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Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century,9780131137813
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Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131137813

ISBN10:
0131137816
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $120.00
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Summary

Key Benefit: Organized around the National Career Development Associationrs"s competencies, this practical, engaging book examines the full spectrum of state-of-the-art career development topics.Key Topics: Coverage focuses squarely on the application of interventions with real people, using straightforward presentations and cases studies to expose readers to all of the essential competencies required for the professional practice of career counseling. The authorsrs" respect for their field, and their long-standing commitment to educating individuals about career development theory and practice creates a readable, useful, interesting text that addresses the wide diversity of career counseling clients and counselors in todayrs"s society, while emphasizing that careers develop over time, rather than in a single "enlightened" moment.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Career Development Interventions
1(33)
The Meaning of Work Across Time
5(3)
Linking Work with Worth
8(2)
Providing Systematic Career Development Interventions
10(1)
Definition of Terms
11(2)
Career
12(1)
Career Development
12(1)
Career Development Interventions
12(1)
Career Counseling
13(1)
Career Education
13(1)
Career Development Programs
13(1)
Important Events in the History of Career Development Interventions
13(1)
Frank Parsons
14(12)
Future Trends in Career Development Interventions
26(1)
View Career Decisions as Values-Based Decisions
27(1)
Move Beyond Objective Assessment
28(1)
Move to Counseling-Based Career Assistance
28(1)
Move to a Stronger Emphasis on Multicultural Career Development Theories and Interventions
29(1)
Move to Focusing on Multiple Life Roles
29(1)
Summary
30(1)
References
30(4)
Understanding and Applying Theories of Career Development
34(51)
Career Development Theories
35(5)
Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Theory
40(16)
Life Span
42(3)
Life Space
45(1)
Self-Concepts
46(2)
Applying Super's Theory
48(4)
Contextual Factors Influencing Life-Role Salience
52(3)
Evaluating Super's Theory
55(1)
Linda Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation
56(5)
Stage One: Orientation to Size and Power
58(1)
Stage Two: Orientation to Sex Roles
58(1)
Stage Three: Orientation to Social Valuation
58(1)
Stage Four: Orientation to the Internal, Unique Self
58(1)
Applying Gottfredson's Theory to Practice
59(1)
Evaluating Gottfredson's Theory
60(1)
John Holland's Theory of Types and Person-Environment Interactions
61(11)
The Realistic Type
62(1)
The Investigative Type
62(1)
The Artistic Type
63(1)
The Social Type
63(1)
The Enterprising Type
63(1)
The Conventional Type
63(1)
Congruence
64(1)
Differentiation
65(1)
Consistency
65(2)
Vocational Identity
67(1)
Applying Holland's Theory
67(3)
Evaluating Holland's Theory
70(2)
John Krumboltz's Learning Theory of Career Counseling
72(7)
SLTCDM
72(4)
The Learning Theory of Career Counseling
76(1)
Applying LTCC
77(2)
Evaluating Career Development Interventions
79(1)
Evaluating LTCC
79(1)
Summary
79(1)
References
80(5)
Understanding and Applying Emerging Theories of Career Development
85(32)
Emerging Theories
86(1)
Lent, Brown, and Hackett's Social Cognitive Career Theory
86(6)
Applying SCCT
89(2)
Evaluating SCCT
91(1)
The Cognitive Information Processing Approach
92(5)
Applying the CIP Approach
95(1)
Evaluating CIP
96(1)
Brown's Values-Based, Holistic Model of Career and Life-Role Choices and Satisfaction
97(4)
Applying the Values-Based Approach
99(2)
Evaluating the Values-Based Approach
101(1)
Hansen's Integrative Life Planning
101(3)
Applying ILP
104(1)
Evaluating ILP
104(1)
Postmodern Approaches
104(7)
Creating Narratives
105(2)
Contextualizing Career Development
107(2)
Constructivist Career Counseling
109(2)
Summary
111(2)
References
113(4)
Career Development and Diverse Populations
117(29)
Traditional Assumptions of Career Theories in the United States
120(1)
Universal Versus Culture-Specific Models
121(2)
Ethnocentrism
123(1)
Acculturation
124(1)
Identity Development Models
125(13)
Racial Identity Models
126(2)
Gender Identity Models
128(3)
Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Identity Models
131(2)
Persons with Disabilities
133(5)
Assessment
138(3)
Summary
141(1)
References
142(4)
Assessment and Career Planning
146(30)
The Relationship of Assessment to the Career Planning Process
148(3)
Step 1: Become Aware of the Need to Make Career Decisions
148(1)
Step 2: Learn About or Reevaluate Vocational Self-Concept
149(1)
Step 3: Identify Occupational Alternatives
150(1)
Step 4: Obtain Information About Identified Alternatives
150(1)
Step 5: Make Tentative Choices from Among Available Occupations
150(1)
Step 6: Make Educational Choices
150(1)
Step 7: Implement a Vocational Choice
151(1)
Purposes of Assessment
151(3)
Learning More About the Needs of the Student of Client
151(1)
Learning More About Clients and Helping Them Learn More About Themselves
152(1)
Determining the Change or Progress of an Individual or Group
153(1)
Responsibilities and Competencies of the Counselor
154(5)
Possess a General Knowledge About Assessment
154(2)
Have a Detailed Knowledge About the Instruments Used
156(1)
Prepare Students or Clients Adequately
157(1)
Administer Instruments Properly
157(1)
Interpret Instruments Properly
157(2)
Follow Through with Clients
159(1)
Informal Assessments
159(3)
Formal Assessments
162(6)
Types of Formal Assessments
163(5)
Ways in Which Assessment Instruments May Be Administered
168(3)
Types of Reports
171(2)
Selection of Instruments
173(1)
Summary
173(1)
References
174(2)
Career Information and Resources
176(26)
The Counselor's Role in Providing Data
177(3)
Barriers and Decision Styles
179(1)
The Client's Role in Receiving Data
180(1)
Types of Data Needed by Clients
181(9)
Programs of Study
181(2)
Occupations
183(3)
Schools
186(2)
Financial Aid
188(2)
Jobs
190(1)
Other Methods of Collecting Data
190(1)
Organizing Occupations
191(4)
The Holland System
192(1)
The World-of-Work Map
192(2)
The Guide to Occupational Exploration Clusters
194(1)
