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Biopsychology (with Beyond the Brain and Behavior CD-ROM) (book alone),9780205426515
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Biopsychology (with Beyond the Brain and Behavior CD-ROM) (book alone)

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205426515

ISBN10:
0205426514
Format:
Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $145.60
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Summary

Biopsychology is a clear, engaging introduction to current biopsychological theory and research that makes the topics personally and socially relevant to students. Written in a friendly, engaging tone, the sixth edition continues to emphasize four interwoven themes: ";Thinking about Biopsychology,"; ";Clinical Implications,"; ";The Evolutionary Perspective,"; and ";Cognitive Neuroscience."; These themes are integral to each chapter and are highlighted throughout by marginal icons, then summarized at the end of each chapter in a ";Themes Revisited"; section that provides context for the topics discussed. What makes this book so popular with instructors and students alike is its unique combination of biopsychological science and a personal, reader-oriented style. Pinel interweaves the fundamentals of the field with clinical case studies, social issues, personal implications, and humorous anecdotes. An updated and stunning art program illustrates difficult concepts with simple visuals and fresh photos. Beyond the Brain and Behavior, a CD that accompanies each new textbook, now contains even more animations and demonstrations, video clips, practice tests, electronic flashcards, and annotated readings. ";I can honestly say that the Pinel text is consistently rated the 'best text' out of all those used in courses throughout our department. Students often say it is the 'best text they have ever had in any college course' as well. I agree."; Michelle Pilati, Rio Hondo College

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
To the Student xxiii
About the Author xxiv
Part One What Is Biopsychology?
Biopsychology as a Neuroscience: What Is Biopsychology, Anyway?
1(18)
The Case of Jimmie G., the Man Frozen in Time
2(1)
Four Major Themes of This Book
3(1)
What Is Biopsychology?
4(1)
What Is the Relation between Biopsychology and the Other Disciplines of Neuroscience?
4(1)
What Types of Research Characterize the Biopsychological Approach?
5(3)
Human and Nonhuman Subjects
5(1)
Experiments and Nonexperiments
5(2)
Pure and Applied Research
7(1)
What Are the Divisions of Biopsychology?
8(4)
Physiological Psychology
8(1)
Psychopharmacology
9(1)
Neuropsychology
9(1)
The Case of Mr. R., the Brain-Damaged Student Who Switched to Architecture
9(1)
Psychophysiology
9(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience
10(1)
Comparative Psychology
11(1)
Converging Operations: How Do Biopsychologists Work Together?
12(1)
Scientific Inference: How Do Biopsychologists Study the Unobservable Workings of the Brain?
13(2)
Critical Thinking about Biopsychological Claims
15(2)
Case 1: Jose and the Bull
15(1)
Case 2: Becky, Moniz, and Prefrontal Lobotomy
16(1)
Themes Revisited
17(1)
Think about It
18(1)
Key Terms
18(1)
Part Two Foundations of Biopsychology
Evolution, Genetics, and Experience: Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
19(31)
Thinking about the Biology of Behavior: From Dichotomies to Relations and Interactions
20(4)
Is It Physiological, or Is It Psychological?
20(1)
Is It Inherited, or Is It Learned?
20(1)
Problems with Thinking about the Biology of Behavior in Terms of Traditional Dichotomies
21(1)
The Case of the Man Who Fell Out of Bed
21(1)
The Case of the Chimps and the Mirrors
22(1)
The Case of the Thinking Student
23(1)
Human Evolution
24(10)
Evolution and Behavior
25(2)
Course of Human Evolution
27(2)
Thinking about Human Evolution
29(2)
Evolution of the Human Brain
31(1)
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Mate Bonding
31(3)
Fundamental Genetics
34(8)
Mendelian Genetics
34(1)
Chromosomes, Reproduction, and Linkage
34(3)
Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits
37(1)
Chromosome Structure and Replication
37(1)
The Genetic Code and Gene Expression
38(1)
Mitochondrial DNA
39(1)
Human Genome Project: What's Next?
