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Cengage Advantage Books: Building a Speech,9780495006572

Cengage Advantage Books: Building a Speech

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495006572

ISBN10:
0495006572
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/9/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $75.66

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This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 5/9/2006.
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Summary

Preface. Unit One: SURVEYING THE LANDSCAPE. 1. Introducing the Study of Public Speaking. 2. Building Your First Speech. 3. Analyzing Your Audience. 4. Improving Your Listening Skills. 5. Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension. 6. Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking. Unit Two: PREPARING THE FOUNDATION. 7. Selecting the Topic and Purpose. 8. Conducting Research. 9. Choosing Supporting Materials. Unit Three: CREATING THE STRUCTURE. 10. Organizing the Body of the Speech. 11. Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion. Unit Four: REFINING THE APPEARANCE. 12. Using Audiovisual Aids. 13. Considering Language. 14. Developing the Delivery. Unit Five: CONSIDERING DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES. 15. Speaking to Inform. 16. Speaking to Persuade. 17. Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences. 18. Speaking for Special Occasions. 19. Speaking in Groups.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Unit One Surveying the Landscape
1(90)
Introducing the Study of Public Speaking
2(16)
Communication in the Modern World
3(3)
Classical Origins of Speaking
6(1)
The Communication Process
7(8)
A Communication Model
8(1)
The Sender: Encoding Ideas into Symbols
8(1)
The Message
9(1)
The Channel
9(1)
The Receiver: Decoding Symbols into Ideas
9(1)
Feedback
9(1)
Setting
10(1)
Noise
11(2)
The Communication Model Applied to Public Speaking
13(1)
Applying the Communication Model to Everyday Life
14(1)
Designing a Plan
15(1)
Summary
16(1)
Building a Speech Online
16(2)
Building Your First Speech
18(10)
Extemporaneous Delivery and Speaking Styles
20(1)
Creating a Blueprint
21(5)
Step 1: Choose an Interesting, Well-Defined Topic
21(1)
Step 2: Understand the General Purpose
21(1)
Step 3: Conduct Extensive Research
22(1)
Step 4: Write Specific Purpose and Thesis Statements
22(1)
Step 5: Write a Comprehensive Outline
23(1)
Step 6: Be Sensitive to Audience Members
23(1)
Step 7: Understand Your Ethical Responsibilities
23(1)
Step 8: Choose Extemporaneous Delivery
24(1)
Step 9: Practice the Speech
25(1)
Step 10: Be Confident and Prepared
26(1)
Summary
26(1)
Building a Speech Online
27(1)
Analyzing Your Audience
28(20)
The Importance of Audience Analysis
29(15)
Audience Perception of the Speaker
31(1)
Audience Perception of the Topic
32(1)
Motivations of the Audience
33(2)
Physiological Needs
35(1)
Safety Needs
35(1)
Love Needs
35(1)
Esteem Needs
35(1)
Self-Actualization Needs
35(1)
Impact of Social Groups on Listeners
36(1)
Age
36(1)
Gender
36(1)
Religion
37(1)
Cultural and Ethnic Origin
38(1)
Educational Level, Occupation, and Interests
39(1)
Income Level
40(1)
Geographic Location
40(1)
Social Organizations
41(1)
Targeting Specific Groups
41(1)
Impact of the Occasion on Listeners
42(1)
The Purpose of the Occasion
42(1)
The Physical Location of the Event
43(1)
The Expectations of the Speaker
43(1)
Conducting an Audience Analysis
44(2)
Collecting Demographic Data about the Audience
44(1)
Informal Assessments
44(1)
Surveys
45(1)
Questionnaires
46(1)
Interviews
46(1)
Processing the Data with a Computer
46(1)
Evaluating the Audience Profile
46(1)
Summary
46(1)
Building a Speech Online
47(1)
Improving Your Listening Skills
48(16)
The Significance of Listening
50(1)
The Process of Listening
51(2)
