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Bridging the Gap : College Reading,9780321273512

Bridging the Gap : College Reading

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321273512

ISBN10:
0321273516
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $61.80

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Summary

"Written for the mid to high-level developmental reading course, "Bridging the Gap" by Brenda Smith continues to be the #1 textbook choice of developmental reading educators. " "Bridging the Gap" was the first book to focus on how to read college textbooks. This theme has been broadened by linking textbook readings to recent news in the popular press and adding material on critical thinking and the Internet. A hallmark of the text, the end-of-chapter readings, represent the "bridges" of text-to-text, text-to-world, and text-to-self; and the varying reading levels to permit individualization of assignments to meet varying student needs. A variety of academic disciplines are represented throughout, including psychology, history, biology, business, allied health, and English literature.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
An Overview of Bridging the Gap xxv
Active Learning
1(52)
What Is Active Learning?
2(1)
What Is Cognitive Psychology?
2(1)
How Does the Brain Screen Messages?
2(2)
Is Divided Attention Effective?
4(1)
Can Tasks Become Automatic?
5(1)
Automatic Aspects of Reading
5(1)
Cognitive Styles
5(2)
Multiple Intelligences: There Is More Than One Way to Be Smart
7(2)
What Is Concentration?
9(1)
Poor Concentration: Causes and Cures External Distractions
10(6)
Internal Distractions
12(3)
Reader's Tip: Improving Concentration
15(1)
Successful Academic Behaviors
16(6)
Reader's Tip: Managing E-mail Efficiently
18(4)
Summary Points
22(12)
Selection 1: Computer Science
24(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Police in India to Monitor Cybercafes,'' from the Associated Press
24(1)
``Security And Privacy for Computers and the Internet,'' by H. L. Capron
25(9)
Search the Net
34(5)
Secrets of a Successful Search
34(1)
Make a Plan
34(2)
Search and Search Again
36(1)
Reader's Tip: Popular College Databases
37(1)
Reader's Tip: Manipulating the Search
37(1)
Read Selectively
38(1)
Record As You Go
38(1)
Consider the Source
39(1)
Search the Net
39(11)
Concept Prep for Computer Science
40(2)
Selection 2: Psychology
42(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Lions, Tigers Wild Animals; Not Pets,'' from the Deseret Morning News
42(2)
``Critical-Period Hypothesis,'' by James V. McConnell
44(6)
Search the Net
50(3)
Concept Prep for Psychology
51(2)
Vocabulary
53(36)
Remembering New Words
54(3)
Using Context Clues
57(10)
Definition or Synonym
57(1)
Elaborating Details
58(1)
Examples
58(1)
Comparison
59(1)
Contrast
59(1)
Antonyms
60(1)
Limitations of Context Clues
60(7)
Multiple Meanings of a Word
67(1)
Understanding the Structure of Words
67(4)
Using a Dictionary
71(4)
Word Origins
75(1)
Using a Glossary
76(1)
Using a Thesaurus
77(1)
Using Analogies
78(3)
Reader's Tip: Categories of Analogy Relationships
79(2)
Easily Confused Words
81(1)
Recognizing Acronyms
82(1)
Recognizing Transitional Words
82(2)
Reader's Tip: Signals for Transition
83(1)
Summary Points
84(1)
Search the Net
84(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Over, Under, Around, and Through
85(4)
Strategic Reading and Study
89(46)
What Is Strategic Reading?
90(1)
What Are the Stages of Reading?
91(1)
Stage 1: Strategies for Previewing
92(3)
Signposts for Asking Preview Questions
92(1)
Reader's Tip: Asking Questions Before Reading
92(3)
Preview to Activate Schemata
95(1)
Stage 2: Strategies for Integrating Knowledge While Reading
95(7)
Integrating Ideas: How Do Good Readers Think?
96(1)
Reader's Tip: Using Thinking Strategies While Reading
97(1)
Metacognition
98(1)
Reader's Tip: Developing a Metacognitive Sense for Reading
99(3)
Stage 3: Strategies for Recalling
102(5)
Recalling Through Writing
103(1)
How to Recall
103(1)
Reader's Tip: Recalling After Reading
104(3)
Summary Points
107(9)
Selection 1: History
108(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Television: Remembering the Alamo From a Tejano Perspective,'' from the Boston Globe
108(2)
Tejanos at the Alamo, by J. K. Martin et al., America and Its Peoples
110(6)
Search the Net
116(12)
Concept Prep for History
117(2)
Selection 2: Sociology
119(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Mixed Signals on Body Language,'' from the Business Traveler
119(2)
``Unity in Diversity,'' by Donald Light, Jr., and Suzanne Keller
121(7)
Search the Net
128(3)
Concept Prep for Anthropology
129(2)
Vocabulary Booster: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
131(4)
Main Idea
135(82)
What Is a Topic?
