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How did a single village community in the Italian peninsula eventually become one of the most powerful imperial powers the world has ever known? In A Brief History of the Romans, Second Edition, Mary T. Boatwright, Daniel J. Gargola, Richard J.A. Talbert, and new coauthor Noel Lenski explore this question as they guide students through a comprehensive sweep of Roman history, ranging from the prehistoric settlements to the fall of the empire in 476.
Addressing issues that still confront modern states worldwide--including warfare, empire building, consensus forging, and political fragmentation--the authors also provide glimpses into everyday Roman life and perspective, demonstrating how Rome's growth as a state is inseparable from its social and cultural development. Firmly grounded in ancient literary and material sources, the text analyzes major political and military landmarks, from the Punic Wars through Constantine's adoption of Christianity. It also features thirty historical maps revised under the supervision of coauthor Richard J. A. Talbert, almost 100 illustrations, and textual extracts that provide fascinating cultural observations made by ancient Romans themselves.
Package this book with Now Playing: Studying the History of Ancient Greece and Rome Through Film for FREE! To order, contact your Oxford Sales Representative and use package ISBN 978-0-19-934334-8.
Mary T. Boatwright is Professor of Ancient History and Director of Graduate Studies at Duke University.
Daniel J. Gargola is Associate Professor of History at the University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Noel Lenski is Associate Professor of Classics and Chair of the Department at the University of Colorado Boulder.
Richard J. A. Talbert is William Rand Kenan, Jr. Professor of History and Classics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Table of Contents
Maps Figures Plates Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgments Notes to the Reader 1. Archaic Italy and the Origins of Rome Italy and the Mediterranean World Italy Before the City Greeks and Phoenicians in the Central Mediterranean The Rise of Cities Beginning of Writing Appearance of an Elite Cities and Monumental Architecture Warfare in the Orientalizing and Archaic Periods Social and Economic Organization Greeks and Etruscans Greek Cities of Southern Italy and Sicily Etruscans The Emergence of Rome The Romans and Their Early History TABLE 1.1 Dates of Rome's Kings According to Varro SOURCE 1.1 Romulus Finds Rome (Plutarch) Politics and Society under the Kings Rome and the Latins 2. Republican Rome and the Conquest of Italy The Early Republic Rome and Its Neighbors in the Fifth Century Struggle of the Orders Fall of Veii and the Sack of Rome The City and Its Institutions in the Fourth Century Officials Senate Assemblies of Citizens TABLE 2.1 Roman Assemblies The City, Its Gods, and Its Priests Rome and Central Italy Warfare and the Civic Order SOURCE 2.1 A Formal Surrender to Rome Rome in Latium and Campania Samnite Wars Wars in Central and Northern Italy Conquest of the South War and the Roman State 3. The Beginnings of a Mediterranean Empire The Notability of a Mediterranean Empire SOURCE 3.1 Triumph of Scipio Africanus (Appian) Wars with Carthage First Punic War (264-241) Second Punic War (218-201) SOURCE 3.2 Rome's Reaction to Defeat at Cannae (Polybius) A Mediterranean Empire Governors, Provinces, and Empire Spain Greece and Asia Minor North Africa 4. Italy and Empire Senators, Officials, and Citizen Assemblies Italy and the Consequences of Empire Changing Relations Between Rome, Its Municipia, and Allies Romans and Italian Elites SOURCE 4.1 Scipio Africanus' Army Loots Carthago Nova (Polybius) Demographic and Economic Changes Roman Politics and the Mid-Second Century Scipio Aemilianus Tiberius Gracchus SOURCE 4.2 Tiberius Gracchus Urges Romans to Support his Land-Assignment Scheme (Plutarch) 5. Italy Threatened, Enfranchised, Divided Changes in Roman Society War with Jugurtha (112-105) Italy Threatened from the North (113-101) Changes in the Roman Army Marius' Career in Roman Politics SOURCE 5.1 Marius' Bid for the Consulship (Sallust) Sixth Consulship of Marius and Second Tribunate of Saturninus (100) Administration of the Provinces Tribunate of Livius Drusus (91) Social War (91-87) Tribunate of Sulpicius Rufus (88) Sulla's First March on Rome (88) Cinna's Rule (87-84) Sulla's Second March on Rome (83-82) 6. The Domination of Sulla and Its Legacy Sulla's