Kinds of Listening
53(2)
Discriminative Listening
53(1)
Evaluative Listening
53(1)
Appreciative Listening
54(1)
Empathic Listening
54(1)
Active and Passive Listening
54(1)
Barriers of Listening
55(3)
Yielding to Distractions
55(1)
Blocking Out Communication
55(1)
Listening Selectively
56(1)
Overcriticizing the Speaker
57(1)
Faking Attention
57(1)
Avoiding Difficult Listening Situations
58(1)
How to Become an Active Listener and Speaker
58(4)
Withhold Judgment
58(1)
Avoid the Appearance Trap
58(1)
Don't Be Easily Swayed by Delivery and Style
59(1)
Give All Topics a Fair Hearing
59(1)
Avoid Extraneous Mental Activity During the Speech
59(1)
Give Honest, Attentive Feedback
60(1)
Eliminate Distractions
61(1)
Evaluate the Communication When It Is Finished
61(1)
Summary
62(1)
Building a Speech Online
62(2)
Understanding and Reducing Your Apprehension
64(12)
Speech Anxiety Is Common
65(1)
Research into Stress and Communication Apprehension
66(2)
Reducing Communication Apprehension
68(6)
Accept Anxiety Honestly and Face It
68(2)
Develop a Positive Attitude
70(1)
Adopt Constructive Behaviors
71(1)
Maintain a Healthy Body
71(1)
Be Thoroughly Prepared
72(1)
Reward Yourself
72(1)
Let Go of Mistakes
73(1)
Accept Constructive Criticism
73(1)
Taking Responsibility to Reduce Apprehension
74(1)
Summary
74(1)
Building a Speech Online
74(2)
Considering the Ethics of Public Speaking
76(15)
The Need for Ethics in Society
77(1)
Evaluating a Speaker's Ethics
78(5)
Honesty and the Speaker
78(2)
The Speaker's Reliability
80(1)
The Speaker's Motivations
81(1)
The Speaker's Policies
82(1)
Applying Ethical Standards
83(3)
Be Honest
83(1)
Advocate Ideas That Benefit Others
84(1)
Evaluate Your Motives for Speaking
85(1)
Develop a Speaking Code of Ethics
85(1)
Sample Speech The Right Way: A Matter of Principle
86(3)
Summary
89(1)
Building a Speech Online
89(2)
Unit Two Preparing the Foundation
91(56)
Selecting the Topic and Purpose
92(14)
Getting Ideas
93(2)
Your Own Knowledge and Experience
93(1)
Brainstorming
94(1)
Proquest Direct, the Readers' Guide, Infotrac College Edition, Newspaper Indexes, the Internet
94(1)
Ask for Help
95(1)
Selecting the Topic
95(3)
It Should Be Sufficiently Narrow and Conform to the Time Limit
95(1)
It Should Interest You, the Speaker
96(1)
It Should Provide New Information
96(1)
It Should Be Appropriate
97(1)
It Should Conform to the General Purpose
98(1)
Speeches to Inform
98(1)
Speeches to Persuade
98(1)
Speeches to Entertain
98(1)
Writing the Specific Purpose
98(3)
Be Clear, Concise, and Unambiguous
99(1)
Include Only One Major Idea
99(1)
Phrase in a Declarative Statement
100(1)
Wording the Thesis Statement
101(2)
Problems with the Thesis Statement
102(1)
Putting It Together
103(1)
Summary
104(1)
Building a Speech Online
104(2)
Conducting Research
106(22)
Preparing for Research
107(1)
Establishing Credibility
108(1)
Primary and Secondary Sources
108(1)
Using General References
109(1)
The Catalog
109(1)
Periodical Indexes
109(1)
Accessing the Library by Computer
110(1)
Guidelines for Searching the Internet
110(2)
Researching Substantive Sources
112(5)
Biographies
113(1)
Directories and Handbooks
113(1)
Dictionaries
113(1)
Encyclopedias
113(1)
Almanacs, Yearbooks, and Statistical Publications
114(1)
Collections of Quotations
114(1)
Books
114(1)
Magazines, Journals, and Newspapers
114(1)
Legal Research
115(1)
Audiovisual Aids
115(1)
Interviews with Authorities
115(1)
Legislative and Governmental Research
115(2)
Institutional and Organizational Research
117(1)
Specialized Libraries and Museums
117(1)
Keeping Accurate Notes
117(2)
Interviewing
119(2)
Preparing for the Interview
119(1)
Conducting the Interview
120(1)
Taking Notes during the Interview
121(1)
The Bibliography: How to Record an Entry
121(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
122(1)
Thinking Critically about Speech Research and Construction
