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Engaging and accessible to students from all backgrounds, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context, Third Edition, is an updated and concise version of Michael D. Coogan's best-selling The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the HebrewScriptures, Third Edition (OUP, 2013). Coogan works primarily from a historical and critical methodology but also introduces students to literary analysis and other interpretive strategies.
Providing a nondenominational and nondoctrinal treatment, this text offers a unique and captivating introduction to the Hebrew scriptures themselves and to how they have been--and can be--interpreted.
* Chapter introductions connecting each chapter to the preceding material and previewing the material to come
* Chapter summaries that highlight key points and link each chapter to the rest of the book
* Important terms, boldfaced at their first appearance and defined in the glossary
* Numerous strategically placed text boxes that offer interesting and useful supplementary information
* Timelines, photos, illustrations, maps, and a four-color insert on Jerusalem in biblical times
* Review questions, suggestions for further reading, a general bibliography, and annotated bibliographies at the end of each chapter
* A FREE 6-month subscription to Oxford Biblical Studies Online (www.oxfordbiblicalstudies.com)--a $180 value--with the purchase of every new copy of this text.
Michael D. Coogan is Lecturer on Old Testament/Hebrew Bible at the Harvard Divinity School and the Director of Publications for the Harvard Semitic Museum. He is the author of The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures, Third Edition (OUP, 2013), A Reader ofAncient Near Eastern Texts (2012), and The Old Testament: A Very Short Introduction (2008), all published by Oxford University Press.
Cynthia R. Chapman is the Adelia A.F. Johnston and Harry Thomas Frank Associate Professor of Religion at Oberlin College, where she has taught biblical studies for twelve years. She is the author of The Gendered Language of Warfare in the Israelite-Assyrian Encounter (2004) and is currently completing a second book on maternal kinship titled The House of the Mother: The Social Function of Maternal Kin in Biblical Hebrew Narrative and Poetry.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Preface Abbreviations Credits PART ONE. INTRODUCTORY 1. WHAT IS THE OLD TESTAMENT? Box 1.1 Chapter and Verse The Jewish Canon * Box 1.2 The Dead Sea Scrolls The Christian Canons * The Study of the Bible Box 1.3 The Canons of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament A Look Back and Ahead 2. THE PROMISED LAND: GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND IMPORTANCE Geography History Box 2.1 Timeline Importance A Look Back and Ahead PART TWO. COSMIC ORIGINS 3. CREATIONS Genesis 1-3 The Book of Genesis Genesis 1 and the Sabbath Box 3.1 Genesis and Science Box 3.2 The Sabbath in Jewish and Christian Tradition Box 3.3 Myth and the Bible The Second Account of Creation (Gen 2.4B-3.24) Box 3.4 "God" and "The Lord (God)" Box 3.5 The Garden of Eden Box 3.6 Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Tradition A Look Back and Ahead 4. THE FORMATION OF THE PENTATEUCH AND THE PRIMEVAL HISTORY Genesis 4-11 The Traditional View The Development of Modern Interpretation A Summary of the Documentary Hypothesis The Formation of the Pentateuch Challenges to the Documentary Hypothesis Other Strategies for Interpreting the Pentateuch Primeval History J (the Yahwist Source) Box 4.1 Cain and Abel Box 4.2 Noah's Drunkenness Box 4.3 The Sons of God Box 4.4 The Tower of Babel Box 4.5 The Table of Nations P (the Priestly Source) The Flood Box 4.6 The Documentary Hypothesis