39(3)
Behavioral Development: The Interaction of Genetic Factors and Experience
42(4)
Selective Breeding of ``Maze-Bright'' and ``Maze-Dull'' Rats
42(2)
Phenylketonuria: A Single-Gene Metabolic Disorder
44(1)
Development of Birdsong
44(2)
The Genetics of Human Psychological Differences
46(2)
Development of Individuals versus Development of Differences among Individuals
46(1)
Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart
46(2)
Themes Revisited
48(1)
Think about It
49(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
The Anatomy of the Nervous System: The Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System
50(26)
General Layout of the Nervous System
51(3)
Divisions of the Nervous System
51(2)
Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid
53(1)
Blood-Brain Barrier
53(1)
Cells of the Nervous System
54(5)
Anatomy of Neurons
54(4)
Glial Cells: The Forgotten Majority
58(1)
Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
59(3)
Neuroanatomical Techniques
59(2)
Directions in the Vertebrate Nervous System
61(1)
The Spinal Cord
62(2)
The Five Major Divisions of the Brain
64(1)
Major Structures of the Brain
65(9)
Myelencephalon
65(1)
Metencephalon
65(1)
Mesencephalon
65(1)
Diencephalon
66(1)
Telencephalon
67(7)
Themes Revisited
74(1)
Think about It
75(1)
Key Terms
75(1)
Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission: How Neurons Send and Receive Signals
76(24)
The Lizard, a Case of Parkinson's Disease
77(1)
The Neuron's Resting Membrane Potential
77(3)
Recording the Membrane Potential
77(1)
The Resting Membrane Potential
77(1)
The Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential
78(2)
Generation and Conduction of Postsynaptic Potentials
80(1)
Integration of Postsynaptic Potentials and Generation of Action Potentials
81(2)
Conduction of Action Potentials
83(3)
The Ionic Basis of Action Potentials
83(1)
Refractory Periods
84(1)
Axonal Conduction of Action Potentials
84(1)
Conduction in Myelinated Axons
85(1)
The Velocity of Axonal Conduction
85(1)
Conduction in Neurons without Axons
85(1)
The Hodgkin-Huxley Model and the Changing View of Dendritic Function
85(1)
Synaptic Transmission: Chemical Transmission of Signals from One Neuron to Another
86(6)
Structure of Synapses
86(1)
Synthesis, Packaging, and Transport of Neurotransmitter Molecules
86(1)
Release of Neurotransmitter Molecules
87(1)
Activation of Receptors by Neurotransmitter Molecules
88(2)
Reuptake, Enzymatic Degradation, and Recycling
90(1)
Glial Function and Synaptie Transmission
91(1)
The Neurotransmitters
92(3)
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
92(1)
Monoamine Neurotransmitters
92(1)
Soluble-Gas Neurotransmitters
93(1)
Acetylcholine
94(1)
Neuropeptides
94(1)
Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission
95(3)
How Drugs Influence Synaptic Transmission
95(1)
Psychoactive Drugs: Five Examples
95(3)
Themes Revisited
98(1)
Think about It
98(1)
Key Terms
99(1)
The Research Methods of Biopsychology: Understanding What Biopsychologists Do
100(28)
The Ironic Case of Professor P.
101(1)
Part One Methods of Studying the Nervous System
102(1)
Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain
102(4)
Contrast X-Rays
102(1)
X-Ray Computed Tomography
102(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
102(2)
Positron Emission Tomography
104(1)
Functional MRI
105(1)
Magnetoencephalography
106(1)
Brain-Image Archives
106(1)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
106(1)
Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity
106(4)
Scalp Electroencephalography
106(2)
Muscle Tension
108(1)
Eye Movement
109(1)
Skin Conductance
109(1)
Cardiovascular Activity
109(1)
Invasive Physiological Research Methods
110(4)
Stereotaxic Surgery
110(1)
Lesion Methods
110(3)
Electrical Stimulation
113(1)
Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods
113(1)
Pharmacological Research Methods
114(3)
Routes of Drug Administration
114(1)
Selective Chemical Lesions
114(1)
Measuring Chemical Activity of the Brain
114(1)
Locating Neurotransmitters and Receptors in the Brain
115(2)
Genetic Engineering
117(1)
Gene Knockout Techniques
117(1)
Gene Replacement Techniques
117(1)
Part Two Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology
117(1)
Neuropsychological Testing
118(3)
Modern Approach to Neuropsychological Testing
118(1)
Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery
119(1)
Tests of Specific Neuropsychological Function
120(1)
Frontal-Lobe Function
121(1)
Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience
121(2)
Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior
123(3)
Paradigms for Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors
123(1)
Traditional Conditioning Paradigms
123(1)
Seminatural Animal Learning Paradigms
124(2)
Themes Revisited
126(1)
Think about It
126(1)
Key Terms
126(2)
Part Three Sensory and Motor Systems
The Visual System: From Your Eyes to Your Cortex
128(27)
The Case of Mrs. Richards: Fortification Illusions and the Astronomer
129(1)
Light Enters the Eye and Reaches the Retina
130(2)
The Retina and Translation of Light into Neural Signals
132(7)
Cone and Rod Vision
134(2)
Eye Movement
136(2)
Visual Transduction: The Conversion of Light to Neural Signals
138(1)
From Retina to Primary Visual Cortex
139(1)
Retinotopic Organization
140(1)
The M and P Channels
140(1)
Seeing Edges
140(9)
Lateral Inhibition and Contrast Enhancement
142(1)
Receptive Fields of Visual Neurons
143(1)
Receptive Fields: Neurons of the Retina-Geniculate--Striate Pathway
143(1)
Receptive Fields: Simple Cortical Cells
144(1)
Receptive Fields: Complex Cortical Cells
145(1)
Columnar Organization of Primary Visual Cortex
146(1)
Spatial-Frequency Theory
147(2)
The Case of Mrs. Richards, Revisited
149(1)
Seeing Color
149(4)
Component and Opponent Processing
150(1)
Color Constancy and the Retinex Theory
151(2)
Themes Revisited
153(1)
Think about It
154(1)
Key Terms
154(1)
Mechanisms of Perception, Conscious Awareness, and Attention: How You Know the World
155(30)
The Case of the Man Who Could See Only One Thing at a Time
156(1)
Principles of Sensory System Organization
156(3)
Hierarchical Organization
156(1)
The Case of the Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat
157(1)
Functional Segregation
157(1)
Parallel Processing
158(1)
The Current Model of Sensory System Organization
158(1)
Cortical Mechanisms of Vision
159(7)
Scotomas: Completion
159(1)
The Case of the Physiological Psychologist Who Made Faces Disappear
160(1)
Scotomas: Blindsight
160(1)
The Case of D.B., the Man Confused by His Own Blindsight
160(1)
Visual Awareness and Neural Activity
161(1)
Functional Areas of Secondary and Association Visual Cortex
161(1)
Dorsal and Ventral Streams
161(3)
The Case of D.F., the Woman Who Could Grasp Objects She Did Not Consciously See
164(1)
The Case of A.T., the Woman Who Could Not Accurately Grasp Unfamiliar Objects That She Saw
164(1)
Prosopagnosia
164(1)
R.P., a Typical Case of Prosopagnoisa
165(1)
Areas of the Ventral Stream Specialized for Recognizing Specific Classes of Objects
165(1)
Interim Conclusion
166(1)
Audition
166(4)
The Ear
166(2)
From the Ear to the Primary Auditory Cortex
168(1)
Primary Auditory Cortex
169(1)
Sound Localization
169(1)
Effects of Auditory Cortex Damage
170(1)
Somatosensation: Touch and Pain
170(7)
Cutaneous Receptors
170(1)
Dermatomes
171(1)
The Two Major Ascending Somatosensory Pathways
171(1)
Cortical Areas of Somatosensation
172(1)
Effects of Damage to the Primary Somatosensory Cortex
173(1)
Somatosensory Agnosias
174(1)
The Case of Aunt Betsy, Who Lost Half of Her Body
174(1)
The Paradoxes of Pain
175(1)
The Case of Miss C., the Woman Who Felt No Pain
175(2)
The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
177(4)
The Olfactory System
178(1)
The Gustatory System
179(1)
Brain Damage and the Chemical Senses
180(1)
Selective Attention
181(2)
Themes Revisited
183(1)
Think about It
184(1)
Key Terms
184(1)
The Sensorimotor System: How You Do What You Do
185(26)
The Case of Rhonda, the Dexterous Cashier
186(1)
Three Principles of Sensorimotor Function
186(2)
The Sensorimotor System Is Hierarchically Organized
186(1)
Motor Output Is Guided by Sensory Input
187(1)
The Case of G.O., the Man with Too Little Feedback
187(1)
Learning Changes the Nature and Locus of Sensorimotor Control
187(1)
A General Model of Sensorimotor System Function
188(1)
Sensorimotor Association Cortex
188(4)
Posterior Parietal Association Cortex
188(1)
The Case of Mrs. S., the Woman Who Turned in Circles
189(2)
Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex
191(1)
Secondary Motor Cortex
192(1)
Primary Motor Cortex
193(2)
Belle: The Monkey That Controlled a Robot with Her Mind
194(1)
Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
195(1)
Cerebellum
195(1)
Basal Ganglia
195(1)
Descending Motor Pathways
196(4)
Dorsolateral Corticospinal Tract and Dorsolateral Corticorubrospinal Tract
196(2)
