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Cengage Advantage Books: Voyage of Discovery A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

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Edition:
3rd
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9780495127796

ISBN10:
0495127795
Format:
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Pub. Date:
6/25/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
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Summary

Preface. Introduction: A Brief Tour Guide to Philosophy. Part I: THE ANCIENT PERIOD. 1. The Greek Cultural Context: From Poetry to Philosophy. 2. Greek Philosophy before Socrates. 3. The Sophists and Socrates. 4. Plato: The Search for Ultimate Truth and Reality. 5. Aristotle: Understanding the Natural World. 6. Classical Philosophy after Aristotle. Part II: THE MIDDLE AGES. 7. Cultural Context: The Development of Christian Thought. 8. St. Augustine: Philosophy in the Service of Faith. 9. Early Medieval Philosophy. 10. Philosophy and Theology in the 11th and 12th Centuries. 11. St. Thomas Aquinas: Aristotle's Philosophy and Christian Thought. 12. The Unraveling of the Medieval Synthesis. Part III: THE MODERN PERIOD. 13. Cultural Context: Renaissance, Reformation, and the Rise of Modern Science. 14. Early Empiricists: Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes. 15. Rene Descartes: Founder of Modern Philosophy. 16. Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza: Rationalist and Mystic. 17. Gottfried Leibniz: The Optimistic Rationalist. 18. Cultural Context: The Enlightenment and the Age of Newton. 19. John Locke: The Rise of Modern Empiricism. 20. George Berkeley: Following the Road of Empiricism. 21. David Hume: The Scottish Skeptic. 22. Immanuel Kant: Finding the Powers and Limits of the Mind. 23. The Nineteenth-Century Cultural Context: Romanticism, Science, and the Sense of History. 24. G.W.F. Hegel: Biographer of the World Spirit. 25. Karl Marx: A Philosophy of the Changing World. 26. Soren Kierkegaard: The Founder of Religious Existentialism. 27. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Founder of Secular Existentialism. 28. Nineteenth-Century Empiricism: Comte, Bentham, and Mill. Part IV: THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD. 29. The Twentieth-Century Cultural Context: Science, Language, and Experience. 30. Pragmatism: The Unity of Thought and Action. 31. Analytic Philosophy and the Linguistic Turn. 32. Phemenology and Existentialism. 33. Recent Issues in Philosophy. Glossary. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
Introduction: A Brief Tour Guide to Philosophy 1(1)
Philosophy Is Not an Optional Experience in Your Life!
1(3)
Philosophical Ideas in Unlikely Places
1(2)
Why Ideas Are Like Colds
3(1)
What Is Philosophy, Anyway?
4(4)
Commonplace Notions of Philosophy
4(1)
Philosophers and Lovers
5(1)
Philosophical Criteria
5(1)
Assessing Arguments
6(2)
Becoming an Active Reader: Tactics and Strategies
8(2)
Philosophy, Bike Riding, and Baseball Cards
8(1)
A Strategy for Reading Philosophy
9(1)
A General Map of the Terrain
10(1)
Contemporary Connections: Introduction
11(2)
PART I THE ANCIENT PERIOD
13(114)
The Greek Cultural Context: From Poetry to Philosophy
15(6)
The Role of the Poets
15(3)
The Natural Order According to Homer
16(1)
The Moral Ideal According to Homer
17(1)
Conflicts Within Homer's Picture
17(1)
The Birth of Western Philosophy
18(1)
Contemporary Connections 1: The Philosophical Turn
19(1)
Outline of Classical Philosophy
19(2)
Greek Philosophy Before Socrates
21(22)
The Milesian Philosophers
21(1)
Thales
21(2)
Thales' Question
21(1)
Thales'Answer
22(1)
The Problem of Change
22(1)
Thales' Significance
22(1)
Anaximander
23(1)
Anaximander's Question
23(1)
Anaximander's Answer
23(1)
The Problem of Change
23(1)
Anaximander's Significance
24(1)
Anaximenes
24(1)
Anaximenes' Question
24(1)
Anaximenes' Answer
24(1)
The Problem of Change
25(1)
Anaximenes' Significance
25(1)
Summary of the Milesians' Methods
25(1)
Summary of the Milesians' Metaphysics
25(1)
Pythagoras and His School
26(1)
Pythagoras: Mathematician and Mystic
26(1)
Philosophy and Salvation
26(1)
Reality Is Mathematical
27(1)
The Pythagoreans' Significance
27(1)
Xenophanes
28(1)
The Destroyer of Myths
28(1)
Theory of Knowledge
28(1)
Philosophy of Religion
29(1)
Xenophanes' Significance
29(1)
Heraclitus
30(1)
The Lover of Paradoxes
30(1)
Reason Is the Path to Knowledge
30(1)
Reality as Change and Conflict
31(1)
The Primacy of Change
31(1)
The Unity of Opposites
31(1)
Fire
32(1)
Logos Again
32(1)
Moral and Social Philosophy
32(1)
Heraclitus's Significance
33(1)
Parmenides And The Eleatics
33(1)
Parmenides: The Rigorous Rationalist
33(1)
Reality Is Unchanging
33(2)
Reason Versus the Senses
35(1)
Zeno of Elea: Coming to Parmenides' Defense
35(1)
Evaluation and Significance of the Eleatics
36(1)
The Pluralists
37(1)
The Pluralists' Task
37(1)
Empedocles (495-435 B.C.)
