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The Call to Write, Brief

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321203052

ISBN10:
0321203054
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Table of Contents

Guide to Visual Design xxxi
Preface xxxv
PART 1 WRITING AND READING
1(104)
Introduction: The Call to Write
2(1)
Identifying and Responding to the Call to Write
3(1)
Factors That Writers Take Into Account
4(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing: The Call to Write
5(2)
What Is Writing? Analyzing Literacy Events
7(30)
Reflecting on Your Writing: What Is Writing?
8(1)
Writing in Everyday Life
8(2)
Analyzing Writing in Everyday Life: A Shopping List
8(2)
Writing in the Workplace
10(6)
Analyzing Writing in the Workplace: David F. Gallagher, ``Just Say No to H2O''
11(5)
Writing in the Public Sphere
16(6)
Ethics of Writing
17(2)
Analyzing Writing in the Public Sphere: Newsletter
19(3)
Writing in School
22(7)
Analyzing Writing in School: Samples from Grade 3
22(1)
Going Online: Organizing Worldwide Networks
23(2)
Samples of Writing in School
25(1)
Sample 1: High School Research Paper
26(2)
Sample 2: College Response Paper
28(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing: Four Contexts
29(1)
Analyzing a Literacy Event
29(6)
Frederick Douglass, from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
30(1)
Eudora Welly, from One Writer's Beginnings
31(1)
Margaret J. Finders, from Just Girls: Hidden Literacies and Life in Junior High
32(3)
Writing Assignment: Analyzing a Literacy Event
35(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
36(1)
Reading for Academic Purposes: Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation
37(24)
Reading as Research: Working with Sources
38(1)
Getting Started: Previewing
38(1)
Strategies for Close Reading
39(8)
Ethics of Reading: Boredom and Persistence
39(1)
Underlining
40(1)
Annotation
40(1)
Jonathan Kozol, from Distancing the Homeless
40(2)
Summarizing
42(1)
Sample Summary of Distancing the Homeless
42(1)
Exploratory Writing
43(1)
Sample Exploratory Writing
43(1)
Outlining
43(1)
Sample Outline
44(1)
Describing the Writer's Strategy
44(1)
Writing Strategies: What a Writer Does
45(1)
Sample Description of the Writer's Strategy
46(1)
Working Together: Analyzing an Argument
46(1)
Strategies for Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation
47(8)
Using Background Information
47(1)
The Context of Issues
47(1)
Going Online: Evaluating Web Sites
48(2)
The Writer
50(1)
The Publication
51(1)
Analyzing the Writer's Purpose and Relationship to Readers
52(1)
Analyzing the Writer's Language
53(1)
Tone
53(1)
Denotation/Connotation
53(1)
Figures of Speech
54(1)
Stereotypes
55(1)
Sample Analysis of a Rhetorical Situation
55(4)
Kevin Powell, ``My Culture at the Crossroads''
56(1)
Rhetorical Analysis of ``My Culture at the Crossroads''
57(2)
Writing Assignment: Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation
59(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
60(1)
Persuasion and Responsibility: Analyzing Arguments
61(44)
Working Together: Successful Persuasion
62(1)
Understanding Argument
63(6)
What Is Argument?: Dealing with Reasonable Differences
63(1)
Ethics of Writing: The Writer's Responsibility
64(1)
Darcy Peters and Marcus Boldt: Exchange of Letters
64(2)
Working Together: Looking at Differences
66(1)
What Do Readers Expect from Arguments?
66(3)
Entering a Controversy
69(4)
Analyzing Issues
69(1)
Types of Issues
70(1)
Issues of Substantiation
71(1)
Issues of Evaluation
71(1)
Issues of Policy
72(1)
Taking a Position: From Issues to Claims
73(1)
Developing a Persuasive Position
74(5)
What Are the Rhetorical Appeals?
74(1)
Analysis of Persuasive Appeals in ``The Ballot or the Bullet''
75(1)
Malcolm X, from ``The Ballot or the Bullet''
76(1)
Constructing an Appropriate Rhetorical Stance
77(1)
Sample Letters of Application
78(1)
Letter 1
78(1)
Letter 2
78(1)
Working Together: Rhetorical Stance
79(1)
Making an Argument
79(11)
What Are the Parts of an Argument?