Ventromedial Corticospinal Tract and Ventromedial Cortico-brainstem-spinal Tract
198(1)
Comparison of the Two Dorsolateral Motor Pathways and the Two Ventromedial Motor Pathways
198(2)
Sensorimotor Spinal Circuits
200(6)
Muscles
200(1)
Receptor Organs of Tendons and Muscles
200(2)
Stretch Reflex
202(2)
Withdrawal Reflex
204(1)
Reciprocal Innervation
204(1)
Recurrent Collateral Inhibition
204(1)
Walking: A Complex Sensorimotor Reflex
205(1)
Central Sensorimotor Programs
206(3)
Central Sensorimotor Programs Are Capable of Motor Equivalence
206(1)
Sensory Information That Controls Central Sensorimotor Programs Is Not Necessarily Conscious
206(1)
Central Sensorimotor Programs Can Develop without Practice
207(1)
Practice Can Create Central Sensorimotor Programs
207(1)
Functional Brain Imaging of Sensorimotor Learning
208(1)
The Case of Rhonda, Revisited
209(1)
Themes Revisited
209(1)
Think about It
210(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Part Four Brain Plasticity
Development of the Nervous System: From Fertilized Egg to You
211(20)
The Case of Genie
212(1)
Phases of Neurodevelopment
212(8)
Induction of the Neural Plate
213(1)
Neural Proliferation
214(1)
Migration and Aggregation
214(1)
Axon Growth and Synapse Formation
215(4)
Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement
219(1)
Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants
220(1)
Postnatal Growth of the Human Brain
220(1)
Development of the Prefrontal Cortex
221(1)
Effects of Experience on the Early Development, Maintenance, and Reorganization of Neural Circuits
221(2)
Early Studies of Experience and Neurodevelopment
222(1)
Competitive Nature of Experience and Neurodevelopment
222(1)
Effects of Experience on Topographic Sensory Cortex Maps
222(1)
Mechanisms by Which Experience Might Influence Neurodevelopment
223(1)
Neuroplasticity in Adults
223(2)
Neurogenesis in Adult Mammals
223(2)
Effects of Experience on the Reorganization of the Adult Cortex
225(1)
Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism and Williams Syndrome
225(4)
Autism
225(1)
Some Cases of Amazing Savants
226(1)
Williams Syndrome
227(2)
Themes Revisited
229(1)
Think about It
229(1)
Key Terms
230(1)
Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity: Can the Brain Recover from Damage?
231(29)
The Ironic Case of Professor P.
232(1)
Causes of Brain Damage
233(6)
Brain Tumors
233(1)
Cerebrovascular Disorders
233(3)
Closed-Head Injuries
236(1)
The Case of Jerry Quarry, Ex-Boxer
236(1)
Infections of the Brain
237(1)
Neurotoxins
237(1)
Genetic Factors
237(1)
Programmed Cell Death
238(1)
Neuropsychological Diseases
239(6)
Epilepsy
239(1)
The Subtlety of Complex Partial Seizures: Four Cases
240(1)
Parkinson's Disease
241(1)
Huntington's Disease
241(1)
Multiple Sclerosis
242(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
242(3)
Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Diseases
245(3)
Kindling Model of Epilepsy
246(1)
Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
246(1)
MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease
247(1)
The Case of the Frozen Addicts
247(1)
Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage: Degeneration, Regeneration, Reorganization, and Recovery
248(6)
Neural Degeneration
248(1)
Neural Regeneration
248(2)
Neural Reorganization
250(2)
Recovery of Function after Brain Damage
252(2)
Neuroplasticity and the Treatment of Nervous System Damage
254(4)
Reducing Brain Damage by Blocking Neurodegeneration
254(1)
Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Promoting Regeneration
254(1)
Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Neurotransplantation
255(1)
The Case of Roberto Garcia d'Orta: The Lizard Gets an Autotransplant
255(1)
Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Rehabilitative Training
256(1)
The Cases of Tom and Philip: Phantom Limbs and Ramachandran
257(1)
Themes Revisited
258(1)
Think about It
258(1)
Key Terms
259(1)
Learning, Memory, and Amnesia: How Your Brain Stores Information
260(28)
Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy
261(5)
The Case of H.M., the Man Who Changed the Study of Memory
261(1)
Formal Assessment of H.M.'s Anterograde Amnesia
262(1)
Scientific Contributions of H.M.'s Case
263(1)
Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia
264(1)
Effects of Cerebral Ischemia on the Hippocampus and Memory
264(1)
The Case of R.B., the Product of a Bungled Operation
265(1)
Amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome
266(1)
The Up-Your-Nose Case of N.A.