37(1)
Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.)
38(1)
Evaluation of Anaxagoras
38(1)
Democritus And The Atomists
39(2)
Being
39(1)
Becoming
39(1)
The World of Appearances
39(1)
Theory of Knowledge
39(1)
Ethics
40(1)
Significance of the Atomists
40(1)
Summary of the Pre-Socratics
41(1)
Contemporary Connections 2: The Pre-Socratics
41(2)
The Sophists and Socrates
43(17)
The Sophists
43(1)
Skepticism and the Keys to Success
43(4)
Protagoras
45(1)
Gorgias
46(1)
Antiphon
46(1)
Evaluation and Significance of the Sophists
47(1)
Socrates (470-399 B.C.)
47(1)
Socrates on Trial
47(2)
The Sources of Socrates' Thought
49(1)
Socrates' Task: Exposing Ignorance
49(1)
Socrates' Method
50(2)
Socratic Questioning
50(1)
Socrates' Method of Argument
51(1)
Socrates' Theory of Knowledge
52(1)
Socrates' Metaphysics
53(1)
The Human Soul
53(1)
Ethics and the Good Life
54(2)
Virtue and Excellence
54(1)
Knowing and Doing
55(1)
Political Philosophy
56(1)
Socrates'Legacy
57(1)
Contemporary Connections 3: The Sophists and Socrates
58(2)
Plato: The Search for Ultimate Truth and Reality
60(24)
Plato's Life: From Student to University President
60(1)
Plato's Task: Making Philosophy Comprehensive
61(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Reason Versus Opinion
61(6)
Rejection of Relativism
61(1)
Rejection of Sense Experience
62(1)
Knowledge Is Not True Belief
63(1)
Universal Forms Are the Basis of Knowledge
64(1)
Knowledge Comes Through Recollalion
65(1)
Plato's Divided Line
65(2)
Metaphysics: Shadows and Reality
67(5)
The Reality of the Forms
67(1)
The Problem of Change
67(1)
The Relationship of Particulars to the Forms
68(2)
The Allegory of the Cave
70(2)
Moral Theory
72(4)
Against Relativism
72(1)
Why Be Moral?
73(1)
Morality and Human Nature
74(2)
Political Theory
76(3)
The Three Divisions in Society
76(2)
The Decline of the Ideal State
78(1)
Plato's Cosmology: Purpose and Chance
79(1)
Evaluation and Significance
80(1)
Contemporary Connections 4: Plato
81(3)
Aristotle: Understanding the Natural World
84(21)
Aristotle's Life: Biologist, Tutor, and Philosopher
84(1)
Plato and Aristotle
85(2)
Theory of Knowledge: Finding Universals Within Particulars
87(4)
Aristotle's Appeal to Experience
87(1)
Language, Thought, and Reality
88(1)
The Essential Categories
88(1)
The Discovery of Logic
89(1)
First Principles
90(1)
Metaphysics: Understanding the Here-and-Now World
91(5)
Critique of the Platonic Forms
91(1)
Substance: The Key to Reality
92(1)
Form and Matter
92(1)
Potentiality and Actuality
93(1)
Understanding Change
94(1)
Teleology
95(1)
God: The Unmoved Mover
95(1)
Ethics: Keeping Things in Balance
96(6)
Happiness
97(2)
Virtue Is a State of Character
99(1)
Virtue Is Concerned with Choice
99(1)
Virtue and the Mean
100(1)
Universal Principles and Relative Applications
100(1)
The Mean Determined by Practical Wisdom
101(1)
The Best Form of Life
102(1)
Evaluation and Significance
102(1)
Contemporary Connections 5: Aristotle
103(2)
Classical Philosophy After Aristotle
105(22)
The Transition to Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy
105(1)
Cynicism
106(1)
Epicureanism
107(4)
Epicurean Metaphysics
107(1)
Ethics and Pleasure
108(1)
Epicurean Social Philosophy
109(1)
Religion and Death
110(1)
The Significance of the Epicureans
110(1)
Stoicism
111(6)
Comparison of Epicureanism and Stoicism
111(1)
Stoic Metaphysics
112(2)
Ethics and Resignation