O*Net Classification System
194(1)
U.S. Department of Education Career Clusters
194(1)
The Career Center
195(1)
Helping Clients Turn Data into Information
195(4)
Summary
199(1)
References
199(3)
Using Technology to Support Career Counseling and Planning
202(19)
Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems
203(3)
Computer Capabilities
206(1)
Adding High Touch to High Tech
207(1)
The Internet as the Deliverer of Computer-Assisted Systems
208(1)
Types of Computer-Assisted Systems
208(2)
Assessment Systems
209(1)
Career Information Systems
209(1)
Career Planning Systems
210(1)
Choosing a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System
210(3)
The Counselor and the Computer
213(2)
Issues Related to Cybercounseling
215(4)
Summary
219(1)
References
219(2)
Career Counseling Strategies and Techniques for the 21st Century
221(34)
Expanding the Limited View of Career Counseling
223(1)
Career Counseling in the 21st Century
224(1)
Designing Career Counseling Strategies for the 21st Century
225(9)
Providing Counseling-Based Career Assistance
226(2)
Providing Support in Career Counseling
228(6)
A Framework for Career Counseling
234(11)
The Beginning or Initial Phase of Career Counseling
234(4)
The Middle or Working Phase of Career Counseling
238(3)
The Ending or Termination Phase of Career Counseling
241(4)
Career Counseling Groups
245(5)
Career Counseling Professional Designations and Related Service Providers
250(1)
Summary
251(1)
References
251(4)
Designing and Implementing Career Development Programs and Services
255(25)
Steps for Designing and Implementing a Career Development Program
257(10)
Step 1: Define the Target Population and Its Characteristics
257(1)
Step 2: Determine the Needs of the Target Population
258(2)
Step 3: Write Measurable Objectives to Meet Needs
260(2)
Step 4: Determine How to Deliver the Career Planning Services
262(1)
Step 5: Determine the Content of the Program
263(1)
Step 6: Determine the Cost of the Program
264(1)
Step 7: Begin to Promote and Explain Your Services
264(1)
Step 8: Start Promoting and Delivering the Full-Blown Program of Services
265(1)
Step 9: Evaluate the Program
265(2)
Step 10: Revise the Program as Needed
267(1)
Some Sample Programs
267(11)
Example 1: A Middle School
267(2)
Example 2: A High School
269(3)
Example 3: A University
272(2)
Example 4: A Corporation
274(2)
Example 5: A Community Agency
276(2)
Summary
278(1)
References
279(1)
Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools
280(27)
Overview of Career Development Interventions in the Schools
284(1)
Systematic and Coordinated Planning for Career Development Programs in the Schools
284(2)
Career Development in the Elementary Schools
286(2)
Goals of Career Development Interventions at the Elementary School Level
288(1)
Career Development Guidelines for Elementary School Students
289(1)
Career Development Interventions in the Elementary Schools
290(4)
Parental Involvement
294(2)
Summary
296(1)
References
296(2)
Sample Career Development Activities for Elementary School Students
298(9)
Career Development Interventions in Middle and High Schools
307(37)
Middle/Junior High School
308(8)
Career Development Guidelines for Middle/Junior High School Students
311(1)
Career Development Interventions in Middle/Junior High Schools
312(4)
High School
316(10)
Career Development Guidelines for High School Students
320(1)
Career Development Interventions in High Schools
321(5)
Summary
326(1)
References
327(2)
Sample Career Development Activities for Middle/Junior and High School Students
329(15)
Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
344(32)
The Career Needs of Higher Education Students
346(3)
The Evolution of Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
349(2)
Career Development Competencies in Adulthood
351(4)
Self-Knowledge
351(1)
Education and Occupational Exploration
352(1)
Career Planning
353(2)
Models, Services, and Standards for Career Development Interventions in Higher Education
355(6)
Models
355(2)
Services
357(2)
Standards
359(2)
Managing Career Services in Higher Education
361(2)
Summary
363(1)
References
364(2)
Course Syllabus for Counselor Education Class
366(10)
Career Development Interventions in Community Settings
376(14)
Training, Certification, and Licensure
378(1)
Competencies
379(4)
Coordination
379(2)
Consultation
381(1)
Advocacy
382(1)
Case Management
382(1)
Similarities and Differences in Community-Based Settings
383(1)
Settings for Community-Based Career Counselors
384(5)
Private Practice
384(2)
The World Wide Web: Cybercounseling
386(1)
Mental Health Centers
386(1)
Substance Abuse Centers
386(1)
Rehabilitation Settings
386(1)
Corrections and Probation
387(1)
Military Settings
387(1)
Job Service Offices and One-Stop Centers
388(1)
Corporations and Other Organizations
388(1)
Summary
389(1)
References
389(1)
Ethical Issues in Career Development Interventions
390(20)
Ethical Dilemmas Versus Moral Temptations
395(1)
Using Principles to Resolve Ethical Decisions
396(1)
The Role of Values in Defining Career Development Interventions
397(3)
Using Ethical Codes
400(5)
Ethical Challenges Facing Career Counselors
401(1)
Are All Individual Career Interventions Counseling?
401(2)
Should Those Without Traditional Training and Credentials Provide Career Services?
403(1)
How Should the Internet Be Used in Career Development Interventions?
403(2)
The Ethical Standards of the NCDA
405(3)
Section A: General
405(1)
Section B: The Counseling Relationship
405(1)
Section C: Measurement and Evaluation
405(1)
Section D: Research and Publication
406(1)
Section E: Consulting
406(1)
Section F: Private Practice
406(2)
Summary
408(1)
References
408(2)
Evaluation of Career Planning Services
410(14)
Steps in Planning Evaluation
411(1)
Stakeholders
412(1)
Types of Data Collected
413(1)
Benchmarks for Evaluation
414(3)
Methods of Evaluation
417(2)
Using the Results of Evaluation
419(3)
Roadblocks to Evaluation
422(1)
Summary
422(1)
References
423(1)
Appendix A American Counseling Association Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice 424(22)
Appendix B National Career Development Association Ethical Standards 446(6)
Appendix C Educational and Career Planning Portfolio 452(6)
Appendix D Career Counseling Competencies of the National Career Development Association (NCDA) 458(4)
Appendix E 2001 CACREP Standards Related to Career Development 462(1)
Index 463