136(1)
What Is a Main Idea?
137(1)
What Are Supporting Details?
137(1)
Distinguishing Topics, Main Ideas, and Details: A Closer Look
138(2)
Importance of Prior Knowledge in Constructing the Main Idea
140(1)
Main Idea Strategies
141(3)
``Informed'' Expert Readers
141(1)
``Uninformed'' Expert Readers
141(1)
Using Main Idea Strategies with Sentences
142(2)
Questioning for the Main Idea
144(1)
Stated Main Ideas
144(10)
Reader's Tip: Finding the Main Idea
146(8)
What Are Major and Minor Details?
154(4)
Reader's Tip: Signals for Significance
154(4)
Unstated Main Ideas
158(2)
Determining Unstated Main Ideas in Sentences
160(2)
Questioning for the Unstated Main Idea
162(8)
Interpreting the Main Idea of Longer Selections
170(2)
Reader's Tip: Getting the Main Idea of Longer Selections
171(1)
Summary Writing: A Main Idea Skill
172(4)
Why Summarize?
172(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Summarize
173(3)
Summary Points
176(11)
Selection 1: Psychology
177(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Centers Strive to Break the Cycle of Violence,'' from the Herald-Dispatch
177(1)
``Monkey Love,'' by James V. McConnell
178(9)
Search the Net
187(13)
Concept Prep for Psychology
188(2)
Selection 2: Short Story
190(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Former Los Angeles Gang Member,'' from Ball State University, U-WIRE
190(1)
``On the Sidewalk, Bleeding by Evan Hunter
191(9)
Search the Net
200(12)
Concept Prep for Literature
201(2)
Selection 3: Criminal Justice
203(1)
Contemporary Focus U. S. Coast Guard's Efforts to Protect Ports, from the Associated Press International News
203(1)
International Terrorism, by Charles Swanson Neil Chamelin and Leonard Territo
204(8)
Search the Net
212(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Who's Who in Medicine?
213(4)
Patterns of Organization
217(62)
Textbook Organization
218(1)
What Do Transitional Words Do?
218(5)
Words That Signal Addition
218(1)
Words That Signal Examples or Illustrations
219(1)
Words That Signal Time or Sequence
219(1)
Words That Signal Comparison
219(1)
Words That Signal Contrast
219(1)
Words That Signal Cause and Effect
220(1)
Reader's Tip: Signal Words for Transition
220(3)
Patterns of Organization in Textbooks
223(14)
Simple Listing
223(1)
Definition
224(1)
Description
225(1)
Time Order, Sequence, or Narration
225(1)
Contrast
226(1)
Comparison
226(1)
Comparison-Contrast
227(1)
Cause and Effect
228(1)
Classification
228(1)
Addition
229(1)
Summary
229(1)
Location or Spatial Order
230(1)
Generalization and Example
230(1)
Reader's Tip: Patterns of Organization and Signal Words
231(6)
Mixed Organizational Patterns
237(1)
Summary Points
238(11)
Selection 1: Economics
240(1)
Contemporary Focus: ''Enslaved at an Early Age,`` from The Economist
240(1)
``Slave Redemption in Sudan,'' by Roger LeRoy Miller, Daniel K. Benjamin, and Douglass C. North
241(8)
Search the Net
249(11)
Concept Prep for Economics
250(2)
Selection 2: History
252(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Trusted Policy Advisor,'' from Salon.com
252(2)
``Women in History,'' by Leonard Pitt
254(6)
Search the Net
260(12)
Concept Prep for Art History
261(2)
Selection 3: Business
263(1)
Contemporary Focus, Low-Carb Pizza Options, from Omaha world Herald
263(1)
Why is Papa John's Rolling in the Dough? by Courtland Bovee, John Thill, Barbara Schatzman
264(8)
Search the Net
272(3)
Concept Prep for Business
273(2)
Vocabulary Booster: What's In, What's Out? What's Hot, What's Not?
275(4)
Organizing Textbook Information
279(52)
The Demands of College Study
280(1)
Building Knowledge Networks
281(1)
Methods of Organizing Textbook Information
281(2)
Annotating
283(5)
Why Annotate?
