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Blair Handbook : With Companion Website Subscription,9780130486035

Blair Handbook : With Companion Website Subscription

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130486035

ISBN10:
0130486035
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $49.00

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This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 6/1/2002.
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Summary

A reference handbook for any course. Focused on the needs of contemporary college writers, the widely acclaimed Blair Handbook provides a practical, comprehensive handbook and extensive research manual. Organized around the writing process, it offers professional and student samples of the qualities of good writing, and teaches students how to effectively shape, organize, and develop a voice of their own as they write. It explains and illustrates issues of style, grammar, punctuation, usage, and mechanics as matters of writer choices that depend upon audience, purpose, and situation rather than static and absolute rules.

Table of Contents

Preface xxii
PART ONE Writing in College 1(36)
Questions and Answers About Writing
3(8)
What is difficult about writing?
3(1)
What do you enjoy about writing?
4(1)
What surprises are in store?
5(1)
Why is reading important?
6(1)
What can you learn from the experience of others?
6(2)
What else do you want to know about writing?
8(3)
Reading Critically to Think Critically
11(15)
Reading to understand ESL*
11(4)
Reading critically
15(11)
The Writing Process
26(11)
Describing writing as a process ESL
26(2)
Planning
28(1)
Drafting
29(1)
Researching
30(1)
Revising
31(1)
Editing
32(1)
Writing with computers
33(1)
Writing in English as a second language
34(3)
PART TWO Planning 37(38)
Keeping a Journal
39(11)
Understanding journals
39(2)
Keeping college journals
41(2)
Ideas for college journals ESL
43(7)
Inventing and Discovering
50(8)
Personal brainstorming
50(1)
Freewriting ESL
51(2)
Looking
53(1)
Asking reporters' questions
53(1)
Making outlines
54(1)
Clustering
55(1)
Talking with peers
55(3)
Assuming a Rhetorical Stance
58(17)
Writing for a purpose
58(4)
Addressing audiences
62(5)
Assessing the situation
67(1)
Finding a voice
68(7)
PART THREE Drafting 75(78)
Reflecting on Experience
77(16)
Delineating character (who?)
78(1)
Finding a subject (what?)
79(3)
Establishing perspective (how?)
82(2)
Describing the setting (where?)
84(1)
Narrating a sequence of events (when?)
85(1)
Developing a theme (why?)
86(3)
Shaping the whole paper (student essay)
89(4)
Explaining Things
93(17)
Writing to explain
93(1)
Focusing on a topic
94(1)
Developing a thesis
95(1)
Using strategies to explain
96(8)
Organizing with logic
104(1)
Maintaining a neutral perspective
105(1)
Shaping the whole paper (student essay)
105(5)
Arguing Positions
110(28)
Understanding the elements of argument
110(3)
Finding an issue
113(2)
Analyzing an issue
115(2)
Taking a position
117(1)
Developing an argument
118(6)
Organizing a position paper
124(5)
Shaping the whole paper (student essay)
129(9)
Interpreting Texts
138(15)
Writing interpretive essays
138(1)
Exploring a text
139(1)
Joining an interpretive community
140(3)
Developing an interpretation
143(4)
Interpreting different genres
147(2)
Shaping the whole paper (student essay)
149(4)
PART FOUR Researching 153(118)
Writing Research Essays
155(17)
Understanding research
156(2)
Managing the research process ESL
158(5)
Formulating a working thesis
163(1)
Keeping a research log
164(1)
Using the writing process
165(7)
Conducting Library Research
172(23)
Planning library research
173(2)
Finding sources of information
175(11)
Using electronic sources
186(2)
Reading library sources critically
188(1)
Taking notes
189(6)
Conducting Internet Research
195(8)
Select a search engine
195(3)
Check e-mail and newsgroups
198(1)
A sample Web search
199(4)
Conducting field Research
203(10)
Planning field research
204(1)
Interviewing ESL
205(3)
Conducting surveys
208(2)
Observing
210(3)
Evaluating Research Sources
213(15)
Evaluating library sources