Excerpts

We have taught career courses to students in numerous universities in the Uhited States, as well as in Canada, Japan, Denmark, Portugal, England, and Spain, to mention just a few. Wherever students are interested in learning about career development theory and practice, we are eager to go! In each instance, however, we not only teach students about career development interventions but students also teach us. The idea for this book began in response to student requests (pleas) for a career development textbook that was readable, useful, and interesting. These are high, but reasonable, expectations. These expectations served as our guiding principles as we composed the chapters of this book. To make the book more readable, most chapters include case studies. Our goal is to help readers connect chapter content with the lives of people represented in the cases. Although the cases are, for the most part, fictional, they reflect the career concerns of people with whom we have worked as career counselors in schools, in community settings, and in higher education. Thus, we are indebted to our clients, in addition to our students, for teaching us about the career development process. We seek to share these experiences with the readers of this book. Another goal is to convey to our readers the deep respect and long-term commitment we have for career development theory and practice. We emphasize this goal in Chapter 1. As we note in the book, there are few things more personal than a career choice, and we were cognizant of this fact as we wrote each chapter. Making career decisions involves deciding how we will spend one of the most precious commodities we have--our time on Earth. We realize that these decisions are often very difficult and overwhelming. Thus, we draw upon the work of our colleagues in the field to present readers with state-of-the-art career theory and practice. However, the current situation evolved from the past contributions of many leaders in the field. We acknowledge their important foundational contributions in Chapter 1. Although we cover a wide variety of theoretical perspectives in the book (especially in Chapters 2 and 3), we emphasize that careers develop over time. A decision point in one's career development is just that, a point in time at which one makes decisions based on previous and current career development experiences. Although knowing how to help people at these important points in their career development is crucial, career practitioners can also intervene proactively in the lives of children, adolescents, and adults in ways that facilitate positive career development prior to career crises occurring. Being able to provide assistance in both instances is critical. We are especially concerned that career development theory and practice be inclusive. Constructing culturally inclusive career development interventions should be standard practice within the field. Unfortunately, this has not been the case. In part because of their historical context, career theories and practices focused primarily on the career experiences of European American middle-class males. Although we devote a chapter to diverse populations (Chapter 4), throughout the book we also address the need for inclusive career interventions. Our cases also tend to highlight the career experiences of clients from diverse backgrounds. We think both approaches (i.e., having a single chapter devoted to the topic and infusing diversity throughout the book) are needed to begin to more adequately address the career development needs of all people. The need to provide clients with culturally sensitive career interventions provides an important foundation for discussing career counseling interventions in Chapter 8 and career assessment approaches in Chapter 5. The career counseling process and outcomes information provided here reflects the most recent work within the field. We also provide career informat


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