9781457675515

The Business Writer's Handbook

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  • ISBN13:

    9781457675515

  • ISBN10:

    145767551X

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2/12/2015
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

PACKAGE THIS TITLE WITH OUR 2016 MLA SUPPLEMENT, Documenting Sources in MLA Style (package ISBN-13: 9781319088637). Get the most recent updates on MLA citation in a convenient, 40-page resource based on The MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, with plenty of models. Browse our catalog or contact your representative for a full listing of updated titles and packages, or to request a custom ISBN.

From formal reports to everyday e-mails, The Business Writer’s Handbook uses smart, accessible language to spotlight and clarify the ways we write today. Hundreds of topic entries, 90+ sample documents, at-a-glance checklists, and dynamic videos break down the best-practices, models, and real-world skills that successful writers use to communicate clearly and persuasively.

Developed by a legendary author team with decades of combined academic and professional experience, the book’s intuitive, alphabetical organization makes it easy to navigate its extensive coverage of grammar, usage, and style. Plus, updated, in-depth treatment of pressing issues like the job search, the writing process, documenting sources, and social media resonates both in class and on the job.

With a refreshed, integrated focus on the ways technologies shape writing, the Eleventh Edition of the Handbook is the indispensable reference tool for writing successfully in the workplace.

Author Biography

Gerald J. Alred is Professor Emeritus of English at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where he teaches courses in the Professional Writing Program. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles and several standard bibliographies on business and technical communication, and is a founding member of the editorial board of the Journal of Business and Technical Communication. He is co-author of The Business Writer's Handbook and Handbook of Technical Writing. He is a recipient of the prestigious Jay R. Gould Award for "profound scholarly and textbook contributions to the teaching of business and technical writing."

Walter E. Oliu served as chief of the Publishing Services Branch at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, where he managed the agency’s printing, graphics, editing, and publishing programs. He also developed the public-access standards for and managed daily operations of the agency’s public Web site.  He has taught at Miami University of Ohio, Slippery Rock State University, and as an adjunct faculty member at Montgomery College and George Mason University.  His books include Writing That Works,  Tenth Edition  (reprinted chapters appear in Kevin J. Harty’s Strategies for Business and Technical Writing, Fifth Edition, , and Brenda D. Smith and Laura C. Headley’s The Lifelong Reader, Second Edition); The Handbook of Technical Writing, Ninth Edition; The Business Writer’s Handbook, Ninth eEdition (Fortune and Book-of-the-Month Club selections); The Business Writer’s Companion, Sixth Edition; The Technical Writer’s Companion, Third Edition; Writing from A-Z, Fifth Edition; and The Professional Writer.
 
Charles T. Brusaw was a faculty member at NCR Corporation's Management College, where he developed and taught courses in professional writing, editing, and presentation skills for the corporation worldwide. Previously, he worked in advertising, technical writing, public relations, and curriculum development. He has been a communications consultant, an invited speaker at academic conferences, and a teacher of business writing at Sinclair Community College.

Table of Contents

*New

A
a/an
a lot

abbreviations
     Using Abbreviations
     Writer's Checklist: Using Abbreviations
     Forming Abbreviations
          Names of Organizations
          Measurements
          Personal Names and Titles
          Common Scholarly Abbreviations
above
absolutely

abstract/concrete words
abstracts
     Types of Abstracts
     Figure A-1. Informative Abstract (from a Report)
     Writing Strategies
accept/except 
acceptance/refusal letters (for employment)
     Figure A-2. Acceptance Letter (for Employment)
     Figure A-3. Refusal Letter (for Employment)

     Professionalism Note
acknowledgment letters
     Figure A-4. Acknowledgement
acronyms and initialisms

active voice (see voice)
ad hoc
adapt/adept/adopt

adapting to new technologies
     Technology You Need to Know
     *Writer’s Checklist: Strategies for Learning a New Technology

     Digital Tip: Assessing Hardware and Software
adjectives
     Limiting Adjectives
          Articles
          Demonstrative Adjectives
          Possessive Adjectives
          Numeral Adjectives
          Indefinite Adjectives
     Comparison of Adjectives

