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A skillful balance of application and theory,Budgeting: Politics and Power,Second Edition, is a comprehensive yet highly accessible introduction to the politics of budgeting. Unlike other texts on the subject--which typically focus only on budgeting issues at the federal level--this book emphasizes budgeting at the state and local levels in order to translate budgetary politics in a way that is more relevant to the vast majority of students. Drawing on a wide range of academic disciplines, the book also incorporates numerous pedagogical features, including case studies, in-class exercises, discussion and review questions; many charts, tables, photos, and cartoons; a glossary of budgeting terms; and an appendix of key federal budgeting points. A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/lewis offers links to videos, chronologies, other online resources, and more. NEW TO THIS EDITION * Frames markets alongside politics and democracy as key budget factors * Tracks the budgetary impacts of the recent recession and electoral shifts * Traces recent shifts in public opinion, ideology, and partisanship * Updates statistics and examples throughout the book, including the findings of the 2010 census and the most recent spending and revenue patterns * Updates issues, including one state's shutdown and a showdown with organized labor in another state * Includes new case studies, new and updated figures and tables, and an expanded glossary
Carol W. Lewis is Professor Emerita of Political Science at the University of Connecticut.
W. Bartley Hildreth is Professor of Public Management and Policy in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University in Atlanta.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with Web Site Resources and Review Questions. Preface Why a New Edition? A Different Take on the Subject Organization and Learning Style Acknowledgments About the Authors Introduction to Budgeting in a Democracy Democracy Markets Politics Theoretically Speaking Web Site Resources 1. Follow the Money What Is the Public Sector? Why Do We Need to Make Political Choices? Not a Brawl Political Process Do the Choices Matter? Guarantee Limits to Budgeting How Does Democracy Affect Budgeting? Accountability Transparency Responsiveness Stewardship and Efficiency What Is a Good Budget? Thumbnail Case: A Lesson in Political Muscle 2. We the People: Power and Participation Do We Vote Our Budget Choices? Voting Bundles, Not Budgets Voting Political Parties Voting Core Political Beliefs What Does Governing Mean? Can Citizens Speak to Political Leaders? Transparency and Meaningful Participation Voting Directly on Budget Choices Are Citizens Self-Interested Rational Actors? Emotional Language of Budgetary Politics How Political Ideology Affects Budgeting Is Lobbying Legitimate in Budgetary Politics? How and Why We Lobby Issue Networks Does Public Opinion Influence Budgetary Politics? Do Leaders Listen? Interpreting Public Opinion Thumbnail Case: Where the Rubber Hits the Road 3. Fairness and Trust in Budgetary Politics What's Fair? Are Taxes Fair? The Public's Perspective Notions of Tax Fairness Tax Burden Taxes and Income Inequality Fiscal Federalism and Tax Fairness Is Spending Fair? The Politics of Redistribution Generational Politics Spending across the States Political and Budgetary IOUs Are Citizens Satisfied with Performance? Does Citizen Trust or Distrust Matter? Thumbnail Case: What's the Point? 4. Process Matters How is the Budget "Game" Played? How Did We Get Here? What Is Executive Budgeting? How Does Executive Budgeting Work? Executive Formulation and Submission Bouncing Off the Base Budget Requests Significance of Stage One Legislative Review and Appropriation Review of the Executive Budget Request Limits on Legislative Powers Line-Item Appropriations and Veto Power Budget Blackout Implementation and Audit Allotments and Rescissions Supplemental Appropriations After the Books Are Closed Summary of the Executive Budget Process Why Take a Political Perspective? How Does the Federal Entitlement Process Work? The Art of the Budget Process Thumbnail Case: A Package Deal 5. Putting the Puzzle Together What Rules Guide Putting the Budget Pieces Together? Fiscal Rules for the Federal Government