267(1)
Amnesia of Alzheimer's Disease
267(1)
Amnesia after Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation
268(3)
Posttraumatic Amnesia
268(1)
Gradients of Retrograde Amnesia and Memory Consolidation
268(2)
Reconsolidation
270(1)
The Hippocampus and Consolidation
270(1)
Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory
271(6)
Monkey Model of Object-Recognition Amnesia: The Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test
272(1)
The Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test for Rats
273(1)
Neuroanatomical Basis of the Object-Recognition Deficits Resulting from Medial Temporal Lobectomy
274(3)
The Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location
277(2)
Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt Spatial Memory
277(1)
Hippocampal Place Cells
277(1)
Comparative Studies of the Hippocampus and Spatial Memory
278(1)
Theories of Hippocampal Function
278(1)
Where Are Memories Stored?
279(1)
Inferotemporal Cortex
279(1)
Amygdala
279(1)
Prefrontal Cortex
279(1)
The Case of the Cook Who Couldn't
280(1)
Cerebellum and Striatum
280(1)
Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
280(5)
Long-Term Potentiation
281(2)
Induction of LTP: Learning
283(1)
Maintenance and Expression of LTP: Storage and Recall
284(1)
Variability of LTP
285(1)
Conclusion: Infantile Amnesia and the Biopsychologist Who Remembered H.M.
285(1)
The Case of R.M., the Biopsychologist Who Remembered H.M.
286(1)
Themes Revisited
286(1)
Think about It
287(1)
Key Terms
287(1)
Part Five Biopsychology of Motivation
Hunger, Eating, and Health: Why Do Many People Eat Too Much?
288(26)
The Case of the Man Who Forgot Not to Eat
289(1)
Digestion and Energy Flow
289(3)
Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points versus Positive Incentives
292(3)
Set-Point Assumption
292(1)
Glucostatic and Lipostatic Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating
293(1)
Problems with Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating
293(1)
Positive-Incentive Perspective
294(1)
Factors That Determine What, When, and How Much We Eat
295(3)
Factors That Determine What We Eat
295(1)
Factors That Influence When We Eat
295(1)
Factors That Influence How Much We Eat
296(2)
Physiological Research on Hunger and Satiety
298(5)
Role of Blood Glucose Levels in Hunger and Satiety
298(1)
Myth of Hypothalamic Hunger and Satiety Centers
299(2)
Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Satiety
301(1)
Hunger and Satiety Peptides
302(1)
Serotonin and Satiety
303(1)
Body Weight Regulation: Set Points versus Settling Points
303(5)
Set-Point Assumptions about Body Weight and Eating
303(2)
Set Points and Settling Points in Weight Control
305(3)
Human Obesity
308(3)
Why Is There an Epidemic of Obesity?
308(1)
Why Do Some People Become Obese While Others Do Not?
308(1)
Why Are Weight-Loss Programs Typically Ineffective?
308(1)
Mutant Obese Mice and Leptin
309(1)
The Case of the Child with No Leptin
310(1)
Insulin: Another Negative Feedback Fat Signal
310(1)
Serotonergic Drugs and the Treatment of Obesity
310(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
311(3)
Anorexia and Dieting
311(1)
Anorexia and Positive Incentives
311(1)
The Puzzle of Anorexia
311(1)
The Case of the Anorexic Student
312(1)
Themes Revisited
313(1)
Think about It
313(1)
Key Terms
313(1)
Hormones and Sex: What's Wrong with the Mamawawa?