213(4)
Evaluating electronic sources
217(7)
Evaluating field sources
224(4)
Using Sources
228(17)
Controlling your sources
228(1)
Organizing your sources
229(1)
Synthesizing information from sources
229(1)
Integrating information from sources ESL
230(10)
Using Internet sources
240(1)
Using sources in an I-search essay
241(1)
Understanding and avoiding plagiarism
241(4)
A Sampler of Research Essays
245(26)
Free choice topics
245(2)
Personal research essay
247(7)
Internet research essay
254(11)
Collaborative research essay
265(6)
PART FIVE Revising 271(44)
The Revising Process
273(9)
Understanding revising ESL
273(1)
Planning to revise
274(1)
Asking revision questions
275(2)
Using revision strategies
277(5)
Focused Revising
282(14)
Limiting
282(3)
Adding
285(2)
Switching
287(3)
Transforming
290(4)
Experimenting with revising versus academic convention
294(2)
Responding to Writing
296(9)
Asking for help
296(1)
Giving constructive responses ESL
297(3)
Responding in writing
300(1)
Responding through one-to-one conferences
300(1)
Responding in writing groups ESL
301(4)
Creative Nonfiction
305(10)
Lists
305(1)
Snapshots
306(2)
Playful sentences
308(2)
Repetition/refrain
310(1)
Double voice
311(2)
Electronic style
313(2)
PART SIX Editing 315(16)
The Editing Process
317(14)
Editing techniques ESL
318(7)
Understanding the meaning of ``error''
325(1)
Working with others
325(1)
Editing with a computer
326(2)
Editing when English is your second language ESL
328(1)
Using part six of The Blair Handbook
329(2)
EDITING FOR EFFECTIVENESS 331(132)
Shaping Strong Paragraphs
333(10)
Ensuring that paragraphs are unified
333(1)
Organizing paragraphs
334(4)
Making paragraphs coherent
338(5)
Improving Openings and Conclusions
343(14)
Making openings engaging
343(4)
Strengthening openings
347(3)
Making conclusions satisfying
350(3)
Strengthening conclusions
353(4)
Strengthening Sentence Structure
357(17)
Using coordination ESL
357(4)
Using subordination
361(2)
Coordinating and subordinating effectively ESL
363(5)
Eliminating choppy sentences
368(1)
Using parallelism
368(3)
Creating effective parallelism
371(3)
Creating Emphasis and Variety
374(15)
Using the emphatic first and final positions
374(3)
Editing sentence length
377(2)
Varying sentence types ESL
379(5)
Varying sentence openings
384(1)
Using deliberate repetition
385(1)
Omitting words deliberately
386(3)
Building Vital Sentences
389(15)
Using concrete, specific nouns
390(1)
Choosing strong verbs
391(4)
Selecting active or passive voice ESL
395(5)
Using vital modifiers ESL
400(4)
Being Concise
404(13)
Eliminating vague generalities
405(1)
Removing idle words
406(1)
Simplifying grammatical constructions
407(2)
Eliminating redundancy ESL
409(3)
Avoiding pretentious language
412(1)
Minimizing euphemism
413(4)
Adjusting Tone
417(10)
Making lone appropriate
417(2)
Selecting a point of view
419(2)
Achieving the right level of formality
421(3)
Maintaining consistent tone
424(3)
Choosing the Right World
427(25)
Understanding the history of English
427(2)
Using the dictionary and thesaurus ESL
429(6)
Expanding your vocabulary
435(4)
Considering connotations
439(1)
Distinguishing among frequently confused words
440(1)
Using prepositions and particles idiomatically ESL
440(5)
Using slang, regionalisms and jargon
445(2)
Using figurative language
447(2)
Eliminating cliches
449(3)
Eliminating Biased Language
452(11)
Eliminating stereotypes
452(2)
Using labels carefully ESL
454(3)
Using nonsexist language
457(6)
EDITING GRAMMAR 463(120)
Eliminating Sentence Fragments
464(8)
Editing fragments lacking subjects or verbs ESL
464(4)
Editing dependent clause fragments
468(1)
Using sentence fragments for special effects
469(3)
Correcting Fused Sentences and Comma Splices
472(10)
Using a comma and a coordinating conjunction
474(1)
Adding a semicolon
475(2)
Adding a colon
477(1)
Writing separate sentences
477(1)
Subordinating one clause to the other
478(1)
Creating one independent clause
478(4)
Using Verbs Correctly
482(39)
Verb Forms
482(1)
Understanding the five verb forms
482(3)
Using standard verb forms ESL
485(8)
Using auxiliary verbs ESL
493(3)
Verb Tense