at Work A Look Back and Ahead PART THREE. NATIONAL ORIGINS 5. THE ANCESTORS OF ISRAEL Genesis 12-50 The Nature of the Narratives Box 5.1 Abram and Abraham, Sarai and Sarah Source Criticism Form Criticism Box 5.2 The Binding of Isaac Box 5.3 Circumcision Ancient Near Eastern Parallels Box 5.4 The Ugaritic Texts The Joseph Narrative The Ancestors of Israel Box 5.5 Abraham, Father of Believers History and the Ancestors of Israel The Religion of the Ancestors A Look Back and Ahead 6. ESCAPE FROM EGYPT Exodus 1-15 The Book of Exodus Exodus 1-15 Box 6.1 Legends of Rescue Box 6.2 The Divine Name Yahweh Box 6.3 The Hardening of Pharaoh's Heart Box 6.4 The Development of the Passover Celebration The Exodus and History * The Date of the Exodus The Exodus and the History of Religions A Look Back and Ahead 7. FROM EGYPT TO SINAI Exodus 16-24 Itineraries Incidents on the Journey Box 7.1 Manna Box 7.2 The Location of Sinai At Sinai Covenant The Ten Commandments Box 7.3 The Status and Numbering of the Ten Commandments The Ratification of the Covenant A Look Back and Ahead 8. LAW, RITUAL, AND HOLINESS Exodus 20.22-23.33 and 25-40 and Leviticus Law in the Ancient Near East Box 8.1 Excerpt from the Code of Hammurapi The Covenant Code (Ex 20.22-23.33) The Ark, the Tabernacle, and the Priestly Vestments and Ordination Box 8.2 "An Eye for an Eye" The Golden Calf Box 8.3 Forty Days and Forty Nights The Ritual Decalogue Sequel Box 8.4 An Ancient Hebrew Agricultural Calendar The Book of Leviticus Sacrifices (Lev 1-7) The Consecration Ceremonies and Their Aftermath (Lev 8-10) Purity and Impurity (Lev 11-15) The Day of Atonement (Lev 16) The Holiness Code (Lev 17-26) Box 8.5 Capital Punishment Women in Israelite Ritual and Law The Ethics of Leviticus A Look Back and Ahead 9. IN THE WILDERNESS Numbers The Book of Numbers Preparations for the Journey Law, Ritual, and Purity The Chronology and Geography of the Wanderings Rebellions in the Wilderness Box 9.1 Miriam Opposition on the Journey Box 9.2 Excerpt from the Deir Alla Texts Preparations for the Entry into the Land A Look Back and Ahead 10. THE END OF THE JOURNEY TO THE PROMISED LAND Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy Box 10.1 The Shema The Origins of Deuteronomy Box 10.2 The Meanings of "Torah" The Deuteronomic School Moses in the Pentateuch A Look Back and Ahead 11. JOSHUA AND THE CONQUEST OF THE LAND OF CANAAN Joshua The Deuteronomistic History The Book of Joshua Box 11.1 Shechem in Biblical Tradition A Look Back and Ahead 12. THE EMERGENCE OF ISRAEL IN THE LAND OF CANAAN Judges The Book of Judges Box 12.1 The Judges of Israel in the Book of Judges Box 12.2 The Moabites and the Ammonites Box 12.3 The Song of Deborah Box 12.4 The Philistines History and the Israelite Confederation A Look Back and Ahead PART FOUR. KINGS AND PROPHETS 13. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MONARCHY 1 Samuel The Books of Samuel 1 Samuel Box 13.1 Positive Assessments of Saul History A Look Back and Ahead 14. THE REIGN OF DAVID 2 Samuel, 1 Kings 1-2 2 Samuel Box 14.1 David as Poet Box 14.2 Jerusalem * History A Look Back and Ahead 15. THE REIGN OF SOLOMON 1 Kings 1-11 and Psalm 89 The Books of Kings 1 Kings 1-11 Box 15.1 Solomon in Later Traditions * History The Ideology of the Davidic Monarchy Box 15.2 The Royal Ideology in Later Traditions A Look Back and Ahead 16. THE DIVIDED KINGDOMS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH FROM THE LATE TENTH TO THE EARLY EIGHTH CENTURIES BCE 1 Kings 12-2 Kings 14 with an Introduction to Prophecy History Box 16.1 Chronology of the Late Tenth to Mid-Eighth Centuries BCE Institutions and Society Prophets and Prophecy Box 16.2 Prophets in Later Traditions The Legends of Elijah and Elisha Box 16.3 Elijah in Later Traditions A Look Back and