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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology,9780766825338
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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780766825338

ISBN10:
0766825337
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/30/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $127.95
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Summary

This well-regarded text offers a thorough and innovative approach to the structure and function of the cardiopulmonary system. Written in an easy-to-understand style with a highly visual format, the text enhances the reader's comprehension of difficult concepts. Chapters were reorganized into sections to better structure the presentation of essential and more advanced topics. Section I describes the anatomic structures of the respiratory system and covers the major concepts and mechanisms of respiratory physiology across the lifespan, including fetal and newborn gas exchange and circulation. Section II includes three new chapters on electrophysiology of the heart, standard 12-ECG system, and ECG interpretation. The Section also covers hemodynamic measurements and interpretations and the structure and function of the renal system. Section III covers the cardiopulmonary system during unusual environmental conditions (including a thorough discussion of the effects of exercise, high altitude, and high-pressure environments).

Table of Contents

List of Tables
xiii
Foreword xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xx
SECTION ONE The Cardiopulmonary System--The Essentials 1(346)
The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
3(60)
The Airways
7(1)
The Upper Airway
7(15)
The Lower Airways
22(12)
The Sites of Gas Exchange
34(3)
The Pulmonary Vascular System
37(4)
The Lymphatic System
41(2)
Neural Control of the Lungs
43(1)
The Lungs
44(2)
The Mediastinum
46(2)
The Pleural Membranes
48(1)
The Thorax
49(1)
The Diaphragm
50(8)
Chapter Summary
58(1)
Review Questions
59(4)
Ventilation
63(54)
Pressure Differences Across the Lungs
64(3)
Role of the Diaphragm in Ventilation
67(2)
Positive Pressure Ventilation
69(2)
Static Characteristics of the Lungs
71(15)
Dynamic Characteristics of the Lungs
86(8)
Ventilatory Patterns
94(6)
How Normal Intrapleural Pressure Differences Cause Regional Differences in Normal Lung Ventilation
100(1)
The Effect of Airway Resistance and Lung Compliance on Ventilatory Patterns
101(1)
Overview of Specific Ventilatory Patterns
102(4)
Chapter Summary
106(3)
Clinical Applications
109(3)
Review Questions
112(3)
Clinical Application Questions
115(2)
The Diffusion of Pulmonary Gases
117(26)
Gas Laws
118(2)
The Partial Pressures of Atmospheric Gases
120(2)
The Ideal Alveolar Gas Equation
122(1)
The Diffusion of Pulmonary Gases
123(1)
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Diffusion Across the Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
124(4)
Gas Diffusion
128(2)
Perfusion-Limited Gas Flow
130(1)
Diffusion-Limited Gas Flow
131(3)
How Oxygen Can Be Either Perfusion or Diffusion Limited
134(2)
Chapter Summary
136(1)
Clinical Applications
136(3)
Review Questions
139(2)
Clinical Application Questions
141(2)
Pulmonary Function Measurements
143(26)
Lung Volumes and Capacities
144(4)
Pulmonary Mechanics
148(9)
How the Effects of Dynamic Compression Decrease Expiratory Flow Rates
157(4)
Chapter Summary
161(1)
Clinical Applications
162(4)
Review Questions
166(2)
Clinical Application Questions
168(1)
The Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory System
169(42)
The Blood
170(5)
The Heart
175(8)
The Pulmonary and Systemic Vascular Systems
183(4)
Pressures in the Pulmonary and Systemic Vascular Systems
187(1)
The Cardiac Cycle and Its Effect on Blood Pressure
188(4)
The Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow
192(11)
Chapter Summary
203(2)
Clinical Applications
205(3)
Review Questions
208(2)
Clinical Application Questions
210(1)
Oxygen Transport
211(40)
Oxygen Transport
213(3)
Oxygen Dissociation Curve
216(13)
Oxygen Transport Studies
229(11)
Tissue Hypoxia
240(2)
Cyanosis
242(1)
Polycythemia
243(1)
Chapter Summary
244(1)
Clinical Applications
244(4)
Review Questions
248(2)
Clinical Application Questions
250(1)
Carbon Dioxide Transport and Acid-Base Balance
251(26)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
252(2)
