(6)
The Hippocratic Oath
70(1)
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association, Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship
71(1)
The Virtuous Physician and the Ethics of Medicine
72(4)
Edmund D. Pellegrino
Physician-Patient Models and Patient Autonomy
76(14)
Metaphors and Models of Doctor-Patient Relationships: Their Implications for Autonomy
76(9)
James F. Childress
Mark Siegler
Why Doctors Should Intervene
85(5)
Terrence F. Ackerman
Truth Telling
90(12)
On Telling Patients the Truth
90(5)
Roger Higgs
Offering Truth: One Ethical Approach to the Uninformed Cancer Patient
95(7)
Benjamin Freedman
Informed Consent
102(16)
Opinion in Canterbury v. Spence
102(4)
Judge Spotswood W. Robinson III
President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, The Values Underlying Informed Consent
106(6)
Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care
112(6)
Howard Brody
The Practice of Medicine in a Multicultural Society
118(13)
Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society
118(9)
Ruth Macklin
Quality Care and the Wounds of Diversity
127(4)
Kenneth Kipnis
Contested Therapies Within the Physician-Patient Relationship
131(13)
Cosmetic Surgery and the Internal Morality of Medicine
131(9)
Franklin G. Miller
Howard Brody
Kevin C. Chung
One Pill Makes You Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin
140(4)
Claudia Mills
Conflicts of Interest, Problems of Conscience, and Managed Care
144(15)
The Doctor as Double Agent
144(5)
Marcia Angell
Managed Care and the Goals of Medicine
149(5)
Daniel Callahan
Conscience and Conscientious Actions in the Context of MCOs
154(5)
James F. Childress
Annotated Bibliography
159(3)
Hospitals, Nurses, Families, and Medical Confidentiality
162(62)
Introduction
162(8)
Professional Statements Regarding Patients' Rights and Professionals' Obligations
162(1)
The Role and Responsibilities of Nurses
163(1)
Families and Medical Decision Making
164(4)
Confidentiality and Conflicting Obligations
168(1)
Notes
169(1)
Professional Statements
170(3)
American Hospital Association, The Patient Care Partnership: Understanding Expectations, Rights and Responsibilities
170(2)
American Nurses Association, Code of Ethics for Nurses
172(1)
The Role and Responsibilities of Nurses
173(19)
In Defense of the Traditional Nurse
173(7)
Lisa H. Newton
Advocacy or Subservience of the Sake of Patients?
180(8)
Helga Kuhse
The Nurse/Physician Relationship and Ethical Decision Making
188(4)
Amy M. Haddad
Families and Medical Decision Making
192(19)
Patient Choices, Family Interests, and Physician Obligations
192(9)
Thomas A. Mappes
Jane S. Zembaty
Deaf Culture, Cochlear Implants, and Elective Disability
201(6)
Bonnie Poitras Tucker
The Hanukkah Bush: Ethical Implications in the Clinical Management of Intersex
207(4)
Sherri A. Groveman
Confidentiality
211(11)
Majority Opinion in Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California
211(4)
Justice Mathew O. Tobriner
Dissenting Opinion in Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California
215(3)
Justice William P. Clark
Please Don't Tell!: A Case About HIV and Confidentiality
218(4)
Leonard Fleck
Marcia Angell
Annotated Bibliography
222(2)
Human and Animal Research
224(78)
Introduction
224(10)
Conceptual Issues
224(1)
The Justification of Research Using Human Subjects
225(2)
The Informed-Consent Requirement
227(1)
Proxy Consent for Research Subjects Incapable of Informed Consent
228(2)
Experimental Design and Research in Developing Nations
230(2)
Animal Research
232(1)
Notes
233(1)
Ethical Codes
234(6)
The Nuremberg Code
234(1)
World Medical Association, Declaration of Helsinki
235(4)
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals
239(1)
Research Involving ``Vulnerable'' Populations
240(17)
Proxy Consent for Research on the Incompetent Elderly
240(7)
Barry F. Brown
The Dangers of Difference
247(4)
Patricia A. King
Ethical and Human-Rights Issues in Research on Mental Disorders that May Affect Decision-Making Capacity
251(6)
Alexander Morgan Capron
Experimental Design and Randomized Clinical Trials
257(9)
Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial
257(5)
Samuel Hellman
Deborah S. Hellman
How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials
262(4)
Don Marquis
Clinical Trials in Developing Countries
266(10)
Research in Developing Countries: Taking Benefit Seriously
266(6)
Leonard H. Glantz
George J. Annas
Michael A. Grodin
Wendy K. Mariner
Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries
272(4)
Baruch Brody
Animal Research
276(23)
The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research
276(7)
Carl Cohen
The Responsible Use of Animals in Biomedical Research
283(6)
Edwin Converse Hettinger
The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?