122(4)
Be Willing to Test Information
123(1)
Be Organized
124(1)
View Ideas from Different Perspectives
124(1)
Think for Yourself
125(1)
Summary
126(1)
Building a Speech Online
126(2)
Choosing Supporting Materials
128(19)
Making the Appropriate Selection
129(1)
Statistics, Polls, and Surveys
130(2)
Using Statistics
130(2)
Examples, Illustrations, Case Studies, and Narratives
132(3)
Using Examples
132(3)
Quotations and Testimonies from Authorities
135(1)
Using Quotations and Testimonies
135(1)
Comparisons and Contrasts
136(2)
Using Comparisons and Contrasts
136(2)
Personal Experience and Observation
138(1)
Using Experience and Observation
138(1)
Humor and Anecdotes
139(1)
Using Humor and Anecdotes
139(1)
Role-Playing
140(1)
Using Role-Playing Techniques
140(1)
Sample Speech Out of Sight, Out of Mind
141(4)
Summary
145(1)
Building a Speech Online
145(2)
Unit Three Creating the Structure
147(46)
Organizing the Body of the Speech
148(19)
Approaching Organization Logically
150(1)
Principles of Outlining
150(13)
Building Block One: The Body Should Contain between Two and Four Main Points or Numerals in a 5- to 7-Minute Speech
150(1)
Building Block Two: Main Points in the Body Should Be Structured in an Organizational Sequence That Is Logical, Interesting, and Appropriate to the Topic
151(1)
Chronological Sequence
151(1)
Spatial Sequence
151(1)
Cause-Effect Sequence
152(1)
Topical Sequence
153(1)
Other Sequences
154(1)
Building Block Three: A System of Roman Numerals, Letters, and Arabic Numbers Should Be Combined with Indentation to Identify Main and Subordinate Levels
154(1)
Building Block Four: The Outline Should Include Supporting Materials That Are Coordinated and Subordinated in a Logical Manner?
155(3)
Building Block Five: Every Subdivision Must Contain at Least Two Items
158(1)
Building Block Six: Each Point Should Include Only One Topic or Idea
159(1)
Building Block Seven: Main Points (Numerals) and Supporting Items Should Be Linguistically Parallel
160(1)
Building Block Eight: The Outline Should Be Expressed in Either Sentences or Topics
161(1)
Building Block Nine: The Outline Should Identify Sources for Major Supporting Materials
162(1)
Building Block Ten: The Outline Should Include External Transitions Between Main Numerals
162(1)
Your Speaking Notes
163(2)
Summary
165(1)
Building a Speech Online
166(1)
Selecting the Introduction and Conclusion
167(26)
Planning the Introduction
168(10)
Examples, Stories, and Illustrations
169(1)
Shocking Statement or Situation
170(1)
Statistics
171(1)
Questions
172(1)
Quotation
173(1)
Suspense
174(1)
Personal Reference, Compliment, or Reference to the Occasion
175(1)
Humor
176(1)
The Flexible Introduction
177(1)
Combination of Strategics
177(1)
Outlining the Introduction
178(1)
Planning the Conclusion
179(6)
Summary of Main Points
179(1)
Quotation
180(1)
Reference to the Introduction
181(1)
Challenge or Appeal
181(2)
Humor
183(1)
Question
184(1)
Story, Illustration, and Example
184(1)
Statistics
185(1)
Outlining the Conclusion
185(1)
Speaking Notes for the Introduction and Conclusion
186(1)
Sample Outline Raising the Monitor
187(3)
Summary
190(1)
Building a Speech Online
190(3)
Unit Four Refining the Appearance
193(62)
Using Audiovisual Aids
194(22)
Types of Audiovisual Aids
195(15)
Mechanical Media
195(1)
The Computer Projector
195(1)
Projection Equipment
196(1)
Recording Equipment
197(3)
Using Media
200(1)
Graphs
200(1)
Bar Graph
200(1)
Line Graph
200(1)
Pie Graph
201(1)
Developing Graphs
202(1)
Illustrations, Photographs, and Pictures
202(1)
Using Pictures
203(1)
Posters, Flipcharts, and Chalkboards
204(1)
Using Posters, Flipcharts, and Chalkboards
204(3)
Models and Objects
207(1)
Scale Models
207(1)
Parts of Objects
207(1)
Actual Objects
208(2)
You as a Visual Aid
210(1)
Sample Speech: How Do Airplane Wings Produce Lift?