496(1)
Understanding verb tense
496(3)
Using verb tenses in appropriate sequence
499(3)
Verb Mood
502(1)
Understanding verb mood
502(1)
Using the subjunctive mood
503(2)
Subject-Verb Agreement
505(1)
Making subjects and verbs agree
505(1)
Ignoring words between subject and verb
506(1)
Finding the subject when it follows the verb
507(1)
Creating agreement with linking verbs
508(1)
Making verbs agree with subjects joined by and
509(1)
Making verbs agree with subjects joined by or and nor
510(1)
Making verbs agree with collective nouns ESL
511(1)
Making verbs agree with indefinite pronouns ESL
512(3)
Making verbs agree with who, which, and that
515(1)
Making verbs agree with subjects that refer to amounts
516(1)
Using noun phrases and noun clauses
516(1)
Using singular verbs with titles and with words used as words
517(1)
Recognizing singular subjects ending in -s
517(1)
Recognizing troublesome plurals ESL
517(4)
Using Modifiers Correctly
521(19)
Choosing adjectives or adverbs ESL
521(3)
Using adjectives after linking verbs
524(1)
Choosing between commonly confused modifiers
524(2)
Avoiding double negatives ESL
526(2)
Using comparatives and superlatives ESL
528(4)
Placing modifiers correctly
532(2)
Eliminating dangling modifiers
534(1)
Moving disruptive modifiers ESL
535(5)
Using Pronouns Correctly
540(28)
Pronoun Reference
540(1)
Establishing a clear antecedent
540(2)
Providing explicit antecedents ESL
542(2)
Replacing a vague if, the, that
544(1)
Choosing who, which, that
545(3)
Eliminating unneeded pronouns
548(1)
Pronoun Reference
548(1)
Making pronouns and antecedents agree ESL
548(2)
Making pronouns agree with antecedents joined by and
550(1)
Making pronouns agree with antecedents, joined by or and nor
550(1)
Making pronouns agree with collective nouns
551(1)
Making pronouns agree with indefinite antecedent
552(3)
Pronoun Case
555(1)
Choosing pronoun case
555(1)
Choosing case after elements joined by and, or, and nor
556(3)
Choosing case for appositive pronouns
559(1)
Choosing us or we before a noun
560(1)
Choosing case with verbals
560(2)
Choosing case after than or as
562(1)
Choosing who or whom
563(2)
Choosing reflexive pronouns
565(3)
Making Sentences Consistent and Complete
568(15)
Avoiding unnecessary shifts
568(7)
Eliminating mixed constructions
575(3)
Inserting missing words
578(5)
EDITING PUNCTUATION 583(72)
End Punctuation
584(6)
Using periods
584(1)
Using question marks
585(2)
Using exclamation points
587(3)
Commas
590(23)
Using commas before coordinating conjunctions joining independent clauses
591(1)
Using commas after introductory elements
592(2)
Using commas to self off nonrestrictive elements
594(3)
Using commas to set off parenthetical expressions and element of contract
597(1)
Using commas to set off tag sentences, direct address, and interjections
598(2)
Using commas between items in a serious and between coordinate adjectives
600(1)
Using commas with quotations
601(2)
Using commas with numbers, dates, names, places, and addresses
603(2)
Using commas to prevent misreading
605(2)
Editing misused commas
607(6)
Semicolons
613(6)
Using semicolons between independent clauses
613(2)
Using semicolons in a series containing commas
615(4)
Colons
619(4)
Using colons as marks of introduction
619(2)
Using colons as marks of separation
621(2)
Apostrophes
623(9)
Using appostrophes to form the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns
623(3)
Forming plurals of words used as words, letters, numbers, and symbols
626(1)
Using apostrophes to show the omission of letter
627(5)
Quotation Marks
632(11)
Using quotation marks for direct quotations
633(2)
Using quotation marks for dialogue
635(1)
Using quotation marks for certain titles
636(2)
Using quotation marks for translations, specialized terms, ironic usages, and nicknames
638(1)
Using other punctuation with quotation marks
639(4)
Other Punctuation
643(12)
Using parentheses
643(3)
Using dashes
646(2)
Using ellipsis points
648(2)
Using brackets ESL
650(2)
Using slashes
652(3)
EDITING MECHANICS 655(46)
Spelling
656(15)
Checking for commonly confused words ESL
656(6)
Using spelling rules
662(9)