289(10)
David DeGrazia
Annotated Bibliography
299(3)
Death and Decisions Regarding Life-Sustaining Treatment
302(75)
Introduction
302(7)
The Definition and Determination of Death
302(2)
Competent Adults and the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Treatment
304(1)
DNR Orders and Medical Futility
305(1)
Advance Directives and Treatment Decisions for Incompetent Adults
306(1)
The Treatment of Impaired Infants
307(1)
Notes
308(1)
The Definition and Determination of Death
309(18)
President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Why ``Update'' Death?
309(3)
The Definition and Criterion of Death
312(7)
Charles M. Culver
Bernard Gert
Pragmatism and the Determination of Death
319(8)
Martin Benjamin
Competent Adults and the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Treatment
327(13)
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association, Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment
327(3)
Refusing Life-Sustaining Treatment After Catastrophic Injury: Ethical Implications
330(5)
Tia Powell
Bruce Lowenstein
Suicide by Persons with Disabilities Disguised as the Refusal of Life-Sustaining Treatment
335(5)
Vicki Michel
DNR Orders and Medical Futility
340(10)
Ethics and Communication in Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders
340(5)
Tom Tomlinson
Howard Brody
Medical Futility: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis
345(5)
Mark R. Wicclair
Advance Directives and Treatment Decisions for Incompetent Adults
350(15)
Some Reflections on Advance Directives
350(7)
Thomas A. Mappes
My Annotated Living Will
357(6)
Norman L. Cantor
The Conscious Incompetent Patient
363(2)
Rebecca Dresser
The Treatment of Impaired Infants
365(10)
Involuntary Euthanasia of Defective Newborns
365(6)
John A. Robertson
Members of The Hastings Center Research Project on the Care of Imperiled Newborns, Standards of Judgment for Treatment of Imperiled Newborns
371(4)
Annotated Bibliography
375(2)
Suicide, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Active Euthanasia
377(71)
Introduction
377(7)
What Is Suicide?
377(2)
The Morality of Suicide
379(1)
The Morality of Active Euthanasia
379(2)
Physician-Assisted Suicide
381(1)
Physician-Assisted Suicide, Active Euthanasia, and Social Policy
382(2)
Notes
384(1)
The Morality of Suicide
384(11)
Suicide
384(4)
Immanuel Kant
The Morality and Rationality of Suicide
388(7)
R. B. Brandt
The Morality of Active Euthanasia
395(9)
Active and Passive Euthanasia
395(4)
James Rachels
Killing and Allowing to Die
399(2)
Daniel Callahan
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
401(3)
Dan W. Brock
The Supreme Court, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Terminal Sedation
404(13)
Opinion of the Court in Washington v. Glucksberg
404(5)
Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist
Opinion of the Court in Vacco v. Quill
409(4)
Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist
Concurring Opinion in Washington v. Glucksberg and Vacco v. Quill
413(1)
Justice Sandra Day O'Connor
The Supreme Court and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Rejecting Assisted Suicide But Embracing Euthanasia
414(3)
David Orentlicher
Physician-Assisted Suicide, Active Euthanasia, and Social Policy
417(28)
Care of the Hopelessly III: Proposed Clinical Criteria for Physician-Assisted Suicide
417(3)
Timothy E. Quill
Christine K. Cassel
Diane E. Meier
The Oregon Death with Dignity Act
420(6)
Lawrence O. Gostin. and Diane E. Meier, Regulating Physician-Assisted Death
426(5)
Franklin G. Miller
Timothy E. Quill
Howard Brody
John C. Fletcher
On the Slippery Slope in the Empire State: The New York State Task Force on Physician-Assisted Death
431(7)
John D. Arras
Patient Refusal of Hydration and Nutrition: An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide or Voluntary Active Euthanasia
438(7)
James L. Bernat
Bernard Gert
R. Peter Mogielnicki
Annotated Bibliography
445(3)
Abortion and Research on Embryonic Stem Cells
448(63)
Introduction
448(9)
Abortion: The Ethical Issue
448(2)
The Conservative View and the Liberal View
450(1)
Moderate Views
451(2)
Abortion and Social Policy
453(2)
Research on Embryonic Stem Cells
455(1)
Notes
456(1)
The Morality of Abortion
457(26)
The Unspeakable Crime of Abortion
457(2)
Pope John Paul II
On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
459(7)
Mary Anne Warren
Why Abortion is Immoral
466(5)
Don Marquis
A Defense of Abortion
471(8)
Judith Jarvis Thomson
The Morality of Abortion
479(4)
Margaret Olivia Little
Abortion and Social Policy
483(10)
Majority Opinion in Roe v. Wade
483(5)
Justice Harry Blackmun
``Partial-Birth Abortion'' and the Supreme Court
488(5)
George J. Annas
Research on Embryonic Stem Cells
493(15)
National Institutes of Health, Stem Cells: A Primer
493(5)
What Does ``Respect for Embryos'' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?