     Placement of Adjectives
     Use of Adjectives

     ESL Tip for Using Adjectives
adjustment letters
     Figure A-5. Adjustment Letter (Company Takes Responsibility)
     Figure A-6. Partial Adjustment (Accompanying a Product)
     Full Adjustment

*Professionalism Note
     Partial Adjustment
Adverbs
     Types of Adverbs
     Comparison Adverbs
     Placement of Adverbs
affect/effect
affectation
     Ethics Note
affinity
agreement
     Subject-Verb Agreement
     Compound Subjects
     Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
          Gender
          Number
          Compound Antecedents
all ready/already
all right
all together/altogether
allude/elude/refer
allusion/illusion

allusions
almost/most
also

ambiguity
amount/number
ampersands
and/or
annual reports
     Structure and Parts
         Financial Highlights
         Statement to Shareholders
         Narrative Section
         Financial Statement
         Board of Directors and Company Officers
     Preparing the Report
         Design and Visuals
     Writer’s Checklist: Annual Reports
antonyms
apostrophes
     Showing Possession
     Indicating Omission
     Forming Plurals
appendixes
application cover letters
     *Figure A-7. Partial Job Ad (Description and Requirements)

*Figure A-8. Application Cover Letter (Graduate Applying for a Graphic Design Job)
     Figure A-9. Application Cover Letter Sent as E-mail (College Student Applying for an Internship)
     Figure A-10. Application Cover Letter (Applicant with Years of Experience)
     *Writer’s Checklist: Tailoring a Cover Letter to a Job Ad
                 Opening
     Body
     Closing

*Proofreading and Follow-up
appositives
articles
     ESL Tip for Using Articles
as/because/since
as much as/more than
as such
as well as

audience
     Analyzing Your Audience's Needs
     Writing for Varied and Multiple Audiences
augment/supplement
average/median/mean
awhile/a while

awkwardness
     Writer's Checklist: Eliminating Awkwardness

 

B

bad/badly

balance/remainder
be sure to
beside/besides
between/among
between you and me
bi-/semi-
biannual/biennial

biased language
     Professionalism Note
     Sexist Language
     Other Types if Biased Language
bibliographies
blogs and forums
     Organizational Uses
     Writing Style

*Figure B-1. Corporate Blog
     Ethics Note
both…and
brackets
brainstorming
     Figure B-2. Cluster Map from a Brainstorming Session
brochures
     Types of Brochures
     Designing the Brochure
          Cover Panel
     Figure B-3. Brochure (Cover Panel)
          First Inside Panel
          Subsequent Panels
     Figure B-4. Brochure (Inside Panels)
          Design Style and Unity
     Writer's Checklist: Designing a Brochure
bulleted lists (see lists)

business plans

     Purposes and Audience

     Format, Length, and Sections

     Company Description and Strategy

         Business Description

         Vision and Mission Statement

         Goals and Milestones

         Management and Key Team Members

     Market Analysis and Strategy

     Marketing Plan

     Financial Analysis

     Supporting Documents

     Writer’s Checklist: Preparing Business Plans

business writing style

     Ethics Note
buzzwords

 

C

can/may
cannot
capital/capitol

capitalization
     Proper Nouns
     Common Nouns
     First Words
     Specific Groups
     Specific Places
     Specific Institutions, Events, Concepts
     Titles of Works
     Professional and Personal Titles
     Abbreviations and Letters
     Miscellaneous Capitalizations
case 
     Figure C-1. Pronoun Case Chart
     Subjective Case
     Objective Case
     Possessive Case
     Appositives
     Determining the Case of Pronouns
cause-and-effect method of development
     Evaluating Evidence
     Linking Causes to Effects
center on
chronological method of development
     Figure C-2. Chronological Method of Development
cite/sight/site
clarity
clauses
clichés
coherence
collaborative writing

     Tasks of the Collaborative Writing Team
          Planning
          Professionalism Note
          Research Writing
          Reviewing
          Revising
     Professionalism Note
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Collaboratively

