9781118569290

Carbon Science and Technology From Energy to Materials

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781118569290

  • ISBN10:

    1118569296

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 1/30/2013
  • Publisher: Wiley-ISTE

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Summary

Carbon solids have been utilized by man since prehistoric times, first as a source of heat and then for other purposes; these are used as key markers for different civilizations. The essential role played by the use of coal mines during the industrial revolution as a main source of energy is a crucial point, which was then expanded through the development of carbochemistry.

This book begins by describing the use of solid carbons as traditional materials, for example in the steel industry and for ceramics, then moving on to their technological uses such as active carbons and carbon fibers, etc., before discussing nanocarbons, the jewel in the crown of contemporary technological science. The final chapter analyzes the current economic and social impact of carbon solids.

Table of Contents

Introduction  xi

Chemical Glossary  xvii

Chapter 1. From the Chemical Element to Solids  1

1.1. Carbon on Earth  1

1.2. A brief history of the chemistry of carbon  5

1.2.1. The first discoveries: fire, heat and metals  9

1.2.2. Exploitation of mined resources  11

1.2.3. Uses of dispersed carbons  13

1.3. Presentation of carbon solids  14

1.3.1. Comparison of natural and artificial evolution  16

1.3.2. Production and development of carbonaceous products  17

1.4. Conclusion and perspectives  18

1.5. Bibliography  19

Chapter 2. The Polymorphism of Carbon  23

2.1. The carbon atom and its chemical bonds  24

2.1.1. Chemical bonds and solid phases  24

2.1.2. Carbon isotopes  26

2.2. A thermodynamic approach  27

2.2.1. Some reminders about phenomenonological thermodynamics  27

2.2.2. Diagram of equilibrium states of carbon  28

2.3. New molecular phases  30

2.4. Non-crystalline carbons  32

2.4.1. Principal processes  33

2.4.2. Evolution and structural characterizations  35

2.4.3. Homogeneous massive carbons  40

2.4.4. Porous and dispersed carbons  42

2.5. From solids to materials  44

2.6. Bibliography  45

Chapter 3. Natural Carbons: Energy Source and Carbochemistry  47

3.1. Primary energy sources  48

3.1.1. The various forms of energy  48

3.1.2. Combustion of natural coals  53

3.1.3. Manufacturing cements  57

3.1.4. Gasification and liquefaction procedures  57

3.2. Carbochemistry  58

3.2.1. Intermediary products: coal tar and pitch  60

3.2.2. Solid primary materials: cokes and artificial graphites  63

3.3. Use of coal resources  64

3.3.1. Primary energy source  64

3.3.2. The future of carbochemistry and carbonaceous materials  67

3.4. Summation and essential points  68

3.5. Bibliography  68

Chapter 4. The Role of Carbon in Metallurgy  71

4.1. Principles and evolution of the steel industry  72

4.1.1. Industrial manufacturing for cast iron and steel  75

4.1.2. Carbons in the steel industry  77

4.2. The manufacturing of aluminum  78

4.2.1. Electrolysis tank  78

4.2.2. Carbons for the aluminum industry  79

4.3. Silicon production  80

4.3.1. Obtaining metallurgical silicon  80

4.3.2. Carbon electrodes  81

4.4. Metallic carbides  81

4.4.1. Synthesis of acetylene  82

4.4.2. Refractory carbides  82

4.5. Summary and essential points  83

4.6. Bibliography  84

Chapter 5. Black and White Ceramics  85

5.1. Graphites and isotropic carbons  86

5.1.1. Manufacturing artificial graphites  86

5.1.2. General physical properties  88

5.1.3. Glassy carbons  91

5.1.4. Major areas of application  92

5.2. Pyrocarbons and pyrographites  94

5.2.1. Pyrocarbons (Pyc) obtained via vapor-phase chemical deposit  95

5.2.2. Textural and physical characteristics  96

5.2.3. Pyrographites and analogs  99

5.3. Films of diamond  100

5.3.1. Thin layer processes  100

5.3.2. Properties and fields of application  102

5.4. Summary and essential points  103

5.5. Bibliography  104

Chapter 6. Dispersed and Porous Carbons  107

6.1. Carbon blacks  108

6.1.1. Formation mechanisms and industrial processes  108

6.1.2. Classification and characteristics  110

6.1.3. Other carbon particles  112

6.2. Shaping and fields of application  113

6.2.1. Reminder on heterogeneous media  113

6.2.2. Main domains of exploitation  116

6.3. Porous and adsorbent carbons  119

6.3.1. General definitions  119

6.3.2. Activated carbons  123

6.3.3. Purification and transport in the gaseous phase  125

6.3.4. Uses in the liquid phase  126

6.4. Summary and essential points  128

6.5. Bibliography  129

Chapter 7. Fibers and Composites  131

7.1. Carbon filaments  132

7.1.1. Historic overview of the main families  132

7.1.2. Textural characteristics and physical properties  136

7.2. Composite materials  139

7.2.1. Fiber-matrix interface  139

7.2.2. Main categories of composites and nanocomposites  143

7.2.3. Manufacture of carbon-carbon composites  145

7.2.4. Applications of carbon-carbon composites  148

7.3. Summary and essential points  151

7.4. Bibliography  152

Chapter 8. Molecular Carbons and Nanocarbons  155

8.1. Synthesis and production  156

8.1.1. Synthesis and characterization of fullerenes  156

8.1.2. Formation and identification of nanotubes  157

8.1.3. Manufacture and stabilization of graphene ribbons  160

8.2. Transport and nanoelectronic properties  162

8.2.1. Electronic transport in single-wall nanotubes and graphene ribbons  165

8.2.2. Molecular transistors and logic circuits  166

8.2.3. Associated quantum phenomena  168

8.3. Physical chemistry of interface and sensors  169

8.3.1. Chemical functionalization of surfaces  170

8.3.2. Sensors, biosensors and actuators  173

8.3.3. Comments on biological compatibility  175

8.4. Conclusion and prospective  176

8.5. Bibliography  176

Chapter 9. Carbon Techniques and Innovation  179

9.1. Evolution of carbon materials  180

9.1.1. Different generations of carbonaceous materials  180

9.1.2. Classification by purpose and areas of activity  182

9.1.3. Role in energy problems  183

9.2. Socio-economic aspects  186

9.2.1. Economic assessments  186

9.2.2. Economic transitions and cycles  188

9.3. Epilogue  191

9.4. Bibliography  192

Index  195

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