Proscriptions (82-81) Sulla the Dictator and His Program (82-81) Verdicts on Sulla's Program SOURCE 6.1 Cicero's Defense of Sextus Roscius Lepidus' Rising and Its Aftermath (78-77) Challenge from Sertorius in Spain (80-73) Spartacus' Slave Revolt (73-71) Consulship of Crassus and Pompey (70) Pompey Frees the Mediterranean of Pirates (67) Threat from King Mithridates VI of Pontus and Sulla's Response (87-85) Campaigns of Lucullus and Pompey Against Mithridates (74-63) Roles of Crassus and Cicero in Rome (65-63) Catiline's Rising (63-62) 7. End of the Republic: Caesar's Dictatorship Pompey's Return from the East (62) Pompey and Political Stalemate in Rome Partnership of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar Caesar's First Consulship (59) Clodius' Tribunate (58) Cicero's Recall and the Renewal of the Triumvirate (57-56) Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-51) Death of Clodius and Pompey's Sole Consulship (52) Prospect of Civil War (51-49) Causes and Consequences of Caesar Crossing the Rubicon (January 49) Civil War Campaigns (49-45) Caesar's Activity as Dictator (49-44) Caesar's Impact upon the City of Rome Political Prospects for Rome and for Caesar 8. Augustus and the Transformation of the Roman World Reactions to the Assassination of Caesar (44-43) Emergence of a Second Triumvirate (43) Battle of Philippi (42) Perusine War (41-40) Elimination of Sextus Pompey and Lepidus (39-36) SOURCE 8.1 Laudatio Turiae Antony in the East (42 onwards) "The Republic Restored" Second Settlement (23) The Roman Family in the Augustan Period Succession TABLE 8.1 The Julio-Claudian Family Senate and Equites Army SOURCE 8.1 Oath of Loyalty The Empire and Its Expansion City of Rome Attitudes Outside Rome Augustus: Final Assessment 9. The Early Principate (A.D. 14-69): The Julio-Claudians, the Civil War of 68-69, and Life in the Early Empire The Julio-Claudian Emperors: Civil Government and Military Concerns Tiberius (14-37) Gaius (Caligula) (37-41) Claudius (41-54) Nero (54-68) Civil War in 68-69 Economic and Social Change: Army "Beneficial Ideology" Cities and Provinces Diversity: Women, Local Languages, and Culture Religious Practices and Principles Imperial Cult 10. Military Expansion and Its Limits: the Empire and the Provinces (69-138) Institutionalization of the Principate Vespasian (69-79) Titus (79-81) Domitian (81-96) A New, Better Era? Nerva (96-98) Trajan (98-117) TABLE 10.1 The Antonine Family Hadrian (117-138) SOURCE 10.1 Hadrian Inspects Troops at Lambaesis, Numidia Roman Cities and the Empire's Peoples Theaters and Processions Circuses and Chariot Racing The Amphitheater and Gladiatorial Games Other Urban Amenities and Education 11. Italy and the Provinces: Civil and Military Affairs (138-235) Antoninus Pius (138-161) SOURCE 11.1 A Greek Provincial Praises Roman Citizenship Marcus Aurelius (161-180) Commodus (176-192, Sole Augustus after 180) TABLE 11.1 The Severan Family Septimius Severus (193-211) Caracalla (198-217, Sole Augustus after 211) Macrinus (217-218) Elagabalus (218-222) Severus Alexander (222-235) Roman Law Roman Citizenship SOURCE 11.2 Grant of Roman Citizenship (Tabula Banasitana) Rome and Christianity SOURCE 11.3 Pliny, Trajan, and Christians 12. The Third-Century Crisis and the Tetrarchic Restabilization Mid-Third Century Aurelian (270-275) Diocletian's Tetrarchy (284-305) Dissolution of the Tetrarchy (305-313), and the Rise of Constantine (306-324) SOURCE 12.1 Galerius' Edict of Toleration Administration Reorganization Under the Dominate 13. The Rise of Christianity and the Growth of the Barbarian Threat (324-395) Constantine: A Christian Emperor The Sons of Constantine (337-361): The Power of Dynasty TABLE 13.1 The Constantinian Family Julian (361-363): A Test of the Christian Empire SOURCE 13.1 Julian Attempts to Bring Paganism into Line with Christianity Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens (363-378) Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I (379-395) New Elites for the Empire Paganism and Christianity SOURCE 13.2 The End of Pagan Sacrifice 14. The Final Years of the Western Empire and Rome's Revival in the East The Theodosian Dynasty Down to the First Sack of Rome (395-410) TABLE 14.1 The Theodosian Family The Fall of the Western Empire (410-476) SOURCE 14.1 The Gothic King Athaulf's Shifting Attitude Toward Rome The Growth of a Byzantine Empire in the East (408-491) A Christian Culture Women's Power in Late Antiquity The "Decline and Fall" of the Roman Empire Timeline Glossary Art Credits Gazetteer Index