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Case Studies in Comparative Politics

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205740093

ISBN10:
020574009X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/8/2012
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

Debuting in its first edition and written by a new generation of area studies experts, Case Studies in Comparative Politicsfollows a questions-based approach that helps readers understand different countries' political histories, institutions, identities, and interests and why each country is politically interesting and relevant. When used on its own or with the accompanying thematic survey, Case Studies in Comparative Politicsasks-and answers-the same important questions that political scientists research and that are relevant to anyone interested in politics.

Author Biography

David J. Samuels is Benjamin E. Lippincott Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota.

 

The United Kingdom: Ben Ansell and Jane Gingrich are Assistant Professors of Political Science at the University of Minnesota.

 

Germany: David Art is Associate Professor of Political Science at Tufts University.

 

France: Erik Bleich is Professor of Political Science at Middlebury College.

 

Japan: Ethan Scheiner is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of California–Davis

 

India: Steven Wilkinson is Nilekani Professor of India and South Asian Studies and Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at Yale University.

 

Mexico: Cecilia Martinez-Gallardo is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

 

Russia: Graeme Robertson is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

 

Nigeria: Alexandra Scacco is Assistant Professor of Politics at New York University.

 

China: Andrew Mertha is Associate Professor of Government at Cornell University.

 

Iran: Arzoo Osanloo is Associate Professor in the Law, Societies, and Justice Program at the University of Washington.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Chapter Question: Why study country cases in comparative politics?
Introductionp. 2
Comparative Politicsp. 3
Why These Ten Countries?p. 6
Chapter Frameworkp. 11
Historical Overviewp. 12
Early versus Late-forming Statesp. 14
Globalization and the Statep. 15
Institutionsp. 17
Democratic Regimesp. 19
Non-Democratic Regimesp. 21
Regime Changep. 24
Identitiesp. 25
Economic and Cultural Forms of Identityp. 25
Political-Identity Cleavagesp. 26
The Sources of Political Identityp. 27
Interestsp. 28
Social Movementp. 29
Interest Groupsp. 30
Political Partiesp. 30
The Contemporary Contextp. 32
Political Violencep. 32
Political Economyp. 33
Conclusionp. 36
United Kingdomp. 39
Chapter Question: How did limited government emerge in a country without a written constitution?
Introduction to the United Kingdomp. 40
Historical Overview of the United Kingdomp. 41
The Establishment of the Statep. 41
The Gradual Emergence of Limited Governmentp. 44
Twentieth-Century Developmentsp. 46
The Contemporary United Kingdomp. 47
Institutions of the United Kingdomp. 49
Institutions Promoting Effective Governmentp. 51
Factors Supporting Limited Governmentp. 57
Identities in the United Kingdomp. 60
Class Identityp. 60
Regional, Religious, and Ethnic Identitiesp. 62
Gender and Quality-of-Life Issuesp. 65
Interests in the United Kingdomp. 67
Business and Labor in the Party Systemp. 68
"Policy Communities" in Britainp. 70
Civil Society and Social Movements in the United Kingdomp. 71
Mass Mediap. 72
Conclusionp. 73
Germanyp. 77
Chapter Question: How did Germany overcome its tumultuous history and become a healthy democracy?
Introduction to Germanyp. 78
Historical Overview of Germanyp. 78
The Second Reichp. 79
The Weimar Republicp. 82
The Nazi Regimep. 83