Fiscal Rules for State and Local Governments Fiscal Rules Are Norms What Is a Balanced Budget? Revision of the Budget during the Year The "Is" of a Balanced Budget What Happens When There Is No Budget or the Budget Is Not in Balance? Financing the Federal Government's Annual Deficit by Issuing Debt State and Local Government Debt Budget Cutbacks Is the Budget Sustainable Over Time? Rainy-Day Budgeting Public Sector Employee Benefits Budget Sustainability Thumbnail Case: When Persuasion is Broke 6. Spending Public Resources How Much Are We Spending? Measuring Spending Internal Dynamics: Percent Change and Rate of Growth External Developments A Slice of the Pie Cost Structure Makes a Difference Workforce and Payroll Employee Benefits and Unpaid Bills Why Is Some Federal Spending Kept Secret? What Does Counterterrorism Cost? What Are We Getting for the Money? Why Do Budgets Grow? Thumbnail Case: Do-It-Yourself Government 7. A Taxing Subject: Raising Public Resources Why Do We Pay for Public Services? Willingness to Pay Revenue Systems Serve Different Functions Revenue and Civic Engagement Strategies for Public Support Who Makes Revenue Policy? Political Pressure on Technical Experts Revenue Power outside the Beltway Political Pressure on Decision Makers What Types of Revenue Does the Public Sector Use? The Property Tax The Income Tax The Sales and Use Tax Revenue Diversity How Do Taxes Work? The Sticky Problems of Tax Administration Rules that Limit Tax Uses and Tax Increases Nominal versus Effective Tax Rate What Are the Five Principles of Taxation and How Are They Applied? Applying Tax Principle #1: How Does Tax Policy Affect Economic Growth? Applying Tax Principle #2: What is Efficient Taxation? Applying Tax Principle #3: How Can Tax Policy Be Economical? Forecasting Revenue Price of Government Tax Elasticity Revenue Yield over Time Other Concerns Applying Tax Principle 4: How Does Transparency Make Taxation Responsive? Applying Tax Principle #5: What Is a Fair Tax? Benefits-Received Principle Ability-to-Pay Principle Tax Incidence Taxes in the Global Economy Can Governments Raise Revenue without Having Taxes? Thumbnail Case: A License to Prey? 8. Politics and Capital Budgeting What Is Capital Budgeting and Why Is It Important? Infrastructure as Durable Goods and Capital Assets Doing Public Mega-Projects Should Governments Plan and If So, How? Identifying Capital Projects Capital Programs and Budgets Project Costs and Benefits If Not Pay Cash, Then Why and When Borrow Money? Debt Is Not Always Bad Bond Ratings and Credit Quality Debt Rules State and Local Government Securities Is There Such a Thing as Free Money? State and Local Officials Look to the Federal Government Local Officials Look to the States Thumbnail Case: Budget Busters! 9. How to Read a Local Budget A Budget's Four Main Parts Budget Message Budget Summary Detailed Schedules Supporting Documentation Eight Focal Points 1. Who/What? 2. Fiscal Year? 3. Operating or Capital Budget? 4. Legal Status of the Document? 5. Is the Budget Balanced? 6. What Fund Applies? 7. What Are the Budget Drivers? 8. Who/What Gets the Spotlight? Proceed with Caution! Go Beyond the Budget Applications Questions to Ask When Reading a Budget Would You Vote for This Budget? 10. The Bottom Line Why Does Budgeting Change and Yet So Much Stays the Same? Sources of Change Putting on the Squeeze Budgetary and Political Time Bombs How Do Today's Budget Decisions Affect Tomorrow's Democracy? Long-Term Budget Commitments Undermine Democracy? Agree Long-Term Budget Commitments Undermine Democracy? Disagree How Are We Doing? Transparency and Complexity Financing Public Higher Education Following the Money through a Maze Accountability, Stewardship, and the Artful Dodge Budget Gimmicks Dodging Tough Choices Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance Responsiveness and the Role and Size of Government Where Are We Headed? Reforming the Federal Appropriations Process Entitlement Reform Closure Commissions Reforming Earmarks Other Reforms What Can We Do about It? Trust and the Political Deficit Participation and a Challenge to Take Two Steps Thumbnail Case: The Gag Rule The Big Picture: Integrating Questions Appendix A. The Federal Budget Process Appendix B. Glossary of Terms in Budgetary Politics References Index