9780849327834

Calcium Signaling, Second Edition

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780849327834

  • ISBN10:

    0849327830

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-11-21
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

The first edition of James Putney's Calcium Signaling offered readers a comprehensive view of the fascinating diversity of technologies that the new field of calcium signaling employed. And while that work is still regarded as a premier text on the basics of calcium signaling, progress has been so dramatic that an update is now required.In Calcium Signaling, Second Edition, Putney focuses on those processes that generate calcium signals to compile the first comprehensive exploration of calcium signaling research from a methodological standpoint.This new edition deals with methods for studying calcium from a variety of perspectives. Several chapters discuss calcium indicators and other tools, and look at microscopic and electrophysiological techniques, as well as other special methodological aspects of calcium signaling research. Other chapters examine the study of different systems, ranging from those found in yeast to those found in mammals, and several more are devoted to the cellular and molecular basis for calcium signaling, including explorations of receptors, calcium pumps, apoptosis, and drug delivery.Once again, Putney has called upon top researchers from across the globe to contribute their expertise. Several new chapters have been added and in many cases, where chapters from the first edition were retained, new researchers were recruited to offer a fresh perspective.As calcium signaling involves such a breadth of technical approaches and a wide range of applications, this work contains invaluable information for established researchers, as well as those graduate students and scientists just beginning to find a direction in cellular calcium signaling.

Table of Contents

Fluorescent Calcium Indicators Based on BAPTA
1(50)
Martin Poenie
Introduction
2(1)
Calcium Indicators Based on BAPTA: General Considerations
3(1)
High-Affinity Calcium Indicators
4(16)
High-Affinity Ratiometric Indicators
4(1)
High-Affinity Ratiometric Indicators Excited by Ultraviolet Light (Fura-2, Benzothiaza-1, Benzothiaza-2, and Indo-1)
5(2)
High-Affinity Ratiometric Indicators Excited by Visible Light (Fura Red)
7(1)
Summary of the Ratiometric Indicators
8(2)
High-Affinity Nonratiometric Calcium Indicators
10(1)
Indicators Based on Fluorescein Derivatives (Fluo-3, Fluo-4, Calcium Green-1, Calcium Green-2, Oregon Green 488 BAPTA)
10(6)
Indicators Based on Rhodamine (Rhod-2, X-Rhod-2, Calcium Orange, Calcium Crimson)
16(2)
Summary of Nonratiometric Indicators
18(2)
Low-Affinity Calcium Indicators for Measuring Large or Rapid Calcium Transients
20(11)
The Relationship between Affinity and Kinetics
21(2)
Design of Low-Affinity Indicators
23(1)
Low-Affinity Calcium Indicators Based on APTRA
24(2)
Tetracarboxylate Low-Affinity Calcium Indicators
26(2)
The 5-Nitro BAPTAs (Fluo-5N, Calcium Green-5N, Calcium Orange-5N, Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-5N)
28(1)
Benzothiazole Derivatives (Benzothiaza-1 and -2, BTC)
28(1)
The Halogenated BAPTA Moderate- to Low-Affinity Indicators (BAPTA-4F, -5F, -5CI, -6F, and -FF Derivatives)
29(1)
Summary of the Low-Affinity Calcium Indicators
30(1)
Indicators that Resist Leakage and Sequestration
31(3)
Indicator-Dextran Conjugates
32(1)
Fura-PE3 and Related Indicators
32(2)
Summary of the Leakage-Resistant Calcium Indicators
34(1)
Near-Membrane Calcium Indicators
34(6)
The C18 Near-Membrane Calcium Indicators (C18-Fura-2, Calcium Green C18)
36(1)
C18-Fura-2 (Fura-2-C18)
36(2)
Calcium Green C18
38(1)
Fura-FFP18 and Related Calcium Indicators
38(1)
Summary of the Near-Membrane Calcium Indicators
39(1)
Use of Calcium Indicators with Multiphoton Microscopy
40(2)
Conclusion
42(9)
Acknowledgments
43(1)
References
43(8)
Fluorescent Indicators---Facts and Artifacts
51(34)
Gary St. J. Bird
James W. Putney, Jr.