314(27)
The Developmental and Activational Effects of Sex Hormones
315(1)
The Men-Are-Men-and-Women-Are-Women Assumption
315(1)
The Neuroendocrine System
315(6)
Glands
315(1)
Hormones
315(1)
Gonads
316(1)
Sex Steroids
316(1)
Hormones of the Pituitary
317(1)
Female Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Cyclic; Male Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Steady
317(1)
Neural Control of the Pituitary
318(1)
Control of the Anterior and Posterior Pituitary by the Hypothalamus
318(1)
Discovery of Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones
319(1)
Regulation of Hormone Levels
320(1)
Pulsatile Hormone Release
320(1)
A Summary Model of Gonadal Endocrine Regulation
320(1)
Hormones and Sexual Development
321(6)
Fetal Hormones and the Development of Reproductive Organs
322(1)
Sex Differences in the Brain
323(2)
Perinatal Hormones and Behavioral Development
325(1)
Puberty: Hormones and the Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics
326(1)
Three Cases of Exceptional Human Sexual Development
327(3)
The Case of Anne S., the Woman Who Wasn't
327(1)
The Case of the Little Girl Who Grew into a Boy
328(1)
The Case of the Twin Who Lost His Penis
329(1)
Do the Exceptional Cases Prove the Rule?
330(1)
Effects of Gonadal Hormones in Adults
330(4)
Male Reproduction---Related Behavior and Testosterone
330(1)
The Case of the Man Who Lost and Regained His Manhood
331(1)
Female Reproduction---Related Behavior and Gonadal Hormones
332(1)
Anabolic Steroid Abuse
332(1)
The Neuroprotective Effects of Estradiol
333(1)
Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior
334(3)
Structural Differences between the Male Hypothalamus and the Female Hypothalamus
334(1)
The Hypothalamus and Male Sexual Behavior
335(1)
The Hypothalamus and Female Sexual Behavior
336(1)
Sexual Orientation, Hormones, and the Brain
337(2)
Sexual Orientation and Genes
337(1)
Sexual Orientation and Early Hormones
337(1)
What Triggers the Development of Sexual Attraction?
337(1)
Is There a Difference in the Brains of Homosexuals and Heterosexuals?
337(1)
Transsexualism
338(1)
The Independence of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity
338(1)
Themes Revisited
339(1)
Think about It
339(1)
Key Terms
339(2)
Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms: How Much Do You Need to Sleep?
341(28)
The Case of the Woman Who Wouldn't Sleep
342(1)
The Physiological and Behavioral Events of Sleep
343(2)
The Three Standard Psychophysiological Measures of Sleep
343(1)
Four Stages of Sleep EEG
343(2)
REM Sleep and Dreaming
345(2)
Testing Common Beliefs about Dreaming
345(1)
The Interpretation of Dreams
346(1)
Lucid Dreams
346(1)
Why Do We Sleep, and Why Do We Sleep When We Do?
347(1)
Comparative Analysis of Sleep
347(1)
Circadian Sleep Cycles
348(2)
Free-Running Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycles
349(1)
Jet Lag and Shift Work
350(1)
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
350(6)
Personal Experience of Sleep Deprivation: A Cautionary Note
350(1)
Two Classic Sleep-Deprivation Case Studies
351(1)
The Case of the Sleep-Deprived Students
352(1)
The Case of Randy Gardner
352(1)
Experimental Studies of Sleep Deprivation in Humans
352(1)
Sleep-Deprivation Studies with Laboratory Animals
353(1)
REM-Sleep Deprivation
353(2)
Sleep Deprivation Increases the Efficiency of Sleep
355(1)
Four Areas of the Brain Involved in Sleep
356(3)
Two Areas of the Hypothalamus Involved in Sleep
356(1)
The Case of Constantin von Economo, the Insightful Neurologist
356(1)
Reticular Activating System and Sleep
356(2)
Reticular REM-Sleep Nuclei
358(1)
The Circadian Clock: Neural and Molecular Mechanisms
359(2)
Location of the Circadian Clock in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei
359(1)
Mechanisms of Entrainment
359(1)
Genetics of Circadian Rhythms
360(1)
Drugs That Affect Sleep
361(1)
Hypnotic Drugs
361(1)
Antihypnotic Drugs
361(1)
Melatonin
361(1)
Sleep Disorders
362(3)
Insomnia
363(1)
Mr. B., the Case of Iatrogenic Insomnia
363(1)
Hypersomnia
363(1)
REM-Sleep--Related Disorders
364(1)
The Case of the Sleeper Who Ran Over Tackle
364(1)
The Effects of Long-Term Sleep Reduction
365(3)
Long-Term Reduction of Nightly Sleep
365(1)
Long-Term Sleep Reduction by Napping
365(1)
Long-Term Sleep Reduction: A Personal Case Study
366(1)
The Case of the Author Who Reduced His Sleep
366(2)
Themes Revisited
368(1)
Think about It
368(1)
Key Terms
368(1)
Drug Addiction and the Brain's Reward Circuits: Chemicals That Harm with Pleasure
369(26)
Basic Principles of Drug Action
370(3)
Drug Administration and Absorption
370(1)
Drug Penetration of the Central Nervous System
371(1)
Mechanisms of Drug Action
371(1)
Drug Metabolism and Elimination
371(1)
Drug Tolerance
371(1)
Drug Withdrawal Effects and Physical Dependence
372(1)
Addiction: What Is It?
