CCDE Study Guide

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/2/2015
  • Publisher: Cisco Press

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The authoritative, business-driven study resource for the tough CCDE Practical Exam


CCDE Study Guide is written and reviewed by CCDE engineers and helps you to both improve your design skills and to study for and pass the CCDE exam. Network design is an art, combining broad technology knowledge and experience. This book covers a broad number of technologies, protocols and design options, and considerations that can bring these aspects together and show how they can be used and thought about based on different requirements and business goals. Therefore, this book does not attempt to teach foundational technology knowledge, instead each section:


  • Highlights, discusses, and compares the limitations and advantages of the different design options in terms of scalability, performance, flexibility, availability, complexity, security, and so on to simplify the job and help you understand what technology, protocol, or design options should be selected and why, based on the business or application requirements or to fix a broken design that need to be optimized
  • Covers design aspects of different protocols and technologies, and how they map with different requirements
  • Highlights drivers toward using these technologies whether it is intended for enterprise or service provider network, depending on the topic and technology


Using a business-driven approach, CCDE Study Guide helps you analyze business and technical requirements and develop network designs that are based on these business needs and goals, taking into account both the technical and non-technical design constraints. The various “scenario-based” design examples discussed in this book will help you craft design approaches and requirements analysis on such topics as converged enterprise network architectures, service provider network architectures, and data centers. The book also addresses high availability, IPv6, multicast, QoS, security, and network management design considerations, presenting you with an in-depth evaluation of a broad range of technologies and environments.


Whether you are preparing for the CCDE exam or simply wish to gain better insight into the art of network design in a variety of environments, this book helps you learn how to think like an expert network designer as well as analyze and compare
the different design options, principles, and protocols based on different design requirements.


  • Master a business-driven approach to designing enterprise, service provider, and data center networks
  • Analyze the design impact of business, functional, and application requirements
  • Learn from scenario-based examples, including converged enterprise networks, service provider networks, and cloud-based data centers
  • Overcome design limitations and fix broken designs
  • Review design options and considerations related to Layer 2 and Layer 3 control plane protocols
  • Build designs that accommodate new services and applications
  • Consider design options for modern campus networks, including network virtualization
  • Design WAN edge and Internet edge blocks in enterprise networks
  • Review the architectural elements of a service provider-grade network
  • Plan MPLS VPN network environments, including L2VPN and L3VPN
  • Interconnect different networks or routing domains
  • Design traditional, virtualized, and cloud-based data center networks
  • Interconnect dispersed data center networks to protect business continuity
  • Achieve appropriate levels of operational uptime and network resiliency
  • Integrate IPv6, multicast, QoS, security, and network management into your designs



Author Biography

Marwan Al-shawi , CCDE No. 20130066, is a lead design with British Telecom Global Services. He helps large-scale enterprise customers to select the right technology solutions for their business needs and provides technical consultancy for various types of network designs and architectures. Marwan has been in the networking industry for more than 12 years and has been involved in architecting, designing, and implementing various large-scale networks, some of which are global service provider-grade networks. Marwan has also worked as a technical consultant with Dimension Data Australia, a Cisco Global Alliance Partner; network architect with IBM Australia global technology services; and other Cisco partners and IT solution providers. He holds a Master of Science degree in internetworking from the University of Technology, Sydney. Marwan also holds other certifications such as Cloud Architect Expert (EMCCAe), Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP), Cisco Certified Network Professional – Voice (CCNP Voice), and Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE). Marwan was selected as a Cisco Designated VIP by the Cisco Support Community (CSC) (official Cisco Systems forums) in 2012, and by the Solutions and Architectures subcommunity in 2014. In addition, in 2015, Marwan was selected as a member of the Cisco Champions program.