Introduction
52(1)
Ca2+ Signaling
52(1)
Anatomy of a Calcium Signal
53(17)
Monitoring the [Ca2+]i Signal
53(1)
Fluorescent Indicator Selection
53(1)
Fura-2
54(1)
Fura-5F
54(2)
Fluorescent Indicators and Cytoplasmic Loading
56(2)
Quantitative Assessment of a [Ca2+]i Response
58(1)
Dissecting the [Ca2+]i Signal
59(1)
Resting [Ca2+]i and the ``Calcium Re-Addition'' Protocol
60(1)
Receptor-Activated Cells and Biphasic Calcium Signaling
61(2)
Intracellular Ca2+-Release and Ca2+-Pools
63(1)
Manipulating Intracellular Ca2+-Pools in Intact Cells
63(5)
Protocol for Defining Intracellular Ca2+-Pools
68(2)
Ca2+-Entry
70(7)
Monitoring Ca2+-Entry
70(1)
Mn2+ -Quench (i.e., Mn2+ -Entry)
71(1)
Sr2+ -Entry
72(1)
Ba2+ -Entry
72(1)
Manipulating Ca2+-Entry
73(1)
Lanthanides
73(1)
2-APB (2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borane or 2-Aminoethyldiphenyl Borate)
74(1)
Regulation of Ca2+-Entry
74(1)
Feedback Inhibition of CCE by [Ca2+]i
75(1)
Membrane Potential
76(1)
CCE and Excitable Cells
77(1)
Conclusions
77(8)
References
77(8)
Fluorescence Microplate-Based Techniques for the High-Throughput Assessment of Calcium Signaling: The Highs and Lows for Calcium Researchers
85(16)
Gregory R. Monteith
Gary St. J. Bird
Introduction
86(1)
HT and [Ca2+]CYT Measurements
86(1)
Equipment Options for HT-Based Assessment of [Ca2+]CYT
87(5)
Excitation Light Sources
88(1)
Lasers and LEDs
88(1)
Lamp-Based Illumination
88(3)
Fluorescence Emission Detection
91(1)
Plate Formats
91(1)
Robotics and Solution Handling
91(1)
Environmental Control
92(1)
Specific Issues with [Ca2+]CYT Measurements in Microplates
92(4)
Cell Plating: Adherent Cells and Cell Suspensions
92(1)
Fluorescence Calcium Indicator Selection
93(1)
Loading Cells with Fluorescent Calcium Indicators
93(1)
Addition of Reagents During [Ca2+]CYT Measurements: Options and Limitations
94(2)
Data Analysis
96(1)
Potential Applications for the HT Assessment of [Ca2+]CYT
96(1)
Challenges and Future Opportunities Related to HT Assessment of Free Calcium Using Fluorescence Microplate Readers
97(1)
Summary
98(3)
References
98(3)
Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Calcium Indicator Proteins
101(12)
Atsushi Miyawaki
Takeharu Nagai
Hideaki Mizuno
Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Fluorescent Indicators for Ca2+
101(1)
Ca2+ Indicators Using Single GFP Variants
102(1)
Ca2+ Indicators Using Circularly Permuted GFP Variants
102(3)
G-CaMP
102(1)
Pericam
103(2)
Ca2+ Indicators Utilizing Pairs of GFP Variants That Permit FRET
105(3)
Procedure for Dual Emission Ratio Imaging of YCs
107(1)
Monitoring Rodent Neural Activity with GFP-Based Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicators
108(5)
References
109(4)
Targeted Aequorins
113(12)
Andrea Prandini
Rosario Rizutto
Introduction
113(2)
Targeting the Aequorin cDNA to Cellular Compartments
115(2)
Expression and Detection of the Probe
117(2)
Use of Aequorin in Cell Compartments with High Ca2+ Concentrations
119(3)
Targeting the Aequorin cDNA to Specific Proteins
122(3)