372(1)
Role of Learning in Drug Tolerance and Drug Withdrawal
373(3)
Contingent Drug Tolerance
373(1)
Conditioned Drug Tolerance
373(2)
Conditioned Withdrawal Effects
375(1)
Thinking about Drug Conditioning
375(1)
Five Commonly Abused Drugs
376(10)
Tobacco
376(1)
Alcohol
377(1)
Marijuana
377(3)
Cocaine and Other Stimulants
380(1)
The Opiates: Heroin and Morphine
381(2)
Comparison of the Hazards of Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Heroin
383(1)
The Drug Dilemmas: Striking the Right Balance
384(2)
Biopsychological Theories of Addiction
386(1)
Physical-Dependence and Positive-Incentive Perspectives of Addiction
386(1)
Causes of Relapse
386(1)
Intracranial Self-Stimulation and the Pleasure Centers of the Brain
387(2)
Fundamental Characteristics of Intracranial Self-Stimulation
387(1)
Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System and Intracranial Self-Stimulation
388(1)
Neural Mechanisms of Motivation and Addiction
389(3)
Two Key Methods for Measuring Drug-Produced Reinforcement
389(1)
Early Evidence of the Involvement of Dopamine in Drug Addiction
390(1)
The Nucleus Accumbens and Drug Addition
390(1)
Support for the Involvement of Dopamine in Addiction: Evidence from the Imaging of Human Brains
391(1)
Dopamine, Nucleus Accumbens, and Addiction: Current View
391(1)
A Noteworthy Case of Addiction
392(1)
The Case of Sigmund Freud
392(1)
Themes Revisited
393(1)
Think about It
393(1)
Key Terms
394(1)
Part Six Disorders of Cognition and Emotion
Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain: The Left Brain and the Right Brain of Language
395(30)
Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
396(3)
Aphasia, Apraxia, and Left-Hemisphere Damage
397(1)
Tests of Cerebral Lateralization
397(1)
Speech Laterality and Handedness
398(1)
Sex Differences in Brain Lateralization
398(1)
The Split Brain
399(5)
Groundbreaking Experiment of Myers and Sperry
399(2)
Commissurotomy in Human Epileptics
401(1)
Evidence That the Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients Function Independently
402(1)
Cross-Cuing
402(1)
Learning Two Things at Once
403(1)
The Z Lens
403(1)
Dual Mental Functioning and Conflict in Split-Brain Patients
404(1)
The Case of Peter, the Split-Brain Patient Tormented by Conflict
404(1)
Differences between the Left and Right Hemispheres
404(7)
Slight Biases versus All-or-None Hemispheric Differences
405(1)
Some Examples of Lateralization of Function
405(2)
What Is Lateralized--Broad Clusters of Abilities or Individual Cognitive Processes?