Table of Contents

    Introduction xx

Part I Business-Driven Strategic Network Design 1

Chapter 1 Network Design Requirements: Analysis and Design Principles 3

    Design Scope 4

    Business Requirements 5

        Business Continuity 6

        Elasticity to Support the Strategic Business Trends 7

        IT as a “Business Innovation” Enabler 8

        The Nature of the Business 9

        Business Priorities 9

    Functional Requirements 9

    Technical Requirements 10

    Application Requirements 10

    Design Constraints 12

    Crafting the Design Requirements 13

    Planning 16

        Decision Tree 17

        Decision Matrix 17

        Planning Approaches 18

        Strategic Balance 18

    Network Design Principles 19

        Reliability and Resiliency 19

        Modularity 20

        Reliable and Manageable Scalability 21

        Fault Isolation and Simplicity 22

        Hierarchy 23

        Responsiveness 25

        Holistic Design Approach 25

        Physical Layout Considerations 26

        No Gold Plating 29

    Summary 29

Part II Next Generation - Converged Enterprise Network Architectures 31

Chapter 2 Enterprise Layer 2 and Layer 3 Design 35

    Enterprise Layer 2 LAN Design Considerations 35

        Spanning Tree Protocol 36

        VLANs and Trunking 37

        Link Aggregation 37

        First Hop Redundancy Protocol and Spanning Tree 38

        Enterprise Layer 2 LAN Common Design Options 40

        Layer 2 Design Models: STP Based (Classical Model) 40

        Layer 2 Design Model: Switch Clustering Based (Virtual Switch) 41

        Layer 2 Design Model: Daisy-Chained Access Switches 42

        Layer 2 LAN Design Recommendations 43

    Enterprise Layer 3 Routing Design Considerations 43

        IP Routing and Forwarding Concept Review 43

        Link-State Routing Protocol Design Considerations 45

        Link-State over Hub-and-Spoke Topology 45

        Link-State over Full-Mesh Topology 48

        OSPF Area Types 49

        OSPF Versus IS-IS 53

        Further Reading 53

        EIGRP Design Considerations 54

        EIGRP: Hub and Spoke 55

        EIGRP Stub Route Leaking: Hub-and-Spoke Topology 56

        EIGRP: Ring Topology 58

        EIGRP: Full-Mesh Topology 58

        EIGRP Route Propagation Considerations 59

        Further Reading 60

    Hiding Topology and Reachability Information Design Considerations 60

        IGP Flooding Domains Design Considerations 62

        Link-State Flooding Domain Structure 63

        EIGRP Flooding Domains Structure 69

        Routing Domain Logical Separation 70

        Route Summarization 76

        Summary Black Holes 78

        Suboptimal Routing 80

    IGP Traffic Engineering and Path Selection: Summary 83

        OSPF 83

        IS-IS 84

        EIGRP 84

        Summary of IGP Characteristics 84

    BGP Design Considerations 85

        Interdomain Routing 86

        BGP Attributes and Path Selection 88

        BGP as the Enterprise Core Routing Protocol 89

        Enterprise Core Routing Design Models with BGP 90

        BGP Shortest Path over the Enterprise Core 94

        BGP Scalability Design Options and Considerations 96

        BGP Route Reflection 96

        Update Grouping 102

        BGP Confederation 103

        Confederation Versus Route Reflection 105

        Further Reading 106

    Route Redistribution Design Considerations 107

        Single Redistribution Boundary Point 107

        Multiple Redistribution Boundary Points 108

        Metric Transformation 109

        Administrative Distance 110

        Route Filtering Versus Route Tagging with Filtering 110

    Enterprise Routing Design Recommendations 114

        Determining Which Routing Protocol to Use 115

    Summary 117

Chapter 3 Enterprise Campus Architecture Design 119

    Enterprise Campus: Hierarchical Design Models 119

        Three-Tier Model 120

        Two-Tier Model 120

    Enterprise Campus: Modularity 121

        When Is the Core Block Required? 122

    Access-Distribution Design Model 123

    Enterprise Campus: Layer 3 Routing Design Considerations 126

    EIGRP Versus Link State as a Campus IGP 128

    Enterprise Campus Network Virtualization 129

        Drivers to Consider Network Virtualization 129

        Network Virtualization Design Elements 131

        Enterprise Network Virtualization Deployment Models 132

        Device Virtualization 133

        Path Isolation 133

        Service Virtualization 136

    Summary 141

    Further Reading 141

Chapter 4 Enterprise Edge Architecture Design 143

    Enterprise WAN Module 143

        WAN Transports: Overview 144

        Modern WAN Transports (Layer 2 Versus Layer 3) 145

        Layer 2 MPLS-Based WAN 146

        Layer 3 MPLS-Based WAN 148

        Internet as WAN Transport 151

        Internet as WAN Transport Advantages and Limitations 152

        WAN Transport Models Comparison 153

        WAN Module Design Options and Considerations 155

        Design Hierarchy of the Enterprise WAN Module 155

        WAN Module Access to Aggregation Layer Design Options 156

        WAN Edge Connectivity Design Options 158

        Single WAN Provider Versus Dual Providers 160

        Remote Site (Branch) WAN Design Considerations 161

        Internet as WAN Transport (DMVPN Based) 164

        Enterprise WAN Module Design Options 166

        Option 1: Small to Medium 166

        Option 2: Medium to Large 167

        Option 3: Large to Very Large 169

    WAN Virtualization and Overlays Design Considerations and Techniques 170

        WAN Virtualization 172

        Over-the-Top WAN Virtualization Design Options (Service Provider Coordinated/Dependent) 174

        Over-the-Top WAN Virtualization Design Options (Service Provider Independent) 176