Acknowledgments
122(1)
References
122(3)
Electrophysiological Recordings of Ca2+ Currents
125(22)
Anant B. Parekh
Introduction
126(1)
Electrophysiological Recordings of Ca2+ Currents
127(2)
Basic Considerations
127(1)
Holding Potential
128(1)
Voltage Pulses
129(1)
Store-Operated Ca2+ Current
129(8)
Isolation of the Store-Operated Current
129(1)
K+ Currents
130(1)
Cl- Currents
130(1)
Ca2+-Activated Currents
130(1)
MagNuM/MIC
130(2)
TRPV6
132(1)
Store Depletion Protocols
133(2)
Experimental Methods to Increase the Size of the Store-Operated Ca2+ Current
135(1)
External Solution
135(1)
Internal Solution
136(1)
Leak Subtraction Protocols to Isolate the Store-Operated Ca2+ Current
136(1)
Recording Store-Operated Ca2+ Current under Physiological Conditions
137(1)
Recording of Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Current
137(2)
Perforated Patch Recordings
139(1)
Estimate of Single Ca2+ Channel Conductance
140(3)
Single-Channel Recording
140(1)
Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels
141(1)
Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels
141(1)
Fluctuation Analysis
142(1)
Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy: A New Tool for Studying Ca2+ Channels
143(4)
Acknowledgments
144(1)
References
144(3)
Molecular Biology of Ca2+ Channels: Lessons from the TRP Superfamily
147(14)
Veit Flockerzi
Thomas Aberle
Marcel Meissner
Christine Jung
Stephan Philippand
Ulrich Wissenbach
Introduction
147(1)
Drosophila TRP Channel, the Founding Member of the TRP Superfamily
148(1)
Mammalian TRP-Related Proteins
148(2)
Strategies to Identify TRP-Related Proteins
150(1)
Limitations of Database Searches or: What Makes a TRP a TRP?
151(2)
Analysis of TRPC Expression by Antibodies
153(4)
Conclusions
157(4)
Acknowledgments
157(1)
References
157(4)
Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Ca2+ and IP3 Signaling in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
161(26)
Ana Y. Estevez
Kevin Strange
Introduction
161(1)
C. elegans Biology
162(2)
Natural History and Life Cycle
162(1)
Laboratory Culture
163(1)
Anatomy
164(1)
Forward and Reverse Genetic Analysis
164(2)
Forward Genetic Analysis
164(1)
Reverse Genetic Analysis
165(1)
Public Resources
166(1)
Calcium and IP3 Signaling in the C. elegans Hermaphrodite Gonad
167(3)
Oscillatory Ca2+ Signaling in the C. elegans Intestine
170(4)
Role of TRP Channel-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Sperm Function
174(1)
Calcium Signaling in C. elegans Neurons and Muscle
175(5)
Regulation of Pharyngeal Muscle Contraction
175(2)
Mechanotransduction
177(2)
Neurodegeneration
179(1)
Conclusion and Future Perspectives
180(7)
References
180(7)
Calcium Signaling Networks in Yeast
187(16)
Kyle W. Cunningham
Why Study Yeast?
187(2)
Ca2+ Pumps and Exchangers
189(4)
SPCA-Type Ca2+ Pumps
189(2)
PMCA-Type Ca2+ Pumps
191(1)
H+/Ca2+ Exchangers and Related Enzymes
191(2)
Missing and Novel Ca2+ Transporters?
193(1)
Ca2+ Channels
193(3)
TRPC-Type Ca2+ Channels
193(1)
VGCC-Type Ca2+ Channels
194(2)
Other Ca2+ Channels?