283(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Annotate
284(1)
When to Annotate
285(3)
Note Taking
288(4)
Reader's Tip: How to Take Notes
289(1)
Why Take Textbook Notes?
289(3)
Outlining
292(5)
Why Outline?
292(1)
How to Outline
293(1)
Reader's Tip: Guidelines for Successful Outlining
293(4)
Mapping
297(2)
Why Map?
297(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Map
297(2)
Summary Points
299(10)
Selection 1: Communications
300(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Media-Promoted Morals Cloud Judgment,'' from The Sentry
300(2)
``Influence of Magazines,'' by John Vivian
302(8)
Concept Prep for Communications and Language
310
Search the Net
309(14)
Selection 2: Allied Health
312(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Signs of Stress,'' from the Kansas City Star
312(2)
``Nutrition, Health, and Stress,'' by Barbara Brehm
314(9)
Search the Net
323(4)
Concept Prep for Health
324(3)
Vocabulary Booster: The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars
327(4)
Inference
331(68)
What Is an Inference?
332(5)
Implied Meaning in Humor
334(3)
Connotation of Words
337(4)
Euphemisms and Politically Correct Language
340(1)
Figurative Language
341(7)
Idioms
341(1)
Similes
342(1)
Metaphors
342(1)
Literary Analogies
342(1)
Hyperbole
342(1)
Personification
343(1)
Verbal Irony
343(2)
Figurative Language and Implied Meaning in Poetry
345(3)
Inferences from Facts
348(3)
Appropriate and Inappropriate Inferences
349(2)
Implied Meaning
351(3)
Prior Knowledge and Implied Meaning
354(2)
Expanding Prior Knowledge
356(1)
Drawing Conclusions
356(5)
Reader's Tip: Making Inferences
357(4)
Summary Points
361(9)
Selection 1: Short Story
362(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``High-Stakes Palaces of Gambling,'' from the Hartford Courant
362(1)
``Ah Bah's Money,'' by Catherine Lim
363(7)
Search the Net
370(21)
Concept Prep for Philosophy and Literature
371(3)
Selection 2: Short Story
374(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``O. Henry's Storytelling,'' from the News & Record
374(1)
``Witches' Loaves,'' by O. Henry
375(8)
Selection 3: Narrative Nonfiction
383(1)
Contemporary Focus Remembering a Civil Rights Hero, from The Dartmouth?
383(2)
Learning to Read Malcolm X, from The Autobiography of Malcolm X as told to Alex Haley
385(6)
Search the Net
391(4)
Concept Prep for Political Science
392(3)
Vocabulary Booster: Can I Get that in Writing?
395(4)
Point of View
399(42)
Is a Textbook Influenced by the Author's Point of View?
400(1)
What Is the Author's Point of View?
401(4)
What Is the Reader's Point of View?
405(3)
What Is a Fact and What Is an Opinion?
408(3)
Reader's Tip: Questioning to Uncover Bias
409(2)
What Is the Author's Purpose?
411(3)
What Is the Author's Tone?
414(7)
Reader's Tip: Recognizing an Author's Tone
415(6)
Editorial Cartoons
421(4)
Summary Points
425(5)
Selection 1: Essay
426(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Orphans-To-Be?'' from Newsday
426(1)
``Elderly Parents: A Cultural Duty,'' by Ta Thuc Phu
427(3)
Search the Net
430(6)
Selection 2: Eassay
431(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Bridging the Gap Between Muslims and the West,'' from the Austin American Statesman
431(1)
``Leaving Islam and Living Islam,'' by Azam Kamguian
432(4)
Search the Net
436(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Say, What?
437(4)
Critical Thinking
441(48)
What Is Thinking?
442(1)
What Is Critical Thinking?
443(1)
Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Meet College Goals
444(3)
Reader's Tip: Four Habits of Effective Critical Thinkers
445(1)
Barriers to Critical Thinking
445(2)
Recognizing an Argument
447(1)
Steps in Analyzing an Argument
448(12)
Step 1: Identify the Position on the Issue
448(4)
Step 2: Identify the Support in the Argument
452(2)
Reader's Tip: Categories of Support for Arguments
454(1)
Step 3: Evaluate the Support
455(4)
Step 4: Evaluate the Argument
459(1)
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
460(8)
Applying the Four-Step Format for Critical Thinking: An Example
461(2)
Explanation of the Steps
463(5)
Creative and Critical Thinking
468(2)
Summary Points
470(9)
Selection 1: Essay
472(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Physical Beauty Involves More Than Good Looks,'' from Ascribe Newswire
472(1)
``The Importance of Being Beautiful,'' by Sidney Katz
473(6)
Search the Net
479(5)
Selection 2: Essay
480(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Cell Phones and Cancer: No Clear Connection,'' from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Consumer Magazine
480(1)
``Study Links Cellphones to Brain Damage,'' by Elizabeth Svoboda
481(3)
Search the Net
484(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Lights, Camera, Action!