Capitalization
671(7)
Capitalizing the first word of sentence
671(1)
Capitalizing quotations and lines of poetry
672(1)
Capitalizing proper nouns and their derivatives
673(3)
Capitalizing titles
676(2)
Hyphenation
678(6)
Hyphenating words at the ends of lines
678(1)
Hyphenating after some prefixes
679(1)
Hyphenating compound words
680(1)
Hyphenating numbers, fractions and units of measure
681(3)
Italics
684(5)
Italicizing titles
684(1)
Italicizing the names of individual trains, ships, airplanes, and spacecraft
685(1)
Italicizing for emphasis and clarity
685(1)
Italicizing words, numerals, and letters used as words
686(1)
Italicizing words from other languages
686(3)
Numbers and Abbreviations
689(12)
Choosing between figures and words according to context
689(2)
Using figures when required by convention ESL
691(2)
Limiting abbreviations in nontechnical texts
693(1)
Abbreviating titles and degrees
693(1)
Abbreviating time, dates, amounts, and symbols
694(1)
Abbreviating geographic names
695(2)
Abbreviating common Latin terms
697(1)
Using initials and acronyms ESL
697(4)
PART SEVEN Presenting Your Work 701(44)
Designing Documents
703(14)
Objectives of design
703(1)
Tools for designing
704(9)
Proofreading ESL
713(3)
Choosing a printing method and paper
716(1)
Portfolios and Publishing
717(9)
Writing portfolios
717(1)
Preparing a course portfolio
717(4)
Preparing a story portfolio
721(3)
Publishing class books
724(2)
Writing for the World Wide Web
726(11)
Organizing for the Web
726(5)
HTML basics
731(6)
Making Oral Presentations
737(8)
Interpreting the assignment
737(1)
Preparing a speaking text
738(2)
Speaking in public ESL
740(2)
Selecting creative options
742(3)
PART EIGHT Writing Across the Curriculum 745(128)
Understanding the College Curriculum
747(4)
Understanding differences among the disciplines
747(2)
Understanding similarities among the disciplines
749(2)
Writing in Languages and Literature
751(43)
The aims of writing in languages and literature
751(2)
The style of writing in languages and literature
753(1)
Common forms of writing in languages and literature
753(2)
Documenting sources: MLA style
755(8)
Conventions for list of Works Cited
763(20)
Research essay: MIA style
783(11)
Writing in the Humanities
794(13)
The aims of writing in the humanities
794(1)
The style of writing in the humanities
795(1)
Common forms of writing in the humanities
795(1)
Documentation and format conventions: Chicago style (CMS)
796(8)
Sample page with endnotes
804(1)
Sample page with footnotes
804(3)
Writing in the Social Sciences
807(31)
The aims of writing in the social sciences
807(1)
The style of writing in the social sciences
808(1)
Common forms of writing in the social science
809(1)
Documentation and format conventions: APA guidelines
810(16)
Informational research paper: APA style
826(12)
Writing in the Physical Sciences
838(8)
The aims of writing in the sciences
838(1)
The style of writing in the sciences
839(1)
Common forms of writing in the sciences
840(1)
Documentation and format conventions systems
841(5)
Writing in Business
846(9)
The aims of writing in business
846(1)
The style of writing in business
846(1)
Common forms of writing in business
847(7)
Documentation and format conventions
854(1)
Columbia Online Style
855(11)
Citing sources in the body of a paper: COS style
855(2)
Guidelines for compiling a COS Works Cited list
857(1)
Preparing a COS bibliography
858(8)
Writing Essay Examinations
866(7)
Understanding the question
867(1)
Writing a good answer
868(5)
PART NINE A Grammar Reference 873(28)
Parts of Speech
875(14)
Nouns
875(1)
Pronouns
876(5)
Verbs
881(3)
Adjectives and adverbs
884(2)
Prepositions
886(1)
Conjunctions
887(1)
Interjections
888(1)
The Elements of a Sentence
889(8)
Subjects
889(1)
Predicates
890(1)
Objects of verbs
891(1)
Complements
891(1)
Phrases
892(2)
Clauses
894(3)
Sentence Classification and Sentence Patterns
897(4)
Classifying sentences by function
897(1)
Classifying sentences by grammatical structure
898(1)
Understanding sentence patterns
899(2)
Glossary of Usage 901(17)
Glossary of Terms 918(22)
Credits 940(1)
ESL Index 941(2)
Index 943