196(1)
Synopsis and Future Directions
196(7)
References
197(6)
Nuclear Patch Clamp Electrophysiology of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Release Channels
203(28)
Don-On Daniel Mak
Carl White
Lucian Ionescu
J. Kevin Foskett
Introduction
204(1)
Molecular Identification of the InsP3R
204(1)
Development of Nuclear Patch Clamp Electrophysiology to Study Single InsP3R Channels
205(12)
Xenopus Oocytes
206(1)
Frog Husbandry
206(1)
Solutions for Oocytes
207(1)
Surgical Extraction, Defolliculation, and Maintenance of Oocytes
207(1)
Oocyte Nucleus Isolation
208(2)
Oocyte Nucleus Patch Clamping
210(2)
Solutions Used in Patch Clamp Experiments
212(1)
Sf9 Cells
213(1)
Sf9 Cell Culture and Nucleus Isolation
213(2)
Sf9 Cell Nucleus Patch Clamping
215(1)
DT40 Cells
215(1)
DT40 Cell Culture
215(1)
Generation of Recombinant InsP3R-Expressing DT40-KO Cells
216(1)
DT40 Cell Nuclear Membrane Patch Clamp Electrophysiology
217(1)
Ion Channel Properties of the InsP3R in Native ER Membranes by Nuclear Patch Clamping
217(5)
Basic Conductance Properties of the InsP3R
217(2)
Gating Regulation of the InsP3R
219(3)
Conclusions
222(9)
Acknowledgments
223(1)
References
223(8)
Ryanodine Receptors
231(34)
Xander H.T. Wehrens
Stephan E. Lehnart
Andrew R. Marks
Introduction
231(2)
Ryanodine Receptor Genes and Isoforms
233(1)
Differential Expression of RyR Isoforms
233(1)
Mutations in Ryanodine Receptor Genes
234(1)
Ryanodine Receptor Macromolecular Channel Complex
234(5)
Three-Dimensional Structure of Ryanodine Receptors
234(2)
The Calcium-Channel Stabilizing Subunit ``Calstabin''
236(1)
Other Regulatory Proteins Associated with RyR
237(2)
Regulation of Ryanodine Receptors
239(6)
Modulation of Ryanodine Receptors by Calcium
239(1)
Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Ryanodine Receptors
240(2)
Abnormal RyR2 Regulation in Cardiac Arrhythmias
242(2)
RyR1 Mutations Causing Malignant Hyperthermia
244(1)
Cellular Basis of Excitation--Contraction Coupling
245(3)
EC Coupling in Cardiomyocytes
245(1)
EC Coupling in Skeletal Muscle Fibers
246(1)
EC Coupling Abnormalities in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle
247(1)
Studies of Genetically Altered Mice
248(2)
Ryanodine Receptor Knockout Mice
249(1)
Calstabin Knockout Mice
249(1)
Concluding Remarks
250(15)
References
251(14)
Methods in Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP Research
265(70)
Anthony J. Morgan
Grant C. Churchill
Roser Masgrau
Margarida Ruas
Lianne C. Davis
Richard A. Billington
Sandip Patel
Michiko Yamasaki
Justyn M. Thomas
Armando A. Genazzani
Antony Galione
Introduction
267(7)
Background to cADPR and NAADP
267(3)
Mechanism of cADPR-Mediated Ca2+ Release
270(1)
Channels and Targets
270(1)
cADPR and RyR Subtypes
271(1)
Non-RyR Sites of Action?
272(1)
Mechanism of NAADP-Induced Ca2+ Release
272(2)
Purification and Synthesis of cADPR and Analogs
274(8)
HPLC
274(1)
cADPR Synthesis
275(1)
Synthesis of [32P]cADPR
276(1)
Caged cADPR
277(3)
cADPR Analogs
280(1)
Agonists and Antagonists
280(2)
Fluorescent cADPR Analogs
282(1)
Purification and Synthesis of NAADP and Analogs
282(7)
Synthesis of NAADP
282(1)
Synthesis of [32P]NAADP
283(2)
Caged NAADP
285(1)
Synthesis
285(3)
Purification
288(1)
Synthetic NAADP Analogs
288(1)
Studying cADPR- and NAADP-Induced Ca2+ Release
289(6)
The Sea Urchin Egg
289(1)
Collection of Sea Urchin Eggs
290(1)
Sea Urchin Egg Homogenates
291(1)
Preparation of Sea Urchin Egg Homogenates
291(2)
Fluorimetry of Ca2+ Release from Egg Homogenates
293(1)
Sea Urchin Egg Fractionation
293(1)
Preparation of Microsomes
293(1)
Preparation of NAADP-Responsive Acidic Vesicles
293(1)
Testing Fractions for Ca2+ Releasing Properties