80(1)
Claims, Evidence, and Enabling Assumptions
80(2)
Questions to Ask About Evidence
82(1)
Enabling Assumptions
83(1)
Working Together: Analyzing Claims, Evidence, and Enabling Assumptions
84(1)
Working Together: Backing an Argument
85(1)
Differing Views
86(1)
Summarize Differing Views Fairly and Accurately
86(1)
Refuting Differing Views
86(1)
Conceding Differing Views
87(1)
Negotiating Differing Views
87(1)
Qualifiers
88(1)
Putting the Parts Together
88(2)
Working Together: Analyzing the Making of an Argument
90(1)
Negotiating Differences
90(12)
``Vigilant Neighbors or Big Brother Informants''
91(1)
Beyond the Pro and Con
92(1)
Dialogue with Others
93(1)
An Electronic Exchange of Views
94(1)
Recognizing Ambiguities and Contradictions
95(1)
Going Online: Handling Differences
96(1)
Anna Quindlen, ``Abortion Is Too Complex to Feel All One Way About''
96(2)
Locating Common Ground
98(1)
``Call for Moratorium on Executions''
99(3)
Sample Rhetorical Analysis of an Argument
102(1)
Writing Assignment: Analyzing an Argument
103(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
104(1)
PART 2 WRITING PROJECTS
105(316)
Introduction: Genres of Writing
106(1)
Genre Choices
107(1)
Understanding Genres of Writing
107(1)
The Arrangement of the Chapters
108(1)
Letters: Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
109(38)
Thinking About the Genre
109(2)
Exploring Your Experience
111(1)
Readings: Letters on Iraq
111(5)
``Project for the New American Century to President William J. Clinton''
111(2)
``Mary A. Wright to Secretary of State Colin Powell''
113(1)
U.S. Navy Corpsman ``Email from Iraq''
114(2)
Analysis: Identifying the Rhetorical Situation
116(1)
Readings: Letters to the Editor
116(5)
Mark Patinkin, ``Commit a Crime, Suffer the Consequences''
117(1)
Kristin Tardiff, Letter to the Editor
118(1)
John N. Taylor, Letter to the Editor
119(1)
Analysis: A Public Forum
120(1)
Readings: A Correspondence on Sweatshops
121(3)
John Peretti, ``No Sweat, No Slang''
121(3)
Analysis: Transforming the Customer Letter
124(1)
Readings: Open Letter
124(4)
James Baldwin, ``My Dungeon Shook: Letter to My Nephew''
125(2)
Analysis: Private and Public Audiences
127(1)
Visual Design: Letter of Appeal from Doctors Without Borders
128(4)
Analysis: The Visual Design of Letters of Appeal
129(2)
Ethics of Writing: Using the Internet
131(1)
Further Exploration: Letters
132(1)
Genre Choices
132(1)
Working Together: Designing a Letter of Appeal
132(1)
Going Online: Instant Messages
132(1)
Writing Assignment
133(10)
Composing a Letter
133(1)
Alternative Assignments
134(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
134(1)
Working with Sources
134(1)
Invention
134(1)
Identifying the Call to Write
134(2)
Understanding Your Readers
136(1)
Background Research: Finding Models
136(1)
Planning
137(1)
Establishing the Occasion
137(1)
Arranging Your Material
138(1)
Working Draft
138(1)
Beginnings and Endings: Using an Echo Effect
139(1)
Using Topic Sentences
139(1)
Peer Commentary
140(1)
Revising
141(1)
Strengthening Topic Sentences for Focus and Transition
141(2)
Writers' Workshop
143(3)
Michael Brody, Letter to the Editor
143(1)
Michael Brody's Commentary
144(1)
Workshop Questions
145(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
146(1)
A Closing Note
146(1)
Memoirs: Recalling Personal Experience
147(39)
Thinking About the Genre
147(2)
Exploring Your Experience
149(1)
Readings
149(17)
Gary Sato, ``Black Hair''
149(6)
Analysis: A Moment of Revelation
155(1)
Annie Dillard, ``Throwing Snowballs''
156(2)
Analysis: Re-creating Experience
158(1)
Tariq Ali, ``An Atheist Childhood''
159(7)
Analysis: Using Episodes
166(1)
Visual Design: American Splendor: Comics as Memoir
166(3)
Analysis: Mixing Genres
169(1)
Further Exploration: Memoirs
169(2)
Genre Choices
169(1)
Working Together: Creating a Time Capsule
170(1)
Going Online: Visiting Home Pages