498(3)
Bonnie Steinbock
President's Council on Bioethics, The Moral Case Against Cloning-for-Biomedical-Research
501(7)
Annotated Bibliography
508(3)
Genetics and Human Reproduction
511(104)
Introduction
511(10)
Genetic Disease and the Language of Genetics
511(2)
Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion
513(1)
Morality and Reproductive Risk
514(1)
Reproductive Technologies and the Treatment of Infertility
514(2)
Reproductive Technologies: Ethical Concerns
516(1)
Human Cloning
517(2)
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
519(1)
Genetic Engineering, Gene Therapy, and Enhancement
519(1)
Notes
520(1)
Reproductive Risk, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Selective Abortion
521(11)
Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life
521(5)
Leon R. Kass
Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children be Immoral?
526(6)
Laura M. Purdy
Reproductive Technologies
532(21)
IVF: The Simple Case
532(4)
Peter Singer
Feminist Ethics and In Vitro Fertilization
536(5)
Susan Sherwin
The New York State Task Force on Life and the Law, Ethical Debates about Infertility and its Treatment
541(7)
President's Council on Bioethics, Assisted Reproduction
548(5)
Gamete Donation and Surrogacy
553(12)
Families, the Marketplace, and Values: New Ways of Making Babies
553(8)
Thomas H. Murray
Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption
561(4)
Bonnie Steinbock
Human Cloning
565(12)
Cloning of Human Beings
565(3)
Leon R. Kass
Even If It Worked, Cloning Wouldn't Bring Her Back
568(3)
Thomas H. Murray
Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning
571(6)
Robert Wachbroit
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
577(9)
Extending Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Medical and Non-Medical Uses
577(6)
John A. Robertson
President's Council on Bioethics, Selecting Embryos for Desired Traits
583(3)
Gene Therapy
586(15)
The Dangerous Promise of Gene Therapy
586(4)
Sophia Kolehmainen
The Future of Gene Therapy: Balancing the Risks and the Benefits of Clinical Trials
590(4)
Marina Cavazzana-Calvo
Adrian Thrasher
Fulvio Mavilio
Germ-Line Gene Therapy
594(7)
LeRoy Walters
Julie Gage Palmer
Genetic Enhancement
601(11)
Genetic Enhancement
601(5)
Walter Glannon
Genetic Engineering
606(6)
Dan W. Brock
Annotated Bibliography
612(3)
Social Justice and Health-Care Policy
615(82)
Introduction
615(13)
Justice, Rights, and Societal Obligations
617(3)
Rationing, Managed Care, and Health-Care Reform in the United States
620(4)
Systems of Health-Care Delivery and Finance: Four International Perspectives
624(3)
Notes
627(1)
Justice, Rights, and Societal Obligations
628(17)
Justice: A Philosophical Review
628(11)
Allen Buchanan
Autonomy, Equality and a Just Health Care System
639(6)
Kai Nielsen
Rationing, Managed Care, and Health-Care Reform in the United States
645(27)
Is the Oregon Rationing Plan Fair?
645(7)
Norman Daniels
Managed Care: Rationing Without Justice, but not Unjustly
652(8)
Allen Buchanan
Rationing: Don't Give Up
660(3)
Leonard M. Fleck
Closure, Fair Procedures, and Setting Limits Within Managed Care Organizations
663(6)
Norman Daniels
James Sabin
Health Care Reform: Still Possible
669(3)
Ezekiel Emanuel
International Models and Perspectives
672(22)
Managing Care the Canadian Way
672(2)
Pat Armstrong
Restoring the Status of an Icon: A Talk with Canada's Minister of Health
674(7)
John K. Iglehart
The German Health Care System
681(3)
Gerd Richter
Will the Fudge on Equity Sustain the NHS into the Next Millennium?
684(5)
Nicholas Mays
Justin Keen
Ethics, Politics, and Priorities in the Italian Health-Care System
689(5)
Giovanna Ruberto
Annotated Bibliography
694(3)
Appendix: Case Studies 697(22)
About the Contributors 719


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