294(1)
Pharmacology of cADPR Signaling
295(2)
Troubleshooting and Practical Considerations
296(1)
Pharmacology of NAADP Signaling
297(3)
Targeting Receptors
298(1)
Targeting Stores
299(1)
Enzymology of cADPR and NAADP Metabolism
300(5)
Enzymatic Synthesis and Degradation of cADPR and NAADP
300(1)
ADP-Ribosyl Cyclases
300(1)
cADPR Hydrolases
301(1)
NAADP Metabolism
302(1)
Subcellular Location
302(1)
Detection of Metabolism by Discontinuous Bioassay
303(1)
Fluorescent Analogs
303(1)
NGD Assay: Continuous Assay for ADP-Ribosyl Cyclase Activity
303(2)
cIDPR Assay: Continuous Assay for cADPR Hydrolase
305(1)
HPLC
305(1)
Measurement of cADPR Levels in Cells and Tissues
305(5)
Background
305(1)
Kinetics
306(1)
Signaling Cascades Modulating ARC
306(1)
Mammalian Cells: NO and cADPR
307(1)
Other Pathways
307(1)
Regulation of cADPR Removal
308(1)
Preparation and Extraction of cADPR from Cells and Tissues
308(1)
Bioassay for cADPR
308(1)
[32P]cADPR Binding and Radioreceptor Assay
309(1)
cADPR-Binding Sites
309(1)
cADPR Radioreceptor Assay
310(1)
Measurement of NAADP in Cells and Tissues
310(4)
Background
310(1)
Radioreceptor Assay for NAADP
311(1)
Acid Extraction
311(1)
NAADP Radioreceptor Assay
312(1)
NAADP Receptor Binding
313(1)
Membrane-Associated Receptors
313(1)
Detergent-Solubilized Receptors
313(1)
Investigating cADPR and NAADP Signaling in Single Cells
314(6)
Techniques for Introducing Cell Impermeant Compounds
314(1)
Microinjection
314(3)
Patch Pipette
317(1)
Permeabilized Cells
318(2)
Conclusion
320(15)
References
320(15)
Methods for Studying Calcium Pumps
335(52)
Leonard Dode
Luc Raeymaekers
Ludwig Missiaen
Bente Vilsen
Jens P. Andersen
Frank Wuytack
Introduction
336(1)
Identification of Isoforms, Measurement of Expression Levels, and Subcellular Distribution of Calcium Pumps and Their Regulators
337(6)
Studies at the mRNA Level
338(1)
Detecting and Quantifying RNA
338(2)
Alternative Splicing
340(1)
Studies at the Protein Level
340(1)
Non-Discriminating and Isoform-Specific Antibodies
340(2)
Discrimination of Calcium Pumps by Non-Immunological Techniques
342(1)
Phospholamban and Sarcolipin
343(1)
Studies of Calcium Pump Activity and Its Catalytic Mechanism
343(22)
Catalytic Cycle
344(2)
Heterologous Expression Systems in Yeast, Insect, and Mammalian Cells
346(2)
Detection and Quantitation of Overexpressed Calcium Pumps
348(1)
Overall Reactions: Ion Transport and ATPase Activity
349(2)
Assays for Ca2+ Transport in Isolated Membrane Vesicles
351(3)
Assays for Ca2+ and Mn2+ Transport in Permeabilized Cells
354(2)
Assays of Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Membrane Vesicles
356(4)
Steady State and Transient State Kinetic Analyses of Partial Reactions
360(1)
Phosphorylation Approach
360(4)
Ca2+ Occlusion Approach
364(1)
Nucleotide-Binding Approach
365(1)
Calcium Pump Inhibition as a Tool to Study Function
365(5)
Inhibition of SERCA by Organic Compounds
365(1)
Inhibition by Analogues of Inorganic Phosphate
366(1)
Inhibition by Vanadate
366(1)
Inhibition by Fluoride Complexes of Aluminum and Beryllium
367(1)
Inhibition by Lanthanides
368(1)
Inhibition of SERCA3 by PL/IM430 Antibody
369(1)
Inhibition by RNAi Experiments
369(1)
Inhibition of the Plasmodium Falciparum Ca2+ Pump by Artemisinins
370(1)
Calcium Pumps: Purification and Structure
370(1)
SERCA: Crystallization and 3D Structure
370(1)
PMCA: Calmodulin Affinity-Chromatography Purification
371(1)
Studies of Genetically Altered Mice
371(1)
Conclusions
372(15)
Acknowledgments
372(1)
References
372(15)
Measuring Single Cell and Subcellular Ca2+ Signals
387(30)
Sandip Patel
Lawrence D. Gaspers
Nicola Pierobon
Walson Metzger
Andrew P. Thomas