        Comparison of Enterprise WAN Transport Virtualization Techniques 181

        WAN Virtualization Design Options Decision Tree 183

    Enterprise WAN Migration to MPLS VPN Considerations 184

        Migrating from Legacy WAN to MPLS L3VPN WAN Scenario 184

    Enterprise Internet Edge Design Considerations 188

        Internet Edge Architecture Overview 188

        Enterprise Multihomed Internet Design Considerations 190

        Multihoming Design Concept and Drivers 190

        BGP over Multihomed Internet Edge Planning Recommendations 192

        BGP Policy Control Attributes for Multihoming 192

        Common Internet Multihoming Traffic Engineering Techniques over BGP 194

        Scenario 1: Active-Standby 194

        Asymmetrical Routing with Multihoming (Issue and Solution) 199

    Summary 202

Part III Service Provider Networks Design and Architectures 203

Chapter 5 Service Provider Network Architecture Design 205

    Service Provider Network Architecture Building Blocks 207

        Point of Presence 208

        Service Provider Network Core 211

    Service Provider Control Plane Logical Architectures 212

        IGP in Service Provider Networks 212

        BGP in Service Provider Networks 213

        BGP Route Aggregation (ISP Perspective) 213

        Hot- and Cold-Potato Routing (SP Perspective) 217

        Multiprotocol Label Switching 223

        MPLS Label-Switched Path 225

        MPLS Deployment Modes 225

        Multiprotocol BGP 226

    MPLS Traffic Engineering 227

        Business and Technical Drivers 227

        MPLS-TE Planning 231

        MPLS-TE Strategic Planning Approach 231

        MPLS-TE Tactical Planning Approach 232

        MPLS-TE Design Considerations 233

        Constrained Path Calculation 234

        MPS-TE Tunnel Placement 237

        Routing Domains 239

        Forwarding Traffic Via the TE Tunnel 241

    Summary 243

    Further Reading 244

Chapter 6 Service Provider MPLS VPN Services Design 245

    MPLS VPN (L3VPN) 245

        MPLS L3VPN Architecture Components 246

        L3VPN Control Plane Components 248

        L3VPN Forwarding Plane 251

        L3VPN Design Considerations 253

        Load Sharing for Multihomed L3VPN CE 253

        MPLS L3VPN Topologies 254

        MP-BGP VPN Internet Routing 262

        PE-CE L3VPN Routing Design 264

        PE-CE Routing Design Considerations 265

        PE-CE Routing Protocol Selection 266

        PE-CE Design Options and Recommendations 266

    Layer 2 MPLS VPN (L2VPN) 282

        IP NGN Carrier Ethernet 284

        Virtual Private Wire Service Design Considerations 287

        Transport Models 287

        VPWS Control Plane 289

        Virtual Private LAN Service Design Considerations 291

        VPLS Architecture Building Blocks 292

        VPLS Functional Components 292

        Virtual Switching Instance 293

        VPLS Control Plane 293

        VPLS Design Models 294

        Ethernet Access Model 298

        MPLS Access Model 299

        H-VPLS with Provider Backbone Bridging 301

        EVPN Design Model (Next-Generation MPLS L2VPN) 307

        EVPN BGP Routes and Extended Communities 311

        Final Thoughts: L2VPN Business Value and Direction 314

    Service Provider Control Plane Scalability 315

        IGP Scalability Considerations 316

        Route Reflection Design Options in SP Networks 318

        Provider Routers as RRs for MPLS-VPN 319

        Separate RR for MPLS-VPN and IPv4/v6 319

        Separate RR per Service (MPLS-VPN and IPv4/v6) 320

        Hierarchical RR 321

        Partitioned MPLS-VPN RR 323

        Hierarchical LSP (Unified MPLS) 325

    Summary 327

    Further Reading 327

Chapter 7 Multi-AS Service Provider Network Design 329

    Inter-AS Design Options and Considerations 330

        Inter-AS Option A: Back-to-Back VRF (VRF-to-VRF) 330

        Inter-AS Option B: ASBR to ASBR with MP-eBGP Approach 331

        Option B-1: Next-Hop-Self Approach 331

        Option B-2: Redistribute Connected Approach 332

        Option B-3: Multihop MP-eBGP Approach 334

        Inter-AS Option C: Multihop MP-eBGP Between RR 335

        Inter-AS Option D 335

        Inter-AS IPv6 VPN 336

        Inter-AS MPLS-TE 337

        Inter-AS L2VPN 338

        Inter-AS QoS 343

    Comparison of Inter-AS Connectivity Options 344

    Carrier Supporting Carrier 346

        Non-MPLS Customer over MPLS VPN Carrier 346

        MPLS Customer over MPLS VPN Carrier 347

        MPLS VPN Customer over MPLS VPN Carrier 348

        MPLS VPN Customer over MPLS Carrier 348

        MPLS VPN Customer over IP-Only Carrier 349

    Acquisition of an MPLS-L3VPN Service Provider Design Scenario 353

        Background Information 353

        Design Requirements 353

        Available Interconnection Options 354

        Inter-AS Connectivity Model Selection 355

        Proposed Solution 356

        Network Merger implementation Plan 358