485(4)
Graphic Illustrations
489(36)
What Graphics Do
490(14)
Reader's Tip: How to Read Graphic Material
490(1)
Diagrams
491(1)
Tables
492(2)
Maps
494(3)
Pie Graphs
497(1)
Bar Graphs
498(1)
Cumulative Bar Graphs
499(2)
Line Graphs
501(1)
Flowcharts
502(2)
Summary Points
504(14)
Selection 1: Allied Health
505(1)
Contemporary Focus: ``Message in a Bottle,'' from The Age, Melbourne
505(2)
``Alcohol and Nutrition,'' by Eva May Nunnelley Hamilton et al., Nutrition
507(11)
Search the Net
518(3)
Concept Prep for Life Science
519(2)
Vocabulary Booster: Play it Again, Sam
521(4)
Rate Flexibility
525(30)
Why Is Rate Important?
526(1)
What Is Your Reading Rate?
526(3)
How Fast Should You Read?
529(1)
Rate Variations and Prior Knowledge
529(1)
Techniques for Faster Reading
530(9)
Concentrate
530(1)
Stop Regressing
530(1)
Expand Fixations
531(1)
Monitor Subvocalization
532(1)
Preview
532(1)
Use Your Pen as a Pacer
532(1)
Push and Pace
533(6)
Skimming
539(1)
Reader's Tip: Techniques for Skimming
539(1)
Scanning
540(1)
Reader's Tip: Techniques for Scanning
541(1)
Summary Points
541(10)
Selection 1: Allied Health
543(1)
``Passive Smoking,'' by Curtis Byer and Louis Shainberg
543(4)
Selection 2: Sociology
547(1)
``Heredity or Environment? The Case of Identical Twins,'' by James M. Henslin
547(4)
Vocabulary Booster: Foreign Terms
551(4)
Test Taking
555(34)
Can Being Test Wise Improve Your Score?
556(1)
Strategies for Mental and Physical Awareness
556(3)
Before Taking a Test
556(1)
Reader's Tip: Preparing for a Test
557(1)
During the Test
558(1)
After the Test
559(1)
Strategies for Standardized Reading Tests
559(3)
Read to Comprehend the Passage as a Whole
559(1)
Anticipate What Is Coming Next
560(1)
Read Rapidly, but Don't Allow Yourself to Feel Rushed
560(1)
Read with Involvement to Learn and Enjoy
560(1)
Self-Test for the Main Idea
560(2)
Recognizing the Major Question Types
562(4)
Main Idea
562(1)
Details
563(1)
Implied Meaning
564(1)
Purpose
564(1)
Vocabulary
565(1)
Strategies for Multiple-Choice Items
566(8)
Consider All Alternatives Before Choosing an Answer
566(1)
Anticipate the Answer and Look for Something Close to It
566(1)
Avoid Answers with 100 Percent Words
567(1)
Consider Answers with Qualifying Words
567(1)
Choose the Intended Answer Without Overanalyzing
567(1)
True Statements Must Be True Without Exception
568(1)
If Two Options Are Synonymous, Eliminate Both
568(1)
Study Similar Options to Determine the Differences
568(1)
Use Logical Reasoning If Two Answers Are Correct
569(1)
Look Suspiciously at Directly Quoted Pompous Phrases
569(1)
Simplify Double Negatives by Canceling Out Both
570(1)
Use Can't-Tell Responses If Clues Are Insufficient
570(1)
Validate True Responses on ``All the Following Except''
570(1)
Note Oversights on Hastily Constructed Tests
570(4)
Strategies for Content Area Exams
574(6)
Multiple-Choice Items
574(1)
Short-Answer Items
575(1)
Essay Questions
575(3)
Reader's Tip: Key Words in Essay Questions
578(2)
Locus of Control
580(1)
Summary Points
581(8)
Appendix: ESL: Making Sense of Figurative Language and Idioms
583(3)
Reader's Tip: Categorizing Idioms
586(3)
Glossary 589(4)
Text Credits 593(2)
Index of Concept Prep Terms 595(2)
Index 597


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