Introduction
387(3)
Fluorescent Ca2+-Sensitive Indicator Dyes
390(10)
Properties of Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicator Dyes
390(2)
Loading Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicator Dyes into Cells
392(1)
Compartmentalization of Ca2+ Indicator Dyes
392(3)
Calibration of Fluorescence Signals
395(5)
Fluorescent Protein-Based Ca2+ Indicators
400(5)
Advantages of Protein-Based Ca2+ Indicators
400(1)
Imaging of Photoprotein Signals
400(1)
GFP-Based Ca2+ Indicators
401(1)
Using GFP-Based Ca2+ Indicators
402(3)
Instrumentation
405(12)
Epifluorescence Microscope
405(2)
Detectors and Image Acquisition
407(3)
Confocal Microscopy
410(1)
Acknowledgments
411(1)
References
411(6)
Subcellular Compartmentalization of Calcium Signaling
417(16)
Nicholas J. Dolman
Michael C. Ashby
Myoung K. Park
Ole H. Petersen
Alexei V. Tepikin
Introduction
417(1)
Intra-Patch Pipette Uncaging --- Technique for Studying the Distribution of Receptors in Polarized Cells
418(2)
Local Calcium Signals and the Geography of Cellular Organelles or How to Put Calcium Signals on the Map
420(4)
Some Considerations about the Instruments
420(1)
Combinations of Fluorophores for Simultaneous Organellar Labeling and Studies of Calcium Signaling
421(2)
Measuring Local Calcium Gradients and Organelle Localization in Polarized Secretory Cells
423(1)
Probing Calcium Signaling with Calcium Uncaging (in the Cytosol and the Lumen of Cellular Organelles)
424(2)
Measuring Local Calcium Extrusion
426(7)
References
429(4)
Apoptosis
433(22)
Clark W. Distelhorst
Introduction
433(1)
Apoptosis and Methods for Its Detection
434(4)
Apoptosis and Necrosis
434(1)
Cell Death Initiation and Execution: A Brief Overview
434(2)
Diagnostic Tests and Quantitative Measures of Apoptosis
436(2)
Alterations of Ca2+ Homeostasis That Signal Apoptosis
438(4)
Ca2+ Homeostasis and Signaling
438(1)
Physiological and Nonphysiological Ca2+ Changes That Initiate Cell Death Pathways
439(1)
Downstream Effectors That Mediate the Execution Phase of Ca2+-Induced Apoptosis
440(2)
Methods to Detect Alterations in Ca2+ Homeostasis Associated with Apoptosis
442(6)
Measuring Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Elevation Induced by an Apoptotic Signal
442(2)
Determining Whether Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Elevation Mediates Apoptosis
444(1)
Detecting Alterations in Intracellular Ca2+ Distribution
445(3)
Methods to Investigate the Involvement of IP3 Receptors in Apoptosis
448(1)
Concluding Remarks
448(7)
Acknowledgments
449(1)
References
449(6)
Calcium Entry Channels and Drug Discovery
455(32)
Su Li
Anne Dodge
Chris T. Poll
Martin Gosling
Drug Discovery and Calcium Entry Channels: A Historical Perspective
456(6)
Discovery of L-Type Voltage-Operated Ca2+ Channel Blockers
456(2)
Discovery of Receptor-Operated Ca2+ Channel Blockers
458(1)
ROCC Channel Blockers
459(3)
Evolution of Drug Discovery Approaches: Implications for Ca2+ Channels
462(1)
Current Drug Discovery Approaches
462(4)
Overview
462(1)
Target Selection
462(2)
Hit-Finding
464(1)
Hit to Lead
464(1)
Lead Optimization
465(1)
Summary
465(1)
Emerging Ca2+ Channel Targets
466(2)
TRPV1 Channels
466(1)
N-Type Voltage-Operated Ca2+ Channels
467(1)
Assays and Technologies for Ca2+ Channel Drug Discovery
468(11)
Cell Lines
468(1)
Radioligand Binding
469(2)
Radiotracer Flux
471(1)
Optical Readouts --- Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration and Membrane Potential
472(4)
Electrophysiology --- Patch Clamp and Oocyte Recording
476(3)
Concluding Remarks
479(8)
Acknowledgments
479(1)
Appendix
480(1)
References
481(6)
Index 487

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