Digital Tip: Using Collaborative Software
collection letters
     Figure C-3. First-Stage Collection Letter
     Figure C-4. Second-Stage Collection Letter
     Figure C-5. Third-Stage Collection Letter

colons
     Colons in Sentences
     Colons with Salutations, Titles, Citations, and Numbers
     Punctuation and Capitalization with Colons
     Unnecessary Colons
comma splice
commas
     Linking Independent Clauses
     Enclosing Elements
     Introducing Elements
          Clauses and Phrases
          Words and Quotations
     Separating Items in a Series
     Clarifying and Contrasting
     Showing Omissions
     Using with Numbers and Names
     Using with Other Punctuation
     Avoiding Unnecessary Commas
compare/contrast
comparison
comparison method of development
     Figure C-6. Whole-by-Whole Method of Comparison
     Figure C-7. Part-by-Part Method of Comparison
     Figure C-8. Comparison Using a Table to Illustrate Key Differences
complaint letters
     Figure C-9. Complaint Letter
complement/compliment
complements
compose/constitute/comprise
compound words
conciseness
     Causes of Wordiness
     Writer's Checklist: Achieving Conciseness
conclusions
     Figure C-10. Conclusion
conjunctions
connotation/denotation
consensus

context
     Assessing Context
     Signaling Context
continual/continuous
contractions
copyrights, patents, and trademarks
     Ethics Note
     Permissions
     Exceptions
     Ethics Note

*Patents

*Trademarks

*Figure C-11. Sample Trademarks
correspondence
     Audience and Writing Style

     Openings and Closings
     Goodwill and the "You" Viewpoint
     Writer's Checklist: Using Tone to Build Goodwill
     Direct and Indirect Patterns

         Direct Pattern

     Figure C-12. A Good-News Message

Indirect Pattern

      Figure C-13. A Courteous Bad-News Message
     Clarity and Emphasis
          Lists
          Headings
          Subject Lines
     Writer's Checklist: Correspondence and Accuracy 
cover letters (or transmittals)
     Figure C-14. Cover Message
credible/creditable
criteria/criterion
critique

 

D

dangling modifiers
dashes
data
dates

de facto/de jure
defective/deficient

defining terms
definite/definitive
definition method of development
     Extended Definition
     Definition by Analogy
     Definition by Cause
     Definition by Components
     Definition by Exploration of Origin
     Negative Definition
description
     Figure D-1. Simple Description
     Figure D-2. Illustrated Description
design (see layout and design)
despite/in spite of
diagnosis/prognosis

dictionaries
     Abridged Dictionaries
     Unabridged Dictionaries
     ESL Dictionaries
     Subject and Specialized Dictionaries
differ from/differ with
different from/different than
direct address
discreet/discrete
disinterested/uninterested
division-and-classification method of development
     Division
     Classification

     Figure D-3. Classification (Tools Placed into Categories)
*document management

     *Document Management Systems

     *Document Naming Conventions

*Writer’s Checklist: Naming Files

documenting sources
     APA Documentation
          APA In-Text Citations
          APA Documentation Models
          APA Sample Pages
     Figure D-4. APA Sample Page       
     Figure D-5. APA Sample List of References 
     CMS Documentation
          CMS In-Text Citations

          CMS Documentation Models

          CMS Sample Pages
     Figure D-6. CMS Sample Page from Report
     Figure D-7. CMS Sample Bibliography
     MLA Documentation
          MLA In-Text Citations
          MLA Documentation Models
          MLA Sample Pages
     Figure D-8. MLA Sample Page
     Figure D-9. MLA Sample List of Works Cited
     Ethics Note
double negatives
drawings
     Figure D-10. Conventional Line Drawing Illustrating Instructions
     Figure D-11. Exploded-View Drawing
     Figure D-12. Cutaway Drawing

     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Creating and Using Drawings
due to/because of

 

E

each
economic/economical

editing (see both revision and proofreading)
e.g./i.e.
ellipses
e-mail
     Review and Confidentiality
     Professionalism Note
     *Writer's Checklist: Maintaining Professionalism
     *Digital Tip: Sharing Electronic Files

     Writing and Design
     Figure E-1. E-mail Signature Block
     Writer's Checklist: Managing Your E-mail and Reducing Overload