210(4)
Summary
214(1)
Building a Speech Online
215(1)
Considering Language
216(18)
Developing Clarity
217(3)
Avoiding Euphemisms
219(1)
Using Concrete Language
220(2)
Denotation and Connotation
221(1)
Building a Unique Style
222(3)
Similes
222(1)
Metaphors
222(1)
Alliteration
223(1)
Amplification
223(1)
Antithesis
224(1)
Repetition
224(1)
Mnemonic Phrases
225(1)
Being Appropriate
225(5)
Be Aware of Cultural Differences
225(2)
Recognize Differences Due to Gender
227(1)
Avoid Offensive Terms
228(1)
Eliminate Irrelevant Language
228(1)
Avoid Trite Expressions
229(1)
Eliminate Grammatical Errors
229(1)
Build Vocabulary Skills
230(1)
Making Ideas Meaningful and Interrelated
230(2)
Personal Pronouns
230(1)
Transitions
231(1)
Summary
232(1)
Building a Speech Online
232(2)
Developing the Delivery
234(21)
Delivering the Speech
235(1)
Proper Breathing for Vocal Delivery
236(1)
Vocal Delivery
237(5)
Volume
237(1)
Articulation
238(1)
Pitch and Inflection
239(1)
Quality
240(1)
Rate
240(1)
Pronunciation
241(1)
Pauses
241(1)
Emphasis and Phrasing
242(1)
Visual, Nonverbal Delivery
242(7)
Eye Contact
243(1)
Appearance
243(1)
Gestures
244(1)
Facial Expression
244(1)
Body Position and Movement
245(1)
Culture and Nonverbal Delivery
246(2)
Gender and Nonverbal Delivery
248(1)
Combining Vocal and Visual Delivery
249(1)
Building Skills in Delivery
250(2)
Know Your Material
250(1)
Be Well Organized
250(1)
Mark Your Notes
250(1)
Practice the Delivery
251(1)
Summary
252(1)
Building a Speech Online
253(2)
Unit Five Considering Different Types of Structures
255(114)
Speaking to Inform
256(22)
The Difference Between Information and Persuasion
257(1)
Types of Informative Speeches
258(12)
The Descriptive Speech
258(1)
An Example
259(2)
Outlining the Descriptive Speech
261(2)
The Demonstration Speech
263(1)
An Example
264(1)
Outlining the Demonstration Speech
264(2)
The Speech of Definition
266(2)
Other Informative Types: Reports, Lectures, and Personal Experience
268(2)
Sample Speech: Raising the Monitor
270(6)
Summary
276(1)
Building a Speech Online
276(2)
Speaking to Persuade
278(32)
Persuasion in Today's Society
279(1)
The Nature of Persuasion
280(3)
Speeches to Convince
281(1)
Speeches to Stimulate
281(1)
Speeches to Actuate
281(1)
Selecting the Persuasive Topic
281(1)
Wording the Proposition Statement
281(1)
Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy
282(1)
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: The Means of Persuasion
283(7)
Ethos: The Ethical Appeal
283(2)
Pathos: The Emotional Appeal
285(1)
Identify Emotions
286(1)
Understand Audience Emotions
287(1)
Express Your Own Feelings
288(1)
Connect Emotions to the Occasion
289(1)
Logos: The Appeal to Reason
290(6)
Arguments Based on Enumeration
291(1)
Arguments Based on Analogy
292(1)
Arguments Based on Causation
292(2)
Other Logical Fallacies
294(1)
Developing Rebuttal Arguments
295(1)
Methods of Organizing Persuasive Speeches
296(5)
Reasons
296(1)
Problem-Solution
297(3)
Comparative Advantages
300(1)
Motivated Sequence