170(1)
Ethics of Writing: Bearing Witness
171(1)
Writing Assignment
171(11)
Writing Memoir
171(1)
Alternative Assignments
172(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
172(1)
Working with Sources
172(1)
Invention
173(1)
Sketching
173(1)
Working Together: Creating a Sketch
174(1)
Guidelines for Sketching
174(1)
Past and Present Perspectives
174(2)
Background Research: Putting Events in Context
176(1)
Planning
177(1)
Arranging Your Material
177(1)
Working Draft
178(1)
Beginnings and Endings: Framing Your Memoir
178(1)
Selecting Detail
179(1)
Peer Commentary
180(1)
Revising
180(1)
From Telling to Showing
181(1)
Writers' Workshop
182(3)
Jennifer Plante's Commentary
182(1)
Jennifer Plante, ``Sunday Afternoons''
183(1)
Workshop Questions
184(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
185(1)
A Closing Note
185(1)
Public Documents: Codifying Beliefs and Practices
186(34)
Thinking About the Genre
186(2)
Exploring Your Experience
187(1)
Readings
188(17)
Encounters with Public Documents
188(1)
Abraham Verghese, from My Own Country
188(3)
Ellen Cushman, from The Struggle and the Tools
191(3)
Analysis: Encountering Public Documents as Literacy Events
194(1)
Manifestos
195(1)
``Call of the World Social Movements''
196(1)
Ethics of Writing: Plain Language
197(3)
The Mentor, ``Hacker's Manifesto, or the Conscience of a Hacker''
200(1)
Analysis: The Rhetorical Situation
201(1)
Gallery of Petitions
202(1)
Kerwood Wolf Education Centre, ``Stop the Aerial Slaughter of Alaska's Wolves!''
202(1)
Amnesty International, ``Call for Human Rights in Russia''
203(1)
Jason Pierce, ``Tiger Woods---Stand Up for Equality---Augusta National Golf Club''
204(1)
Analysis: Looking at Voice in Petitions
205(1)
Visual Design: Paula Scher, ``Defective Equipment: The Palm Beach County Ballot''
205(2)
Analysis: Breaking Visual Design Conventions
206(1)
Further Exploration: Public Documents
207(2)
Genre Choices
207(1)
Working Together: Writing a Class Charter
207(1)
Going Online: WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition
208(1)
Writing Assignment
209(7)
Invention
209(1)
Clarifying Purpose and Genre
209(1)
Background Research: Understanding the Rhetorical Situation
210(1)
Planning
210(1)
Readability and the Visual Design of Public Documents
211(1)
Working Draft
212(1)
Tone and Rhetorical Distance
212(2)
Peer Commentary
214(1)
For Manifestos, Petitions, and Class Charters
214(1)
For Analysis of a Document
214(1)
Revising
214(1)
For Manifestos, Petitions, and Class Charters
214(1)
For Analysis of a Document
215(1)
Locating Common Ground
215(1)
Writers' Workshop
216(3)
The Warehouse State Honor Code
216(2)
Workshop Questions
218(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
219(1)
A Closing Note
219(1)
Profiles: Creating a Dominant Impression
220(41)
Thinking About the Genre
220(2)
Exploring Your Experience
222(1)
Readings
222(23)
Molly O'Neill, ``A Surgeon's War on Breast Cancer''
222(4)
Analysis: Open Form to Create a Dominant Impression
226(2)
Mike Rose, ``I Just Wanna Be Average''
228(3)
Analysis: Claim and Evidence
231(1)
Paul Buhle, ``Insurgent Images: Mike Alewitz'', Muralist
232(4)
Analysis: Using Cultural and Historical Background
236(1)
Roy Blount Jr. ``Memphis Minnie: Her Own Blues''
237(6)
Analysis: Contested Meanings
243(1)
Ethics of Writing: Responsibility to the Writer's Subject
244(1)
Visual Design---Profiles in Public Campaigns
245(2)
Analysis: Using Profiles to Personalize Issues
246(1)
Further Exploration: Profiles
247(1)
Genre Choices
247(1)
Working Together: Analyzing Profiles in Documentary Films
247(1)
Going Online: Researching Muralists
248(1)
Writing Assignment
248(9)
Creating a Profile
248(1)
Alternative Assignments
249(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
249(1)
Working with Sources
249(1)
Invention
250(1)
Finding a Subject
250(1)
Clarifying Your Purpose
251(1)