*Ethics Note
emphasis
     Achieving Emphasis
          Position
          Climactic Order
          Sentence Length
          Sentence Type
          Active Voice
          Repetition
          Intensifiers
          Direct Statements
          Long Dashes
          Typographical Devices
English as a second language
     Count and Mass Nouns
     Articles and Modifiers
     Gerunds and Infinitives
     Adjective Clauses
     Present Perfect Verb Tense
     Present Progressive Verb Tense
     ESL Entries
English, varieties of
     Colloquial English
     Dialectal English
     Localisms
     Slang

equal/unique/perfect
etc.
ethics in writing
     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Ethically

euphemisms
     Ethics Note
everybody/everyone

*everyday/every day

exclamation marks
executive summaries
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Executive Summaries
expletives
explicit/implicit
exposition

 

F

fact
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
     Ethics Note
     Questions to Include
     Organization
     Placement
     Writer's Checklist: Developing an FAQ
feasibility reports
     Figure F-1. Feasibility Report
     Report Sections
          Introduction
          Body
          Conclusion
          Recommendation
few/a few
fewer/less
figuratively/literally

figures of speech
     Types of Figures of Speech
fine
first/firstly

flowcharts
     Figure F-2. Flowchart Using Labeled Blocks
     Figure F-3. Flowchart Using Pictorial Symbols
     Figure F-4. Common ISO Flowchart Symbols (with Annotations)
     Writer's Checklist: Creating Flowcharts
footnotes (see documenting sources)
forceful/forcible
foreign words in English
foreword/forward
form letters

     When to Use Form Letters

     Professionalism Note

    Writing Form Letters

     Figure F-5. Headline Lead
     Repurposing Form Letters

formal reports

     *Digital Tip: Digitally Enhancing Formal Reports

     Front Matter
          Title Page
          Abstract
          Table of Contents
          List of Figures
          List of Tables
          Foreword
          Preface
          List of Abbreviations and Symbols
     Body
          Executive Summary
          Introduction
      Text
      Conclusions
          Recommendations
          Explanatory Notes
          References (or Works Cited)
          Ethics Note
     Back Matter
          Appendixes
          Bibliography
          Glossary
          Index

*Digital Tip: Creating an Index

Sample Formal Report
     Figure F-6. Formal Report

*Digital Tip: Creating Styles and Templates
format
former/latter
forms
     Figure F-7. Form (for a Medical Claim)

     Ethics Note
     *Choosing Paper or Digital

     Designing a Form
          Entry Lines and Fields

*Sequencing Entries

     *Writing Questions
*forums (see blogs and forums)

fragments (see sentence fragments)
functional shift

 

G

garbled sentences
gender
     ESL Tip for Assigning Gender
general and specific methods of development

     Figure G-1. General to Specific Method of Development

     Figure G-2. Specific to General Method of Development
     General to Specific
     Specific to General
global communication
     Writer's Checklist: Communicating Globally
global graphics
     Figure G-3. Graphics for U.S. and Global Audiences
     Figure G-4. ISO Symbols

     Writer's Checklist: Using Appropriate Global Graphics
glossaries
gobbledygook
good/well
grammar
grant proposals
     Cover Letter
     Title Page
     Application Form
     Introduction
     Literature Review
     Project Narrative

          Project Description

          Project Outcomes
          Budget Narrative

          Task Schedule

     Organization Description
     Conclusion
     Attachments (appendixes)

     Writer's Checklist: Writing Grant Proposals
graphs
     Line Graphs
     Figure G-5. Double-Line Graph (with Shading)
     Ethics Note
     Figure G-6. Distorted and Distortion-Free Expressions of Data
     Bar Graphs

     Figure G-7. Bar Graph
     Figure G-8. Bar (Column) Graph
     Figure G-9. Gantt Chart
     Pie Graphs
     Figure G-10. Pie Graph (Showing Percentages of the Whole)
     Picture Graphs
     Figure G-11. Picture Graph
     Writer's Checklist: Creating Graphs

 

H

he/she
headers and footers
     Figure H-1. Header and Footer
headings
     Figure H-2. Headings Used in a Document
     General Heading Style
     Decimal Numbering System
     Writer's Checklist: Using Headings
hyphens
     Hyphens with Compound Words
     Hyphens with Modifiers
     Hyphens with Prefixes and Suffixes
     Hyphens and Clarity
     Other Uses of the Hyphen
 