The Postwar Era: Division and Reunificationp. 85
Institutions of Germanyp. 88
"Chancellor Democracy"p. 88
The Judiciaryp. 90
Federalismp. 90
International Institutionsp. 91
Identities in Germanyp. 94
Pre-War Identitiesp. 94
Political Culture after WWIIp. 95
Incorporating East Germanyp. 97
Immigration and German Identityp. 98
Interests in Germanyp. 102
The Postwar Settlementp. 103
Political Partiesp. 104
Challenges to the German Modelp. 109
Conclusionp. 111
Francep. 114
Chapter Question: Why do French citizens engage in such frequent and dramatic forms of protest?
Introduction to Francep. 115
Historical Overview of Francep. 118
From the Middle Ages to the Ancien Régimep. 118
The French Revolution and Its Aftermathp. 119
Regime Change in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 120
Consolidating Democracy in the Twentieth Centuryp. 120
Institutions of Francep. 123
Semi-Presidential Democracy and the Executive Branchp. 124
The Legislative Branchp. 126
The Judicial Branchp. 127
Electoral Institutionsp. 128
Identities in Francep. 132
Class Divisionsp. 134
Nationalism and Its Challengersp. 135
Religious Identities versus Laïcitép. 136
Post-Materialist Identitiesp. 137
Interests in Francep. 138
Interest Groupsp. 139
Political Partiesp. 140
The Interests of the Statep. 142
Examples of Protestp. 142
Conclusionp. 147
Japanp. 150
Chapter Question: How did a single political party dominate Japan's democracy for more than half a century?
Introduction to Japanp. 151
Historical Overview of Japanp. 154
The Tokugawa Erap. 154
The Meiji Erap. 155
Economic Growth and the Rise and Decline of Democracy before World War IIp. 156
Rebuilding in the Postwar Erap. 158
The 1990sp. 160
The 2000sp. 161
Institutions of Japanp. 165
Unitarismp. 166
Parliamentarismp. 166
Electoral Systemp. 167
The Weak Judiciaryp. 173
The Powerful Bureaucracyp. 173
Identities of Japanp. 175
Japanese Homogeneityp. 175
Class Identityp. 177
Status in Japanp. 177
Disadvantaged Position of Womenp. 179
Interests in Japanp. 180
Postwar Interestsp. 181
Environmental Interest Groupsp. 181
Modern versus Traditional Interestsp. 183
Koizumi's Reforms and the Fall of the LDPp. 187
Conclusionp. 189
Indiap. 194
Chapter Question: Why has democracy persisted in India despite its colonial legacies of ethnic and religious strife, and widespread poverty and illiteracy?
Introduction to Indiap. 195
Historical Overview of Indiap. 198
The Mughal Empirep. 198
The British Empirep. 200
The Difficult Legacy of Colonialismp. 203
Institutions of Indiap. 207
Federalismp. 208
Parliamentp. 209
Civil-Military Relationsp. 211
The Judiciaryp. 211
Political Partiesp. 212
Election Commissionp. 214
Identities in Indiap. 216
Castesp. 217
Languagesp. 219
Religionp. 219
The Changing Politics of Caste Identityp. 222
Interests in Indiap. 225
Ethnic and Minority Interestsp. 225
Votersp. 226
Rural Interestsp. 226
The Poorp. 227
Business Interestsp. 227
Freedom of the Press and Mass Mediap. 228
Conclusionp. 230
Mexicop. 235
Chapter Question: Why is Mexico's democratic government unable to deal effectively with persistent poverty, corruption, and drug trafficking?
Introduction to Mexicop. 236
Historical Overview of Mexicop. 237
Colonial Mexicop. 237
Independent Mexicop. 240
The 1910 Revolutionp. 241
The Establishment of One-Party Rule, 1917-1940p. 242
PRI Hegemony: 1940-1970p. 243
The Decline of the PRI: 1970-2000p. 244
Institutions of Mexicop. 250
Executive-Legislative Relationsp. 251
The Judiciaryp. 252
Federalismp. 254
Electoral Institutionsp. 255
Identities in Mexicop. 258
Forming National Identity under the PRIp. 258
Ethnicity Makes a Comebackp. 260
Political Cleavages and Electoral Behaviorp. 262
Interests in Mexicop. 264
Political Partiesp. 264
Social Movementsp. 266
Interest Groupsp. 269
Conclusionp. 272
Russiap. 277