Background Research: Deciding What Information You Need
251(1)
Planning
252(1)
Deciding on the Dominant Impression
252(1)
Arranging Your Material
253(1)
Working Draft
253(1)
Beginnings and Endings: Using Figurative Language
253(1)
Comparing and Contrasting
254(1)
Peer Commentary
255(1)
Revising
256(1)
Establishing Perspective from the Beginning
256(1)
Writers' Workshop
257(3)
Richard Quitadamo, ``A Lawyer's Crusade Against Tobacco''
257(2)
Richard Quitadamo's Commentary
259(1)
Workshop Questions
260(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
260(1)
A Closing Note
260(1)
Reports: Informing and Explaining
261(42)
Thinking About the Genre
261(2)
Exploring Your Experience
263(1)
Readings
263(23)
News Reports
263(1)
Associated Press, ``Mentally Ill People Aren't More Violent, Study Finds''
263(1)
Fox Butterfield, ``Studies of Mental Illness Show Links to Violence''
264(2)
Analysis: Framing the Story
266(1)
Reports from the Antiglobalization Movement
267(1)
Fifty Years Is Enough: U.S. Network for Global Economic Justice, ``World Bank/IMF Fact Sheet''
267(4)
Global Exchange, ``Saipan Campaign''
271(1)
Analysis: Information and Persuasion
272(1)
Reports on Graphic Design
273(1)
Steven Heller and Karen Pomeroy, ``I Shop Therefore I Am---Barbara Kruger''
274(2)
``Dylan---Milton Glaser''
276(1)
Analysis: Object Lessons
277(1)
Report on Scientific Research
278(1)
Analysis: Explaining Scientific Research
279(1)
Daniel Pauly and Reg Watson, ``Counting the Last Fish''
280(6)
Visual Design: ``The Triangle Factory Fire'': An Informational Web Site
286(2)
Analysis: Information Design
287(1)
Further Exploration: Reports
288(1)
Genre Choices
288(1)
Working Together: Designing an Informational Web Site
288(1)
Going Online: Reading the News Online
288(1)
Writing Assignment
289(6)
The Report
289(1)
Alternative Assignment
290(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
290(1)
Invention
290(1)
Clarifying Your Purpose and Your Readers' Need to Know
291(1)
Background Research: Surveying the Information at Hand
291(1)
Planning: Organizing the Information
292(1)
Exercise: Organizing Your Report
292(1)
Drafting: Introducing the Topic
293(1)
Peer Commentary
293(1)
Revising
294(1)
Getting the Right Order
294(1)
Writers' Workshop
295(7)
Michael E. Crouch, ``Lost in a Smog''
296(6)
Reflecting on Your Writing
302(1)
A Closing Note
302(1)
Commentary: Identifying Patterns of Meaning
303(35)
Thinking About the Genre
303(3)
Exploring Your Experience
305(1)
Ethics of Writing: In Whose Interest?
305(1)
Readings
306(13)
Eric Liu, ``Remember When Public Spaces Didn't Carry Brand Names?''
306(1)
Analysis: Conversing with Readers
307(1)
``Half.com, Oregon''
308(1)
Lundy Braun, ``How to Fight the New Epidemics''
309(2)
Analysis: Explaining Causes and Effects
311(1)
Salim Muwakkil, ``Throwing Away the Key''
312(2)
Analysis: Drawing on Research Studies
314(2)
Susan Faludi, ``An American Myth Rides into the Sunset''
316(2)
Analysis: Making Interpretive Judgments
318(1)
Visual Design: Political Posters
319(2)
Analysis: Combining Text and Image
320(1)
Further Exploration: Commentary
321(2)
Genre Choices
321(1)
Going Online: Following a Thread
322(1)
Working Together: Assembling a Casebook
322(1)
Writing Assignment
323(10)
Writing Commentary
323(1)
Alternative Assignments
324(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
324(1)
Working with Sources
324(1)
Invention
325(1)
Naming the Topic
325(1)
Background Research: Assessing Your Knowledge of the Topic
326(1)
Identifying the Issue
327(1)
Planning
328(1)
Framing the Issue
328(1)
Planning the Introduction
329(1)
Planning the Ending
330(1)
Working Draft
330(1)
Emphasizing Your Main Point and Distinguishing Your Perspective
330(1)
Peer Commentary
331(1)
Revising
331(1)
Maintaining a Reasonable Tone
332(1)
Writers' Workshop
333(4)
Rachel Smith, ``Socially Accepted Discrimination?''