I

idioms
illegal/illicit
illustrations (see visuals)
imply/infer
in/into
in order to
in terms of
*incident reports

     *Figure I-1. Incident Report

     *Ethics Note

indexing
     Figure I-2. Index Entry (with Main Entry, Subentries, and Sub-subentries)

     Digital Tip: Creating an Index

indiscreet/indiscrete
*infographics
     *Figure I-3. Infographic Describing a Process

     *Writer’s Checklist: Creating Infographics

inquiries and responses
     Figure I-4. Inquiry
     Figure I-5. Response to an Inquiry
     *Writer’s Checklist: Writing Inquiries and Responding
inside/inside of

instant messaging
     Figure I-6. Instant Messaging Exchange
     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Instant Messaging Privacy and Security
instructions
     Writing Instructions
     Illustrating Instructions
     Figure I-7. Illustrated Instructions 

     Writer's Checklist: Writing Instructions
insure/ensure/assure
intensifiers
interface
interjections
international correspondence
     Cultural Differences in Correspondence
     Cross-Cultural Examples
     Figures I-8. Inappropriate International Correspondence (Draft Marked for Revision)
     Figure I-9. Appropriate International Correspondence

     Writer's Checklist: Writing International Correspondence
interviewing for information
     Determining the Proper Person to Interview
     Preparing for the Interview
     *Professionalism Note
     Conducting the Interview

     Professionalism Note

     Expanding Your Notes Soon After the Interview
     Interviewing by Phone or E-mail
     *Writer's Checklist: Interviewing Successfully
interviewing for a job
     Before the Interview
     Professionalism Note
     During the Interview
     *Professionalism Note
          Behavior
          Responses

         *Ethics Note

         Salary
          Conclusion
     After the Interview
     Figure I-10. Follow-up Correspondence
introductions
     Routine Openings 
     Opening Strategies
          Objective
          Problem Statement
          Scope
          Background
          Summary
          Interesting Detail
          Definition
          Anecdote
          Quotation
          Forecast
          Persuasive Hook
     Full-Scale Introductions

investigative reports
     Figure I-11. Investigative Report
italics
     Foreign Words and Phrases
     Titles
     Proper Names
     Words, Letters, and Figures
     Subheads
     *Exceptions

its/it's

 

J

jargon
job descriptions
     Figure J-1. Job Description
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Job Descriptions
job search
     *Professionalism Note
     Networking and Informational Interviews
     Campus Career Services
     *Strategic Web Searches
     Social Media
     Professionalism Note

     Job Advertisements

     Trade and Professional Journal Listings
     Employment Agencies (Private, Temporary, Government)
     Internships
     Direct Inquiries

Job or Internship Applications

     Figure J-2. Sections from a Job Application Form
     *Ethics Note
     *Writer's Checklist: Completing Job Applications: In Print and Online

     *Ethics Note
*journal articles (see trade journal articles)

 

K

kind of/sort of
know-how

 

L

lay/lie
layout and design
     *Design Principles

          *Grouping

          *Contrast

          *Repetition

     Typography

      Figure L-1. Primary Components of Letter Characters
          Type Face and Type Size
          Figure L-2. Type Sizes (6- to 14-Point Type)
          Type Style and Emphasis.
     Page-Design Elements
          Justification
          Headings
          Headers and Footers
          Lists
          Columns
          White Space
          Color
     Visuals
          Icons
          Captions
          Rules
     Page Layout and Thumbnails
lend/loan
letters
    Letter Format
     Figure L-3. Full-Block-Style Letter (with Letterhead)
     Heading
     Inside Address
     Salutation
     Subject Line
     Body
     Complimentary Closing
     Writer's Signature Block
     End Notations
     Continuing Pages
     Figure L-4. Alternative Headers for the Second Page of a Letter

like/as
listening
     Fallacies about Listening
     Active Listening
          Step 1: Make a Conscious Decision
          Step 2: Define Your Purpose
          Step 3: Take Specific Actions
          Step 4: Adapt to the Situation
lists
     Figure L-5. Bulleted List in a Paragraph

     Writer's Checklist: Using Lists

logic errors
     Ethics Note
     Lack of Reason
     Sweeping Generalizations
     Non Sequiturs
     False Cause
     Biased or Suppressed Evidence 
     Fact Versus Opinion
     Loaded Arguments
loose/lose

