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Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Arguments : An Introduction to Informal Logic,9780495603955
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Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Arguments : An Introduction to Informal Logic

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780495603955

ISBN10:
0495603953
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/10/2009
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $112.00

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This is the 8th edition with a publication date of 2/10/2009.
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Summary

The proven strengths of this argument text include the philosophy of language, analysis of arguments as they occur in ordinary language, and systematic examination of inductive arguments. The book covers statistical generalizations, statistical syllogisms, and inferences to the best explanation.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
How to Analyze Argumentsp. 1
Uses of Argumentsp. 3
What Arguments Arep. 3
Justificationsp. 4
Explanationsp. 7
Combinations: An Examplep. 10
The Web of Languagep. 17
Language and Conventionp. 17
Linguistic Actsp. 19
Speech Actsp. 22
Performativesp. 23
Kinds of Speech Actsp. 26
Speech Act Rulesp. 28
Conversational Actsp. 32
Conversational Rulesp. 34
Conversational Implicationp. 37
Violating Conversational Rulesp. 40
Rhetorical Devicesp. 42
Deceptionp. 45
Bronston v. United Statesp. 46
Summaryp. 48
The Language of Argumentp. 51
Argument Markersp. 51
If..., then...p. 53
Arguments in Standard Formp. 55
Some Standards for Evaluating Argumentsp. 57
Validityp. 57
Truthp. 59
Soundnessp. 60
A Tricky Casep. 60
A Problem and Some Solutionsp. 62
Assuringp. 63
Guardingp. 65
Discountingp. 66
Evaluative Languagep. 69
Spin Doctoringp. 72
The Art of Close Analysisp. 77
An Extended Examplep. 77
Clerk Hire Allowance, House of Representativesp. 77
Deep Analysisp. 105
Getting Down to Basicsp. 105
Clarifying Crucial Termsp. 109
Dissecting the Argumentp. 109
Arranging Subargumentsp. 111
Suppressed Premisesp. 116
Contingent Factsp. 117
Linguistic Principlesp. 119
Evaluative Suppressed Premisesp. 120
Uses and Abuses of Suppressed Premisesp. 121
The Method of Reconstructionp. 122
Digging Deeperp. 125
An Example of Deep Analysis: Capital Punishmentp. 127
How to Evaluate Arguments: Deductive Standardsp. 139
Propositional Logicp. 141
The Formal Analysis of Argumentsp. 141
Basic Propositional Connectivesp. 142
Conjunctionp. 142
Disjunctionp. 150
Negationp. 150
Process of Eliminationp. 153
How Truth-Functional Connectives Workp. 154
Testing for Validityp. 156
Some Further Connectivesp. 160
Conditionalsp. 162
Truth Tables for Conditionalsp. 163
Logical Language and Everyday Languagep. 169
Other Conditionals in Ordinary Languagep. 172
Categorical Logicp. 179
Beyond Propositional Logicp. 179
Categorical Propositionsp. 180
The Four Basic Categorical Formsp. 182
Translation into the Basic Categorical Formsp. 184
Contradictoriesp. 187
Existential Commitmentp. 189
Validity for Categorical Argumentsp. 190
Categorical Immediate Inferencesp. 192
The Theory of the Syllogismp. 194
Appendix: The Classical Theoryp. 203
The Classical Square of Oppositionp. 205
The Classical Theory of Immediate Inferencep. 209
The Classical Theory of Syllogismsp. 210
How to Evaluate Arguments: Inductive Standardsp. 213
Arguments to and from Generalizationsp. 215
Induction versus Deductionp. 215
Statistical Generalizationsp. 219
Should We Accept the Premises?p. 220
Is the Sample Large Enough?p. 220
Is the Sample Biased?p. 222
Is the Result Biased in Some Other Way?p. 223
Statistical Applicationsp. 225
Causal Reasoningp. 231
Reasoning About Causesp. 231
Sufficient Conditions and Necessary Conditionsp. 233
The Sufficient Condition Testp. 236
The Necessary Condition Testp. 237
The Joint Testp. 238
Rigorous Testingp. 240
Reaching Positive Conclusionsp. 242
Applying These Methods to Find Causesp. 243
Normalityp. 243
Background Assumptionsp. 244
A Detailed Examplep. 245
Calling Things Causesp. 249
Concomitant Variationp. 250
Inference to the Best Explanation and from Analogyp. 257
Inferences to the Best Explanationp. 257
Arguments from Analogyp. 267
Chancesp. 277
Some Fallacies of Probabilityp. 277
The Gambler's Fallacyp. 277
Strange Things Happenp. 278
Heuristicsp. 279
The Language of Probabilityp. 282
A Priori Probabilityp. 283
Some Rules of Probabilityp. 285
Bayes's Theoremp. 291
Choicesp. 303
Expected Monetary Valuep. 303
Expected Overall Valuep. 306
Decisions Under Ignorancep. 308
Fallaciesp. 315
Fallacies of Vaguenessp. 317
Uses of Unclarityp. 317
Vaguenessp. 318
Heapsp. 320
Slippery Slopesp. 322
Conceptual Slippery-Slope Argumentsp. 322
Fairness Slippery-Slope Argumentsp. 325
Causal Slippery-Slope Argumentsp. 327
Fallacies of Ambiguityp. 333
Ambiguityp. 333
Equivocationp. 337
Definitionsp. 343
Fallacies of Relevancep. 353
Relevancep. 353
Ad Hominem Argumentsp. 354
Appeals to Authorityp. 360
More Fallacies of Relevancep. 364
Fallacies of Vacuityp. 369
Circularityp. 369
Begging the Questionp. 370
Self-Sealersp. 375
Refutationp. 381
What Is Refutation?p. 381
Counterexamplesp. 382
Reductio Ad Absurdump. 386
Straw Men and False Dichotomiesp. 390
Refutation by Parallel Reasoningp. 392
Areas of Argumentationp. 401
Legal Reasoningp. 403
Components of Legal Reasoningp. 404
Questions of Factp. 404
Questions of Lawp. 405
The Law of Discriminationp. 411
The Equal Protection Clausep. 411
Applying the Equal Protection Clausep. 412
The Strict Scrutiny Testp. 413
The Bakke Casep. 414
Regents of the University of California v. Bakkep. 416
Legal Developments Since Bakkep. 418
Burden of Proofp. 430
Moral Reasoningp. 433
Moral Disagreementsp. 433
The Problem of Abortionp. 434
The "Pro-Life" Argumentp. 435
"Pro-Choice" Responsesp. 437
Analogical Reasoning in Ethicsp. 442
Weighing Factorsp. 444
"A Defense of Abortion,"p. 446
"An Argument that Abortion Is Wrong,"p. 459
Scientific Reasoningp. 477
Standard Sciencep. 477
Scientific Revolutionsp. 479
"Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference,"p. 481
"Living with Darwin,"p. 494
Religious Reasoningp. 505
"Five Reasons to Believe in God,"p. 506
"Seven Deadly Objections to Belief in the Christian God,"p. 512
Philosophical Reasoningp. 523
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence,"p. 524
"The Myth of the Computer,"p. 536
Creditsp. 543
Indexp. 545
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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