333(2)
Interview with Rachel Smith
335(1)
Workshop Questions
336(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
337(1)
A Closing Note
337(1)
Proposals: Formulating and Solving Problems
338(47)
Thinking About the Genre
338(3)
Exploring Your Experience
340(1)
Readings
341(23)
Leon Botstein, ``Let Teenagers Try Adulthood''
341(2)
Analysis: Facing the Facts
343(1)
Two Fieldwork Proposals
343(1)
Lucia Trimbur, ``Training Fighters, Making Men: A Study of Amateur Boxers and Their Trainers at Gleason's Gym''
344(4)
Ryan Chaney, ``Bluegrass, Old Time Music, and the Politics of Regional Culture and Economy''
348(5)
Analysis: Research Proposals
353(1)
Henry Jenkins, ``Lessons from Littleton: What Congress Doesn't Want to Hear About Youth and the Media''
354(9)
Analysis: From Critique to Constructive Proposals
363(1)
Visual Design: Advocacy Group Appeals
364(3)
Analysis: Design and Purpose
365(2)
Further Exploration: Proposals
367(2)
Genre Choices
367(1)
Working Together: Advocacy Group Proposals
367(1)
Ethics of Writing: Problems and Conflicts
368(1)
Going Online: Proposal Writing Guides
369(1)
Writing Assignment
369(10)
Proposing a Problem Solution
369(1)
Alternative Assignments
370(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
370(1)
Working with Sources
370(1)
Invention
371(1)
Background Research: Formulating the Problem
372(2)
Assessing Alternatives
374(1)
Planning
375(1)
Relative Emphasis on the Problem and the Solution
375(1)
Developing a Working Outline
376(1)
Working Draft
377(1)
Matching Problems and Solutions
377(1)
Peer Commentary
377(1)
Revising
378(1)
Writers' Workshop
379(5)
Proposal for a Campus Coffee House
379(4)
Writers' Commentary
383(1)
Workshop Questions
383(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
384(1)
A Closing Note
384(1)
Reviews: Evaluating Works and Performances
385(36)
Thinking About the Genre
385(2)
Exploring Your Experience
387(1)
Readings
387(17)
Reviews of Reality TV
387(1)
Joy Press, ``Hunks and Has-Beens''
387(3)
Mark Andrejevic, ``Reality' Camera Goes from Candid to Cruel''
390(1)
Analysis: Accounting for a Phenomenon
391(1)
Maureen Ryan, ``iTunes vs. Legal Napster''
392(4)
Analysis: Applying Criteria
396(1)
Stephen Holden, ``After 20 Years, It Still Comes Out Swinging''
397(1)
Analysis: Creating a Classic
398(1)
Sandra Tsing Loh, ``Burgher Deluxe''
399(3)
Analysis: Establishing the Context of Issues
402(1)
Ethics of Writing: Reviewing as a Partisan Activity
403(1)
Visual Design: Rating Systems
404(2)
Analysis: Variations on a Standard Scale
405(1)
Further Exploration: Reviews
406(2)
Genre Choices
406(1)
Working Together: Course Review
406(1)
Going Online: Rapstation
407(1)
Writing Assignment
408(9)
Writing a Review
408(1)
Alternative Assignments
409(1)
Rhetorical Analysis
409(1)
Working with Sources
409(1)
Invention
410(1)
Exploring Your Topic
410(1)
Background Research: Looking at a Body of Work
410(1)
Establishing Criteria of Evaluation
411(1)
Applying Your Criteria of Evaluation
412(1)
Planning
413(1)
Considering the Relation Between Description and Evaluation
413(1)
Using Comparison and Contrast
414(1)
Working Draft
414(1)
Engaging Others
414(1)
Peer Commentary
415(1)
Revising
415(1)
Options for Meaningful Endings
416(1)
Writers' Workshop
417(3)
Denise Sega, Working Draft of ``More Than Just Burnouts''
417(3)
Reflecting on Your Writing
420(1)
A Closing Note
420(1)
PART 3 WRITING AND RESEARCH PROJECTS
421(112)
Introduction: Doing Research
422(1)
Research Techniques
423(1)
Scale of Research
423(1)
Need to Know
424(5)
Donna Gaines, from Teenage Wasteland
425(4)
The Research Process: Critical Essays and Research Projects
429(40)
Understanding the Genre: Critical Essays and Research Projects
429(2)
What Are Faculty Looking For? Understanding Academic Writing