 

M

malapropisms

maps
     Figure M-1. Map
     Writer's Checklist: Creating and Using Maps
maybe/may be
media/medium

meetings
     Planning a Meeting
          Determine the Purpose of the Meeting
          Decide Who Should Attend
          Choose the Meeting Time
     *Digital Tip: Scheduling Meetings Online
          Choose the Meeting Location

     *Digital Tip: Conducting Online Meetings
          Establish the Agenda.
          Figure M-2. Meeting Agenda
          Figure M-3. E-mail Announcing a Meeting with Attached Agenda
          Assign the Minute-Taking
     Conducting the Meeting
          Deal with Conflict
          Close the Meeting
     Writer's Checklist: Planning and Conducting Meetings
memos
     Memo Format

     Figure M-4. Typical Memo Format
     Professionalism Note
     Additional Pages
     Figure M-5. Alternate Headers for the Second Page of Memos
methods of development
minutes of meetings
     Figure M-6. Minutes of a Meeting
     Writer's Checklist: Items to Include in Minutes of Meetings

mission statements

     Figure M-7. Mission Statement

     Writing a Mission Statement

     Format and Length
mixed constructions
modifiers
     Stacked (Jammed) Modifiers
     Misplaced Modifiers
     Squinting Modifiers
mood
     ESL Tip for Determining Mood
Ms./Miss/Mrs.
mutual/common

 

N

narration
     Figure N-1. Narration from an Accident Report
nature
needless to say
newsletter articles
     Figure N-2. Newsletter Article
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Newsletter Articles
newsletters
     Types of Newsletters
     Figure N-3. Company Newsletter (Front Page)
     Developing Newsletters
     Professionalism Note
nominalizations
none
nor/or

note-taking
     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Taking Notes
nouns
     Types of Nouns
     Noun Functions
     Collective Nouns
     Plural Nouns
number (grammar)
numbers
     Numerals or Words
     Plurals
     Measurements
     Fractions
     Money
     ESL Tip for Punctuating Numbers
     Time
     Dates
     Addresses
     Documents

 

O

objects
OK/okay
on/onto/upon
one
one of those . . . who
only
order-of-importance method of development

     Figure O-1. Decreasing Order-of-Importance Method of Development 
     Decreasing Order
     Increasing Order
     Figure O-2. Increasing Order-of-Importance Method of Development 
organization
organizational charts
     Figure O-3. Organizational Chart
outlining
     Advantages of Outlining
     Types of Outlines
     Creating an Outline
     Digital Tip: Creating an Outline
outside [of ]
over [with]

 

P

pace
paragraphs
     Topic Sentence
     Paragraph Length
     Writing Paragraphs
     Paragraph Unity and Coherence
parallel structure
     Faulty Parallelism
paraphrasing
     Ethics Note
parentheses
parts of speech
party
per
percent/percentage

periods
     Periods in Quotations
     Periods with Parentheses
     Other Uses of Periods
     Period Faults
person

personal/personnel

persons/people

persuasion

     Figure P-1. Persuasive Memo
     Ethics Note
phenomenon/phenomena
photographs
     Figure P-2. Photo (of Aircraft Door)
     Ethics Note
phrases
     Prepositional Phrases
     Participial Phrases
          Dangling Participial Phrases
          Misplaced Participial Phrases
     Infinitive Phrases
     Gerund Phrases
     Verb Phrases
     Noun Phrases
plagiarism
     Citing Sources
     Common Knowledge
     Ethics Note
plain language
     Writer's Checklist: Using Plain Language
point of view
     Ethics Note
     ESL Tip for Stating an Opinion

policies and procedures

     Policies

     Procedures

     Figure P-3. Procedures Chart
positive writing
     Ethics Note
possessive case
     Singular Nouns
     Plural Nouns
     Compound Nouns
     Coordinate Nouns
     Possessive Pronouns
     Indefinite Pronouns
prefixes
preparation
     Writer's Checklist: Preparing to Write 
prepositions
     Prepositions at the End of a Sentence
     Prepositions in Titles
     Preposition Errors
presentations
     Determining Your Purpose
     Analyzing Your Audience
     Gathering Information
     Structuring the Presentation
          The Introduction
          The Body