407(1)
Anatomical Asymmetries of the Brain
408(1)
Theories of Cerebral Asymmetry
409(1)
The Case of W.L., the Man Who Experienced Aphasia for Sign Language
410(1)
Evolution of Cerebral Lateralization of Function
410(1)
Cortical Localization of Language: The Wernicke-Geschwind Model
411(2)
Historical Antecedents of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
411(2)
The Wernicke-Geschwind Model
413(1)
Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
413(5)
Effects of Damage to Various Areas of Cortex on Language-Related Abilities
414(2)
Electrical Stimulation of the Cortex and Localization of Language
416(2)
Current Status of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
418(1)
The Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
418(3)
Functional Brain Imaging and Language
419(2)
The Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
421(2)
Developmental Dyslexia: Cultural Diversity and Biological Unity
421(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis of Reading Aloud: Deep and Surface Dyslexia
422(1)
The Case of N.I., the Woman Who Read with Her Right Hemisphere
422(1)
Themes Revisited
423(1)
Think about It
423(1)
Key Terms
424(1)
Biopsychology of Emotion, Stress, and Health: Fear, the Dark Side of Emotion
425(23)
Biopsychology of Emotion: Introduction
426(7)
Early Landmarks in the Biopsychological Investigation of Emotion
426(1)
The Mind-Blowing Case of Phineas Gage
426(2)
A Human Case of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
428(1)
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
429(2)
Emotions and Facial Expression
431(2)
Fear, Defense, and Aggression
433(2)
Types of Aggressive and Defensive Behaviors
433(1)
Aggression and Testosterone
434(1)
Stress and Health
435(6)
The Stress Response
435(1)
Stress and Gastric Ulcers
436(1)
Psychoneuroimmunology: Stress, the Immune System, and the Brain
437(3)
Early Experience of Stress
440(1)
Stress and the Hippocampus
440(1)
Fear Conditioning
441(2)
Amygdala and Fear Conditioning
442(1)
Anatomy of the Amygdala: A General Comment
442(1)
Contextual Fear Conditioning and the Hippocampus
443(1)
Brain Mechanisms of Human Emotion
443(4)
Specific Brain Structures Play Specific Roles in Emotion
443(1)
The Case of S.P., the Woman Who Couldn't Perceive Fear
444(1)
The Right Hemisphere Is More Involved Than the Left in Human Emotion
444(1)
Individual Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Emotion
445(1)
The Case of Charles Whitman, the Texas Tower Sniper
446(1)
Themes Revisited
447(1)
Think about It
447(1)
Key Terms
447(1)
Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders: The Brain Unhinged
448(20)
Schizophrenia
449(5)
The Case of Lena, the Catatonic Schizophrenic
449(1)
What Is Schizophrenia?
450(1)
Causal Factors in Schizophrenia
450(1)
Discovery of the First Antischizophrenic Drugs
450(1)
Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia
451(2)
Current Research on the Neural Basis of Schizophrenia
453(1)
Affective Disorders: Depression and Mania
454(4)
The Case of P.S., the Weeping Widow
454(1)
Major Categories of Affective Disorders
455(1)
Causal Factors in Affective Disorders
455(1)
Discovery of Antidepressant Drugs
456(1)
Theories of Depression
457(1)
Antidepressant Effect of Sleep Deprivation
458(1)
Brain Pathology and Affective Disorders
458(1)
Anxiety Disorders
458(3)
The Case of M.R., the Woman Who Was Afraid to Go Out
458(1)
Five Classes of Anxiety Disorders
459(1)
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
459(1)
Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
459(1)
Animal Models of Anxiety
460(1)
Neural Bases of Anxiety Disorders
460(1)
Tourette Syndrome
461(2)
The Case of R.G.---Barking Mad
461(1)
What Is Tourette Syndrome?
461(1)
Impediments to the Study of the Neuropathology of Tourette Syndrome
462(1)
Brain Mechanisms of Tourette Syndrome
462(1)
Treatment of Tourette Syndrome
462(1)
The Case of P.H., the Neuroscientist with Tourette Syndrome
462(1)
Clinical Trials: Development of New Psychotherapeutic Drugs
463(3)
Clinical Trials: The Three Phases
463(1)
Controversial Aspects of Clinical Trials
464(1)
Effectiveness of Clinical Trials
465(1)
The Case of S.B., the Biopsychology Student Who Took Control
465(1)
Themes Revisited
466(1)
Think about It
466(1)
Key Terms
467(1)
Epilogue 468(1)
Appendixes 469(7)
Glossary 476(19)
References 495(36)
Credits 531(2)
Indexes 533


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