Carbon Dioxide Elimination at the Lungs
254(2)
Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve
256(3)
Acid-Base Balance
259(2)
The Role of the PCO2/HCO3- /pH Relationship in Acid-Base Balance
261(9)
Chapter Summary
270(1)
Clinical Applications
270(3)
Review Questions
273(2)
Clinical Application Questions
275(2)
Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships
277(16)
Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
277(9)
Chapter Summary
286(1)
Clinical Applications
287(3)
Review Questions
290(1)
Clinical Application Questions
291(2)
Control of Ventilation
293(20)
The Respiratory Components of the Medulla Oblongata
294(2)
The Influence of the Pontine Respiratory Centers on the Respiratory Components of the Medulla Oblongata
296(2)
Monitoring Systems That Influence the Respiratory Components of the Medulla Oblongata
298(6)
Reflexes That Influence Ventilation
304(2)
Chapter Summary
306(1)
Clinical Applications
307(2)
Review Questions
309(2)
Clinical Application Questions
311(2)
Fetal Development and the Cardiopulmonary System
313(20)
Fetal Lung Development
314(2)
Placenta
316(3)
Fetal Circulation
319(2)
Birth
321(2)
Control of Ventilation in the Newborn
323(1)
Clinical Parameters in the Normal Newborn
324(2)
Chapter Summary
326(1)
Clinical Applications
326(3)
Review Questions
329(1)
Clinical Application Questions
330(3)
Aging and the Cardiopulmonary System
333(14)
The Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System
335(4)
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
339(1)
Arterial Blood Gases
339(1)
The Effects of Aging on the Cardiovascular System
340(4)
Chapter Summary
344(1)
Review Questions
344(3)
SECTION TWO Advanced Cardiopulmonary Concepts and Related Areas--The Essentials 347(94)
Electrophysiology of the Heart
349(8)
The Five Phases of the Action Potential
351(1)
Properties of the Cardiac Muscle
352(3)
Chapter Summary
355(1)
Review Questions
356(1)
The Standard 12-ECG System
357(16)
The Standard 12-ECG System
358(6)
Normal ECG Configurations and Their Expected Measurements (Lead II)
364(7)
Chapter Summary
371(1)
Review Questions
371(2)
ECG Interpretation
373(30)
How to Analyze the Waveforms
374(4)
Common Cardiac Dysrhythmias
378(19)
Chapter Summary
397(1)
Review Questions
398(5)
Hemodynamic Measurements
403(14)
Hemodynamic Measurements Directly Obtained by Means of the Pulmonary Artery Catheter
403(2)
Hemodynamic Values Computed From Direct Measurements
405(6)
Chapter Summary
411(1)
Clinical Applications
412(2)
Review Questions
414(2)
Clinical Application Questions
416(1)
Renal Failure and Its Effects on the Cardiopulmonary System
417(24)
The Kidneys
418(2)
The Nephrons
420(1)
Blood Vessels of the Kidneys
421(1)
Urine Formation
421(4)
Urine Concentration and Volume
425(1)
Regulation of Electrolyte Concentration
426(1)
Role of the Kidneys in Acid-Base Balance
427(1)
Blood Volume
428(1)
Renal Failure
429(3)
Cardiopulmonary Disorders Caused by Renal Failure
432(2)
Chapter Summary
434(1)
Clinical Applications
434(3)
Review Questions
437(2)
Clinical Application Questions
439(2)
SECTION THREE The Cardiopulmonary System During Unusual Environmental Conditions 441(38)
Exercise and Its Effects on the Cardiopulmonary System
443(18)
Ventilation
444(4)
Circulation
448(5)
Interrelationships Between Muscle Work, Oxygen Consumption, and Cardiac Output
453(1)
The Influence of Training on the Heart and Cardiac Activity
454(1)
Stroke Volume Versus Heart Rate in Increasing Cardiac Output
455(1)
Body Temperature/Cutaneous Blood Flow Relationship
456(1)
Cardiovascular Rehabilitation
457(1)
Chapter Summary
458(1)
Review Questions
458(3)
High Altitude and Its Effects on the Cardiopulmonary System
461(10)
High Altitude
461(5)
Other Physiologic Changes
466(3)
Chapter Summary
469(1)
Review Questions
469(2)
High-Pressure Environments and Their Effects on the Cardiopulmonary System
471(8)
Diving
471(4)
Hyperbaric Medicine
475(2)
Chapter Summary
477(1)
Review Questions
477(2)
Glossary 479(54)
Appendices
I Symbols and Abbreviations
499(4)
II Units of Measurement
503(6)
III Poiseuille's Law
509(4)
IV DuBois Body Surface Chart
513(2)
V Cardiopulmonary Profile
515(2)
VI PCO2/HCO3-/pH Nomogram
517(2)
VII Calculating Heart Rate by Counting the Number of Large ECG Squares
519(2)
VIII Answers to Review Questions in Text
521(12)
Bibliography 533(8)
Index 541


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