          Transitions
          The Closing
     Using Visuals
     Ethics Note
          Flip Charts
          Whiteboard or Chalkboard

          Presentation Software

     Figure P-4. Presentation Slides

*Professionalism Note

     Writer's Checklist: Using Visuals in a Presentation  
     Delivering a Presentation
          Practice
          Delivery Techniques That Work
          Presentation Anxiety
     Writer's Checklist: Preparing for and Delivering a Presentation  

press releases

     Figure P-5. Press Release
     Writer’s Checklist: Preparing Press Releases
principal/principle
process explanation
progress and activity reports
     Figure P-6. Progress Report
     Figure P-7. Activity Report
     Progress Reports
     Activity Reports

promotional writing

     *Writer’s Checklist: Promotional Writing

     Ethics Note
pronoun reference
pronouns
     Case
     ESL Tip for Using Possessive Pronouns
     Gender
     Number
     Person
proofreading

*Professionalism Note
     Writer's Checklist: Proofreading in Stages
     Figure P-8. Proofreaders' Marks
     Digital Tip: Proofreading for Format Consistency
proposals
     Proposal Strategies
          Audience and Purpose
          Project Management

   Proposal Context and Types
     Writer's Checklist: Writing Persuasive Proposals

     Internal Proposals
          Informal Interpersonal Proposals

          Formal Internal Proposals

      Figure P-9. Sales Proposal
     External Proposals
          Solicited Proposals
          Unsolicited Proposals
          Sales Proposals
          Ethics Note
          Ethics Note

          Grant Proposals (see entry grant proposals)
      Figure P-10. Sales Proposal (Cover Letter)

pseudo-/quasi-
punctuation
purpose

 

Q

question marks
questionnaires
     Figure Q-1. Questionnaire
     Selecting the Recipients
     Preparing the Questions
     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Designing a Questionnaire
quid pro quo
quotation marks
     Direct Quotations
     Ethics Note
     Words and Phrases
     Titles of Works
     Punctuation
quotations
     Ethics Note
     Direct Quotations
     Indirect Quotations
     Deletions or Omissions
     Inserting Material into Quotations
     Incorporating Quotations into Text
     Figure Q-2. Long Quotation (APA Style)

 

R

raise / rise 
readers
really
reason is [because]
reference letters
     Figure R-1. Reference Letter
     Ethics Note
refusal letters
     Figure R-2. Refusal with Low Stakes

Figure R-3. Refusal with High Stakes
regarding / with regard to
regardless
repetition
reports
repurposing
     Repurpose for the Context
     Repurpose for the Medium 
     Ethics Note

research
     Primary Research
     Ethics Note
     Secondary Research
     Library Research Strategies
          Digital Tip: Storing Search Results
          Online Catalogs
          Online Databases and Indexes
          Reference Works
     Web Research Strategies
          Search Engines
     Writer's Checklist: Using Search Engines and Keywords
          Web Subject Directories
     Evaluating Sources 
          Writer's Checklist: Evaluating Print and Online Sources
resignation letters
     Figure R-4. Resignation Letter (to Accept a Better Position)
     Figure R-5. Resignation Memo (Under Negative Conditions)
respective / respectively
restrictive and nonrestrictive elements
résumés
     Ethics Note

     Sample Résumés
     Figure R-6. Student Résumé (for an Entry-Level Position)
     Figure R-7. Résumé (Highlighting Professional Credentials)
     Figure R-8. Recent Graduate Résumé (for Graphic Design Job)
     Figure R-9. Résumé (Applicant with Management Experience)
     Figure R-10. Résumé (Experienced Applicant Seeking Career Change)

     Figure R-11. Advanced Résumé (Combining Functional and Chronological Elements)

     Analyzing Your Background
     Returning Job Seekers
     Organizing Your Résumé (Sections)
          Heading
          Job Objective vs. Tagline
          Professionalism Note
          Qualifications Summary
          Education
          Employment Experience
          Related Knowledge, Skills and Abilities
          Honors and Activities
          References and Portfolios
          Professionalism Note
     Digital Formats and Media
          E-mail-Attached Résumés