430(1)
Sample Student Papers for Analysis
431(20)
Sample Critical Essay
431(1)
Jacqueline Perkins, ``The Dilemma of Empire''
432(4)
Analysis: Working with Sources
436(1)
Sample Research Paper in MLA Format
436(1)
Ben Marsh, ``Learning from Serpent Handlers: An Alternate Model of Christian Community''
437(5)
Analysis: Creating a Research Space
442(1)
Checklist for MLA and APA Style
443(1)
Sample Research Paper in APA Format
444(1)
Jennie Chen, ``Defining Disease: The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome''
445(5)
Analysis: Identifying a Central Controversy
450(1)
The Research Process: An Overview
451(6)
Getting Started: Analyzing the Assignment
452(1)
Following a Research Path: Analyzing the Assignment
453(1)
Preliminary Research
453(2)
Following a Research Path: Preliminary Research
455(1)
Developing a Research Question
455(1)
Evaluating a Research Question
455(1)
Following a Research Path: Defining the Research Question
456(1)
Writing a Proposal
456(1)
Following a Research Path: Writing a Proposal
457(1)
Finding Sources to Shape Your Research Question
457(5)
Keeping a Working Bibliography
457(1)
Following a Research Path: Finding Sources
458(4)
Integrating Sources into Your Research Project
462(4)
Analyzing Your Sources
463(1)
Taking Notes
464(1)
Following a Research Path: Taking Notes
465(1)
Keeping an Open Mind
465(1)
Following a Research Path: Exploratory Writing
466(1)
Planning and Drafting Your Project
466(1)
Following a Research Path: Making an Outline
467(1)
A Closing Note
467(2)
Working with Sources
469(30)
Working with Sources to Answer Your Research Question
469(4)
Ethics of Writing: Plagiarism
471(1)
Integrating Sources
472(1)
Paraphrasing
472(1)
Summarizing
472(1)
Quoting
472(1)
Sample Paraphrase and Summary
472(1)
Working with Quotations
473(2)
Short Quotations
473(1)
Words
473(1)
Phrases
474(1)
Sentences
474(1)
Long Quotations
474(1)
Citing the Author
475(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
475(1)
Fitting Quotations to Your Sentences
476(2)
Ellipses
476(1)
Brackets
476(1)
Quotations Within Quotations
477(1)
Revising Your Research Project
478(2)
Do You Need the Quote?
478(1)
Is It Clear Where Sources Start and Stop?
478(1)
Are Sources Used Purposefully or Just Strung Together?
479(1)
Do You Provide Commentary Where It Is Needed?
479(1)
In-Text Citations
480(4)
Sources with One Author
481(1)
Sources with Multiple Authors
482(1)
Sources with No Author Listed
483(1)
Indirect Quotations
484(1)
Works Cited (MLA) and References (APA)
484(15)
Books
484(5)
Articles in Periodicals
489(2)
Miscellaneous Sources
491(2)
Online and Electronic Sources
493(6)
A Guide to Print, Electronic, and Other Sources
499(10)
Books and Periodicals
499(3)
Understanding Types of Print Sources
500(1)
Books
500(1)
Periodicals
500(2)
Learning About the Library
502(2)
Searching the Library Catalog
502(1)
Using General and Specialized Encyclopedias
502(1)
Using Bibliographies
503(1)
Using Indexes
503(1)
Exploring the Web
504(2)
Going Online: Web Directories
505(1)
Using Search Engines
505(1)
How to Use Key Words
506(1)
Government Publications
506(1)
Other Sources
507(2)
Performances and Events
507(1)
Museums
507(1)
Media
508(1)
Fieldwork and the Research Report
509(24)
Ethics of Writing
510(1)
Understanding the Genre: Research Reports
510(8)
Luis Ramirez, ``Food Sources in South Providence''
511(5)
Analysis: A Detailed Look at the Genre
516(2)
Designing A Field Research Project
518(1)
Writing a Proposal
519(1)
Observation
519(3)
The Process of Observation
519(1)
Planning
519(1)
Three Considerations to Take Into Account When You Do Observations
520(1)
Conducting Observations
520(1)
Analyzing Your Notes
521(1)
Fieldwork Practice: Observation
521(1)
Interviews
522(4)
The Interview Process
523(1)