Excerpts

This fourth edition of The Blair Handbook, like its predecessors, focuses on the needs of contemporary college writers. Our goal is the same: to offer clear explanations of language conventions, practices, and guidelines that govern good writing; to provide strategies for learning your own approach to the writing process; and samples of writing by both published authors and student writers that model both good practices and successful products. As the field of English studies continues to evolve--particularly with the growth of the computer as a writing and research tool--we have revised the text to make it as up-to-date as possible. We remain committed to the process-oriented approach that has characterized all previous editions. We have simplified the treatment of the writing process and expanded the coverage of research. The result is a handbook that continues to offer the most practical and jargon-free guidance available on the crafting of expository prose. PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE BLAIR HANDBOOK Writing as a process The organization of The Blair Handbook corresponds to the stages of the writing process, so all chapters are contextualized, as much as possible, within the process. We have presented traditional handbook material--information on style, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics--as part of the "editing process," where writers check their final-draft language for clarity and correctness. Part One, Writing in College (Chapters 1-3), introduces students to the five interrelated but discrete stages of the writing process--planning, drafting, researching, revising, and editing--explored in more detail in each of the next five parts. Part Two, Planning (Chapters 4-6), discusses planning as an informal yet focused activity where writers work out their voice in relation to their purpose and audience. Part Three, Drafting (Chapters 7-10), explains strategies for finding topics, formulating arguments, making claims, using evidence, and developing drafts for four specific writing purposes: reflecting, explaining, arguing, and interpreting. Part Four, Researching (Chapters 11-17), explores research methods and examines field, library, and online resources for writing lively research papers. Part Five, Revising (Chapters 18-21), focuses on a variety of strategies that make revision both the most demanding and creative part of the writing process. Part Six, Editing (Chapters 22-49), presents guidelines to make finished work as clear and correct as possible. An overview of "Editing" is introduced in Chapter 22, while subsequent chapters cover effectiveness (Chapters 23-31), grammar (Chapters 32-37), punctuation (Chapters 38-44), and mechanics (Chapters 45-49). Part Seven, Presenting Your Work (Chapters 50-53), covers topics ranging from the formatting of papers to publishing class books and Web pages to developing writing portfolios and making oral presentations. Part Eight, Writing Across the Curriculum (Chapters 54-61), discusses the distinguishing characteristics of writing in different academic disciplines and includes guidelines for documentation according to MLA, APA, and other disciplinary systems. Part Nine, A Grammar Reference (Chapters 62-64), is a concise resource for students who seek technical explanations of parts of speech and grammatical structure of sentences. Treatment of students as writers Because writing skills are essential to success in college and beyond, we encourage students to think of themselves as writers as well as being technically proficient in all phases of the writing process. We stress that writing is a dynamic activity in which writers make choices, experiment with language, evaluate the results, and rewrite as necess


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