          *Applicant Tracking System Résumés
          Plain-Text Résumés

          Scannable Résumés
          Web-Posted Résumés
          *Professionalism Note
revision
     Writer's Checklist: Revising Your Draft
     Digital Tip: Incorporating Tracked Changes
rhetorical questions
run-on sentences

 

S

salary negotiations (see interviewing for a job)

sales letters

     Ethics Note

     Writer’s Checklist: Writing Sales Letters
scope
selecting the medium

     Figure S-1. Choosing the Appropriate Medium
     E-mail
     Memos
     Letters

     Text and Instant Messages

     Phone and Voice Messages

     Faxing
     Meetings
     Web and Video Conferencing
     *Web Networking and Promotion
semicolons
     With Strong Connectives
     For Clarity in Long Sentences
sentence construction
     Subjects
     ESL Tip for Understanding the Subject of a Sentence
     Predicates
     Sentence Types
          Structure
          Intention
          Stylistic Use
     Constructing Effective Sentences
     ESL Tip for Understanding the Requirements of a Sentence
sentence faults
sentence fragments
sentence variety
     Sentence Length
     Word Order
     Loose and Periodic Sentences
sequential method of development

     Figure S-2. Sequential Method of Development
service
set / sit
shall / will
slashes
so / so that / such

*social media

     *Choosing the Appropriate Platform

     *Figure S-3. Comparison of Social Media Platforms

     *Writing Style and Privacy Considerations

     *Writer’s Checklist: Judicious Use of Social Media
some / somewhat
some time / sometime / sometimes
spatial method of development
     Figure S-4. Spatial Method of Development

spelling

style
     Formal Writing Style
     Informal Writing Style

     *Professionalism Note
     Writer's Checklist: Developing an Effective Style  
subordination
suffixes
surveys (see questionnaires)
synonyms
syntax

 

T

tables of contents
tables
     Table Elements
     Figure T-1. Elements of a Table
          Table Number
          Table Title
          Box Head
          Stub
          Body
          Rules
          Footnotes
          Source Line
          Continuing Tables
     Informal Tables
     Figure T-2. Informal Table

telegraphic style

     *Professionalism Note
tenant / tenet
tense
     Past Tense
     Past Perfect Tense
     Present Tense
     Present Perfect Tense
     Future Tense 
     Future Perfect Tense
     Shift in Tense
     ESL Tip for Using the Progressive Form

text messaging
that / which / who
there / their / they're

thesaurus
titles
     Reports and Long Documents 
     E-mail, Memos, and Online Postings
     Formatting Titles
          Capitalization
          Italics
          Quotation Marks
          Special Cases
to / too / two
tone

transition
     Methods of Transition
     Transition between Sentences
     Transition between Paragraphs
trip reports
     Figure T-3. Trip Report Sent as E-mail (with Attachment)
trouble reports (see incident reports)
try to

 

U

unity
up
usage
utilize

 

V

vague words
verbals
     Gerunds
     Infinitives
     Participles
verbs
     Types of Verbs
     Forms of Verbs
          Finite Verbs
          Nonfinite Verbs
     Properties of Verbs
     ESL Tip for Avoiding Shifts in Voice, Mood, or Tense
very
via
visuals
     Selecting Visuals
     Figure V-1. Chart for Choosing Appropriate Visuals
     Ethics Note
     Integrating Visuals with Text
     Ethics Note
     Writer's Checklist: Creating and Integrating Visuals
voice
     Using the Active Voice
          Improving Clarity
          Highlighting Subjects
          Achieving Conciseness
     Using the Passive Voice
     Ethics Note
     ESL Tip for Choosing Voice

 

W

wait for/wait on
Web design (see writing for the Web)

when / where / that
whether
while

who / whom

who’s / whose / of which

word choice
writing a draft
     Writer's Checklist: Writing a Rough Draft 
writing for the Web

     Crafting Content for Your Site
          *Text Content
          Headings
          Lists
          Keywords
          *Directional Cues
         Graphics
          Fonts
     Making Use of Links
     Posting an Existing Document
     Ethics Note
     Protecting User Privacy
Writing for a Global Audience
     Digital Tip: Using PDF Files

Y
"you" viewpoint
your / you're

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