Ahead 17. THE NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY BCE 2 Kings 14-17, Amos, and Hosea History Box 17.1 Chronology of the Eighth Century BCE Prophetic Books Amos Box 17.2 The Day of the Lord Hosea Box 17.3 Prophetic Attacks on Rituals Box 17.4 Marriage in Ancient Israel A Look Back and Ahead 18. THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH IN THE EIGHTH AND EARLY SEVENTH CENTURIES BCE 2 Kings 15-20, 2 Chronicles 29-32, Isaiah 1-39, and Micah History Box 18.1 Chronology of the Eighth and Seventh Centuries BCE Isaiah The Siege of Jerusalem in 734 BCE Box 18.2 The Identity of Immanuel The Assyrian Invasion of Judah in 701 BCE Box 18.3 Sennacherib's Attack on Jerusalem (701 BCE) according to the Assyrian Annals Box 18.4 Hezekiah's Tunnel Micah A Look Back and Ahead 19. JUDAH IN THE SEVENTH AND EARLY SIXTH CENTURIES BCE: THE END OF ASSYRIAN DOMINATION AND THE FALL OF JERUSALEM 2 Kings 21-25, 2 Chronicles 33-36, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Jeremiah History Box 19.1 Chronology of the Seventh and Early Sixth Centuries BCE Box 19.2 Ashurbanipal's Library Box 19.3 Megiddo and Armageddon The Book of Zephaniah The Book of Nahum The Book of Habakkuk Jeremiah Box 19.4 Jeremiah and the Lost Ark Box 19.5 Jeremiah and the History of Bookmaking A Look Back and Ahead PART FIVE. EXILE AND RETURN 20. AFTER THE FALL: JEWS IN JUDAH AND BABYLON Lamentations, Psalm 137, Obadiah, and Ezekiel History The Book of Lamentations Box 20.1 Acrostic Poems The Judeans in Babylonia Psalm 137 The Book of Obadiah Ezekiel Box 20.2 Yahweh as Violent Husband A Look Back and Ahead 21. RETURN FROM EXILE Ezra 1-2 and Isaiah 34-35 and 40-55 History Box 21.1 Chronology of the Sixth Century BCE The Priestly Source of the Pentateuch The Exilic Edition of the Deuteronomistic History Isaiah 40-55 Box 21.2 The Development of Monotheism Box 21.3 Female Images of God A Look Back and Ahead PART SIX. RECONSTRUCTION, CONSOLIDATION, AND CHALLENGE 22. THE RESTORATION: JUDAH IN THE LATE SIXTH AND FIFTH CENTURIES BCE Ezra 3-10, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Isaiah 24-27 and 56-66, Joel, and Malachi History Box 22.1 Chronology of the Mid-Sixth to the Fourth Centuries BCE Box 22.2 Aramaic Ezra 3-6 The Book of Haggai Zechariah 1-8 Isaiah 56-66 The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah Box 22.3 The Elephantine Papyri Apocalyptic Literature The "Isaiah Apocalypse" (Isa 24-27) Zechariah 9-14 The Book of Joel The Book of Malachi A Look Back and Ahead 23. RETELLING THE STORY 1-2 Chronicles, Psalms, and Proverbs The Books of Chronicles Box 23.1 Samaria and the Samaritans The Book of Psalms Box 23.2 Parallelism Music in Ancient Israel A Look Back and Ahead 24. THE WISDOM OF THE SAGES: PRESERVATION AND CHALLENGE Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon with an Introduction to Wisdom Literature * Wisdom Literature * The Book of Proverbs The Book of Job Box 24.1 The Satan Box 24.2 "I Know that my Redeemer Liveth" Box 24.3 Behemoth and Leviathan Box 24.4 Job's Wife and Daughters The Book of Ecclesiastes The Development of Beliefs in Life after Death in Ancient Israel The Song of Solomon A Look Back and Ahead 25. HEROES IN FOREIGN LANDS: POSTEXILIC LITERATURE AND DIASPORIC IDENTITY (Ruth, Jonah, Esther, and Daniel) The Book of Ruth The Book of Jonah The Book of Esther Box 251 The Festival of Purim The Book of Daniel Box 25.2 Angels and Demons Box 25.3 "Son of Man" Box 25.4 Outline of the Visions of Successive Kingdoms in the Book of Daniel A Look Back and Ahead APPENDIX: THE APOCRYPHAL/DEUTEROCANONICAL BOOKS Revisions of and Additions to Biblical Books Historiographic Literature Historical Fiction Wisdom Literature Other Compositions Chronology General Bibliography Glossary Weights and Measures Index