Chapter Question: Why has Russia failed to consolidate democracy, remaining in many ways an authoritarian regime?
Introduction to Russiap. 278
Historical Overview of Russiap. 279
Geography and the Formation of the Russian Statep. 279
The Russian Revolution and the Rise of the USSRp. 283
Reform and the Collapse of the USSRp. 284
Institutions in Russiap. 287
Constitutional Crisis 1992-1993p. 287
The Constitution: President, Prime Minister, and Parliamentp. 288
Federalismp. 290
Electionsp. 293
The "Tandemocracy" of President and Prime M inisterp. 296
Identities in Russiap. 299
Ethnic Politicsp. 299
Chechnya and the Politics of the Caucasusp. 301
Russian Nationalismp. 302
What Happened to Class Identity?p. 303
Religious Identityp. 304
Interests in Russiap. 306
Economic Reform, Economic Collapse, and the Rise of the "Oligarchs"p. 307
Putin, the Fall of the Oligarchs, and Business Interestsp. 309
Laborp. 310
Political Partiesp. 311
Social Movementsp. 313
Conclusionp. 316
Nigeriap. 320
Chapter Question: What factors account for Nigeria's poor economic and political performance since independence?
Introduction to Nigeriap. 321
Historical Overview of Nigeriap. 323
The Pre-Colonial Period: A Diverse Territoryp. 323
Colonial Nigeria: Unequal Regional Developmentp. 326
Nigeria since Independence: Political and Economic Crisisp. 328
Institutions of Nigeriap. 331
Nigeria's Political Institutions in Theoryp. 332
Nigeria's Political Institutions in Practicep. 333
A "Critically Weak" Statep. 334
Oil Dependence and State Weaknessp. 339
Identities in Nigeriap. 342
Ethnic Diversity: Is Nigeria Too Diverse to Govern?p. 342
Ethnicity, Oil, and Violent Conflictp. 345
Interests of Nigeriap. 351
Political Partiesp. 351
Where Is the Working Class?p. 354
Economic Interest Groupsp. 356
Ethno-Regional Groupsp. 357
The Militaryp. 357
Conclusionp. 359
Chinap. 365
Chapter Question: How has China's authoritarian regime managed to build and consolidate state strength in just 60 years?
Introduction to Chinap. 366
Historical Overview of Chinap. 370
The Chinese Empirep. 370
The Chinese Republicp. 372
Consolidating the People's Republic of Chinap. 373
Mao's Attack on the Statep. 375
The Emergence of the Contemporary PRCp. 377
Institutions of Chinap. 379
China's Elite Institutionsp. 379
Local State Governmentp. 384
The Militaryp. 386
Identities in Chinap. 388
From Totalitarian to Authoritarian Identitiesp. 388
Nationalism as a Unifying Forcep. 391
Ethnicity and Religion as Potentially Divisive Forcesp. 393
Interests in Chinap. 396
State Organizations: The Case of the Militaryp. 397
Local Governmentsp. 398
The Mediap. 398
Industrial and Professional Groupsp. 399
Non-Governmental Organizationsp. 399
Chinese Citizensp. 399
Conclusionp. 402
Iranp. 407
Chapter Question: How does a dynamic civil society survive under repressive non-democratic governments in Iran?
Introduction to Iranp. 408
Historical Overview of Iranp. 409
Ancient Persia: From the Achaemenids to Sassanidsp. 409
The Safavids and the Spread of Islamp. 412
Oil and the Rise of Nationalism in the Twentieth Centuryp. 413
The 1979 Iranian Revolutionp. 416
Khatami and the Limits of Reform, 1997-2005p. 418
Ahmadinejad and Conservative Reaction, 2005-Presentp. 419
Institutions of Iranp. 422
Republican Institutionsp. 422
Islamic Institutionsp. 425
Identities of Iranp. 430
Pre-Islamic "Persian": Achaemenids to Sassanidsp. 430
Ethnic Identitiesp. 430
Religious Identitiesp. 431
Social Classesp. 433
Post-Revolutionary "Hybrid" Identitiesp. 433
Women in the Vanguardp. 434
Interests in Iranp. 436
Military Interestsp. 436
Political Interestsp. 437
Organized Interestsp. 439
Nuclear and Scientific Interestsp. 440
Examples of Protestp. 441
Conclusionp. 445
Glossaryp. 449
Creditsp. 465
Subject Indexp. 467
Name Indexp. 485
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