Planning
523(1)
Four Types of Interviews
524(1)
Setting Up the Interview
525(1)
Conducting an In-Person or Telephone Interview
525(1)
After the Interview
525(1)
Analyzing the Transcript
526(1)
A Final Note on Interviews
526(1)
Fieldwork Practice: Interviewing
526(1)
Surveys
526(7)
The Process of Designing and Conducting a Survey
527(1)
Getting Background Information
527(1)
Selecting Participants
527(1)
Ethics of Research: Loaded Questions
528(1)
Designing the Questionnaire
529(1)
Types of Questions
529(2)
Conducting the Survey
531(1)
Compiling, Analyzing, and Presenting Results
531(1)
Fieldwork Practice: Conducting a Survey
532(1)
PART 4 WRITERS AT WORK
533(66)
Introduction: Managing Your Writing Projects
534(2)
Writing Habits
536(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing: Describing Your Writing Habits
537(1)
The Writing Process: A Case Study of a Writing Assignment
538(19)
Understanding the Writing Process
538(2)
Reflecting on Your Writing: How You Managed a Writing Task
539(1)
Collaborating on Your Writing Projects
540(2)
Ethics of Collaboration Writing: Responsibilities of Writers and Readers
541(1)
Exploring Your Experience
542(1)
Case Study of a Writing Assignment
542(13)
Invention
542(1)
Understanding the Call to Write
542(2)
Understanding Readers
544(1)
Exploring the Topic
545(1)
Krista's Exploratory Writing
545(1)
Planning
546(1)
Krista's Brief Outline
546(1)
Drafting
547(1)
Krista's Working Draft
547(1)
Peer Commentary
548(1)
Describe the Writer's Strategy
548(1)
Analyze the Organization
549(1)
Evaluate the Argument
550(1)
Revising
551(3)
Krista's Revisions to Working Draft
554(1)
Final Touches
555(1)
Directions for Editing
555(1)
Directions for Proofreading
555(1)
Talking to Teachers
555(1)
Going to the Writing Center
556(1)
The Shape of the Essay: How Form Embodies Purpose
557(29)
Thinking About Form
557(1)
Three Patterns of Organization
558(10)
Exercise: Analyzing Patterns of Organization
559(1)
Sara Boxer, ``I Shop, Ergo I Am: The Mall as Society's Mirror''
559(3)
Ellen Goodman, ``Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance''
562(2)
Joan Didion, ``Los Angeles Notebook''
564(4)
Seeing Patterns of Organization: How Form Embodies Purpose
568(2)
A Note on Mixed Form
570(1)
Putting the Parts Together
570(6)
Introductions
570(1)
Endings
571(1)
Connecting the Parts: Keeping Your Purposes Visible
572(1)
Use Reasons to Explain
573(1)
Laurie Ouellette, from ``Building the Third Wave''
573(1)
Create Topic Chains
574(1)
Use Transitions
575(1)
Common Types of Transitions
576(1)
Designing Paragraphs
576(6)
Seeing Paragraphs: The Visual Dimension
577(1)
Unity and Coherence: The Psychological Dimension
578(1)
Topic Sentences and Unity
579(1)
Discussion and Unity and Coherence
579(2)
A Note on the Placement of Topic Sentences
581(1)
How Paragraphs Make Patterns of Organization Easy to Recognize
582(4)
Narration
582(1)
Description
583(1)
Definition
583(1)
Classification
584(1)
Comparison and Contrast
584(2)
Working Together: Collaborative Writing Projects
586(13)
Collaborative Writing
586(4)
Exploring Your Experience
588(1)
Guidelines for Collaborating in Groups
588(1)
Recognize That Group Members Need to Get Acquainted and That Groups Take Time to Form
588(1)
Clarify Group Purposes and Individual Roles
588(1)
Recognize That Members Bring Different Styles to the Group
588(1)
Recognize That You May Not Play the Same Role in Every Group
589(1)
Monitor Group Progress and Reassess Goals and Procedures
589(1)
Quickly Address Problems in Group Dynamics
589(1)
Encourage Differences of Opinion
589(1)
How to Work Together on Collaborative Writing Projects
590(5)
Organizing the Group
590(1)
Group Size
590(1)
Group Composition
590(1)
The First Meeting
590(1)
Division of Labor, or Integrated Team?