301(1)
Sample Speech: Computer-Enhanced Advertising Should Be Clearly Labeled
301(7)
Summary
308(1)
Building a Speech Online
308(2)
Speaking to Persuade: Motivating Audiences
310(16)
Strategies for Motivating Listeners
312(3)
Appeal to the Needs of the Audience
312(1)
Appeal to Listeners' Beliefs and Values
313(1)
Provide Listeners with Incentives
314(1)
Involve the Audience Emotionally
315(1)
The Speech to Actuate
315(2)
Attention Step
315(1)
Need Step
316(1)
Satisfaction Step
316(1)
Visualization Step
316(1)
Action Step
317(1)
Phrasing the Thesis
317(1)
Applying the Motivated Sequence
317(5)
Attention Step
318(1)
Need Step
318(1)
Satisfaction Step
318(1)
Visualization Step
319(1)
Action Step
319(1)
Outlining the Motivated Sequence
320(2)
Sample Speech: Genocide in Sudan
322(3)
Summary
325(1)
Building a Speech Online
325(1)
Speaking for Special Occasions
326(17)
Types of Special-Occasion Speeches
328(10)
The Speech of Tribute
328(1)
Construct a Brief Biographical Sketch
328(1)
Acknowledge Significant Achievements and Virtues
328(1)
Convey Hope and Encouragement
328(1)
The Presentation Speech
329(1)
The Acceptance Speech
330(1)
The Speech of Dedication
331(1)
The Speech of Welcome
332(1)
The Speech of Introduction
332(1)
The Keynote Speech
333(1)
The Nominating Speech
334(1)
The Farewell Speech
335(1)
The Commencement Speech
335(1)
The After-Dinner Speech
335(2)
Toasts
337(1)
Sample Speech: Dedication of the World War II Memorial
338(3)
Summary
341(1)
Building a Speech Online
341(2)
Speaking in Groups
343(26)
Characteristics of Small Groups
345(1)
Shared Goals
345(1)
Group Interaction
346(1)
Size
346(1)
Time Period
346(1)
Leadership
346(1)
Development of Small Groups
346(2)
Forming
347(1)
Storming
347(1)
Norming
347(1)
Performing
347(1)
Solving Problems in Groups
348(4)
Questions for Discussion
348(1)
Questions of Fact
348(1)
Questions of Value
348(1)
Questions of Policy
348(1)
Developing a Problem-Solving Agenda
348(1)
Define the Problem
349(1)
Narrow the Problem
349(1)
Analyze the Issue
349(1)
Set Up Criteria
350(1)
Suggest Solutions
350(1)
Apply Criteria to Solutions
350(1)
Implement the Selected Solution
350(1)
Monitor the Success of the Solution
351(1)
A Sample Agenda
351(1)
Participating in Groups
352(3)
Group-Centered Behavior
352(1)
Be an Active Observer
352(1)
Support Group Procedure
352(1)
Be Reliable
352(1)
Be Willing to Compromise
353(1)
Be Courteous and Respectful
353(1)
Encourage and Energize Members
353(1)
Self-Centered Behavior
354(1)
Leadership in Small Groups
355(5)
Leadership Theories
355(1)
Positive Leadership Behaviors
356(1)
Be Prepared
356(1)
Keep to Time Limits
357(1)
Be Organized
357(1)
Know When to Intervene
357(3)
Special Discussion Formats
360(2)
Focus Groups
360(1)
The Symposium
361(1)
The Panel
361(1)
The Forum
362(1)
Buzz Groups
362(1)
Role-Playing Groups
362(1)
Summary
362(1)
Building a Speech Online
363(6)
Notes 369(4)
Glossary 373(8)
Photo Credits 381(2)
Index 383


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