    Summary 358

Part IV Data Center Networks Design 361

Chapter 8 Data Center Networks Design 363

    Traditional Data Center Network Architecture 364

        STP-Based Data Center Network Architecture 365

        mLAG-Based Data Center Network Architecture 367

    Next-Generation Data Center Network Design 367

        Data Center Virtualization and Cloud-Based Services Overview 368

        Drivers Toward New Fabric-Based Data Center Network Architectures 369

        Modern Data Center Network Architectures and Overlays 372

        Clos Architecture 374

        Clos Transport Protocols 376

        MAC-in-MAC 377

        MAC-in-IP 380

        MPLS Based 383

    Comparison of Data Center Network Architectures 387

    Data Center Interconnect 389

        DCI Building Blocks 392

        DCI Connectivity Options 393

        Routed DCI 394

        Layer 2 DCI 398

        Dark Fiber-Based DCI 401

        Layer 2 DCI over ME Transport 403

        TRILL-FabricPath-Based DCI 404

        Overlay Transport Virtualization 406

        VxLAN-Based DCI 408

        DCI Design Considerations 411

        SAN Extension 414

        DCI Path Optimization Techniques 417

        DNS Based 421

        Route Health Injection 422

        Locator/ID Separation Protocol 423

    Summary 428

    Further Reading 428

Part V High Availability 429

Chapter 9 Network High-Availability Design 431

    Fault Tolerance 434

    Fate Sharing and Fault Domains 436

    Network Resiliency Design Considerations 438

        Device-Level Resiliency 441

        Protocol-Level Resiliency 443

        Network Restoration 444

        Network Protection Approach 454

        BGP FRR 466

    Summary 469

    Further Reading 470

Part VI Other Network Technologies and Services 473

Chapter 10 Design of Other Network Technologies and Services 475

    IPv6 Design Considerations 475

        IPv6 Business and Technical Drivers 476

        IPv6 Addressing Types (Review) 477

        Migration and Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 478

        Discovery Phase 479

        Solution Assessment and Planning 479

        Detailed Design 484

        Deployment, Monitoring, and Optimization 488

        Transition to IPv6: Scenario 488

        Network Requirements Analysis 490

        Design Approach 490

        Further Reading 492

    IP Multicast Design Considerations 492

        Enterprise Multicast Design Options and Considerations 494

        Application Characteristic 494

        Multicast IP Address Mapping into Ethernet MAC Address 494

        Multicast Layer 3 Routing 497

        Multicast BGP 506

        Multicast Source Discovery Protocol 507

        Embedded RP 509

        SP Multicast Design Options and Considerations 510

        MVPN (Draft-Rosen Model) 510

        MVPN - Label Switch Multicast 511

        Next-Generation MVPN 512

        Multicast Resiliency Design Considerations 514

        Anycast RP 514

        Anycast-RP Using PIM 515

        Phantom RP 516

        Live-Live Streaming 517

        First Hop Redundancy Protocol-Aware PIM 519

        Final Thoughts on IP Multicast Design 520

        Further Reading 520

    QoS Design Considerations 521

        QoS High Level Design: Business-Driven Approach 521

        QoS Architecture 523

        QoS DiffServ Architecture and Toolset 523

        Traffic Classification and Marking 525

        Traffic Profiling and Congestion Management 528

        Congestion Avoidance (Active Queue Management) 531

        Admission Control 531

        QoS Design Strategy 532

        Enterprise QoS Design Considerations 537

        Enterprise Campus 537

        Enterprise Edge 538

        Service Provider QoS Design 543

        Traffic Marking Strategy 543

        DiffServ MPLS-TE (DS-TE) 547

        Further Reading 549

    Network Security Design 550

        Network Security Design Fundamentals 551

        Top-Down Design 551

        Security Policy Considerations 551

        Holistic Approach Considerations 552

        Divide-and-Conquer Approach 553

        Security Triad Principle (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability) 555

        Network Infrastructure Security Considerations 556

        Network Device Level Security 557

        Layer 2 Security Considerations 561

        Layer 3 Control Plane Security Considerations 563

        Remote-Access and Network Overlays (VPN) Security Considerations 564

        Network-Based Firewall Considerations 566

        Further Reading 568

    Network Management 569

        Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security 570

        Network Management High-Level Design Considerations 571

        Multitier Network Management Design 574

        Further Reading 576

    Summary 576

Appendix References 577

9781587144615, TOC, 9/15/2015

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