591(1)
Organizing the Project
591(1)
The Proposal
591(2)
Productive Meetings
593(1)
Progress Reports
593(1)
Confidential Self-Evaluation
593(1)
Drafting, Revising, and Editing
593(1)
Giving Credit
594(1)
Final Presentation
594(1)
Online Collaboration
594(1)
Ethics of Writing: Giving Credit and Taking Responsibility
595(1)
Identifying the Call to Write: Types of Projects
595(3)
Reports and Recommendations
596(1)
Proposals for Grant Funding
597(1)
Informative Writing
597(1)
Other Possibilities
598(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
598(1)
PART 5 PRESENTING YOUR WORK
599(80)
Introduction: Communicating with Your Readers
600(2)
Visual Design
602(34)
How Visual Design Embodies Purposes
603(14)
Identification
603(2)
Information
605(1)
Textual Graphics
605(2)
Representational Graphics
607(1)
Numerical Graphics
607(3)
Ethics of Information Design
610(4)
Persuasion
614(3)
Visual Design: Four Basic Principles
617(11)
Group Similar Items Together
617(1)
Align Visual Elements
618(1)
Use Repetition and Contrast to Create Consistent Visual Patterns
619(4)
Add Visual Interest
623(1)
Working with Type
624(1)
Serif and Sanserif Typefaces
625(1)
Display Typefaces
626(1)
Mixing Typefaces
626(2)
Visual Design Projects
628(6)
Preliminary Considerations
628(1)
Working Sketches
628(2)
From Sketch to Document: Some Examples
630(1)
Flyers
630(1)
Newsletters
631(1)
Brochures
632(2)
Writers' Workshop
634(2)
Kevin Candiloro, ``Eating Disorders: Learning to Break the Cycle''
634(1)
Workshop Questions
635(1)
Web Design
636(10)
The Rhetorical Purposes of Web Design
636(3)
Identification
637(1)
Information
638(1)
Persuasion
638(1)
The Structure of Web Design
639(2)
Exercise: Analyzing Web Structure
641(1)
The Visual Design of Web Sites
641(2)
Writing Assignment
643(2)
Planning a Web Site
643(1)
Identifying the Call to Write
643(1)
Understanding Your Audience
643(1)
Understanding the Genre
644(1)
Designing Web Structure
644(1)
Drafting and Revising
645(1)
Reflecting on Your Writing
645(1)
Oral Presentations
646(8)
Understanding the Differences Between Writing and Oral Presentations
646(1)
Developing an Oral Presentation
647(2)
Preliminary Considerations
647(1)
Planning the Oral Presentation
648(1)
Identifying the Call to Write
648(1)
Defining Your Audience
648(1)
Planning the Introduction
648(1)
Arranging Your Material
648(1)
Planning the Ending
649(1)
Being Prepared for Questions
649(1)
Designing and Using Visual Aids
649(2)
Rehearsing Your Presentation
651(1)
Delivering Your Presentation
652(2)
Going Online: PowerPoint Tutorials
653(1)
Essay Exams
654(13)
Preparing for Essay Exams
655(1)
Working Together: Preparing for Exams
656(1)
Analyzing Essay Exams
656(3)
Surveying the Format
656(1)
Analyzing Exam Questions
657(1)
Identification Items (IDs)
657(1)
Short-Answer Questions
657(1)
Guidelines for Analyzing Exam Questions
658(1)
Essay Questions
659(1)
Working Together: Analyzing Essay Questions
659(1)
Planning Your Answer
659(1)
Writing a Good Answer
660(7)
Common Essay Exam Questions
661(2)
Sample Essay Answers
663(3)
Working Together: Analyzing an Essay Answer
666(1)
Writing Portfolios
667(12)
What to Include in a Portfolio
668(1)
Amount of Writing to Include
668(1)
Type of Writing to Include
668(1)
Some Options for a Writing Portfolio
668(9)
A Reflective Letter
668(2)
Revised Writing Assignments
670(1)
A Case Study
670(5)
Peer Commentary
675(1)
Commentary on Collaborative Writing
675(2)
Samples of Exploratory Writing
677(1)
Miscellaneous
677(1)
Online Portfolios
677(2)
Credits 679(10)
Index 689


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