114(1)
Stoic Social Philosophy
115(1)
The Roman Stoics
115(1)
The Significance of the Stoics
116(1)
Skepticism
117(2)
Academic Skepticism
117(1)
The Revival of Pyrrhonian Skepticism
118(1)
The Significance of Skepticism
119(1)
Plotinus and Neoplatonism
119(4)
The One
120(1)
Intellect
120(1)
Soul
121(1)
The Material World
121(1)
The Problem of Evil
121(1)
The Way of Ascent
122(1)
The Significance of Neoplatonism
123(1)
Contemporary Connections 6: Post-Aristotelian Classical Philosophy
123(4)
PART II THE MIDDLE AGES
127(94)
Cultural Context: The Development of Christian Thought
129(11)
The Encounter Between Greek and Christian Thought
129(2)
The Problem of Faith and Reason
131(3)
Justin Martyr
132(1)
Clement of Alexandria
132(1)
Tertullian
133(1)
Challenging Heresies and Clarifying Orthodoxy
134(4)
Gnosticism
135(1)
The Manichaean Heresy
135(1)
The Nature of God and the Arian Heresy
136(1)
The Problem of Free Will and Sin: The Pelagian Heresy
137(1)
The Future Agenda: A Christian Philosophical Synthesis
138(1)
Contemporary Connections 7: The Development of Christian Thought
138(2)
St. Augustine: Philosophy in the Service of Faith
140(17)
Augustine's Life: From Passionate Pleasure to a Passionate Faith
140(2)
Augustine's Task: Understanding the Human Predicament
142(1)
Theory of Knowledge: The Truth Is Within
143(4)
The Quest for Certainty
143(2)
Platonic Rationalism
145(1)
Divine Illumination
145(1)
Faith and Reason
146(1)
Metaphysics: God, Creation, Freedom, and Evil
147(4)
The Existence of God
147(1)
Creation
147(2)
Foreknowledge, Providence, and Free Will
149(1)
The Problem of Evil
150(1)
Philosophy of History and the State
151(3)
The Rise of a Christian Philosophy of History
151(1)
The Two Cities
152(1)
The Meaning of History
153(1)
The Problem of Providence and Free Will in History
154(1)
The Implications of Augustine's Theory of History
154(1)
Evaluation and Significance
154(1)
Was Augustine a Philosopher?
154(1)
Augustine's Influence
155(1)
Contemporary Connections 8: St. Augustine
155(2)
Early Medieval Philosophy
157(10)
From the Roman World to the Middle Ages
157(1)
A Survey of the Early Middle Ages
157(2)
The Church
158(1)
Periods of Darkness and Light
158(1)
The Byzantine and Islamic Empires
159(1)
An Overview of Medieval Philosophy
159(1)
Early Medieval Philosophy
160(5)
Boethius
160(2)
John Scotus Erigena
162(3)
The Return to Darkness
165(1)
Contemporary Connections 9: Early Medieval Philosophy
166(1)
Philosophy and Theology in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
167(20)
The Flowering of the Middle Ages
167(2)
The Rise of Scholasticism
169(6)
The Nature of Scholasticism
169(1)
The Controversy over Universals
170(3)
The Controversy over Faith and Reason
173(1)
The Relation of Will and Intellect
174(1)
St. Anselm
175(3)
Peter Abelard
178(1)
Islamic Philosophers
179(4)
Preserving Aristotle's Legacy
179(1)
The Rise of the Islamic Religion
179(1)
Avicenna
180(1)
Al-Ghazali
181(1)
Averroes
182(1)
Jewish Philosophers
183(1)
The Rediscovery of Aristotle in Europe
183(1)
Contemporary Connections 10: The Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
184(3)
St. Thomas Aquinas: Aristotle's Philosophy and Christian Thought
187(18)
The Ox That Roared
187(1)
Aquinas's Task: Integrating Philosophy and Faith
188(3)
The Impact of Aristotle
188(1)
The Spheres of Faith and Reason
189(1)
Method
190(1)
The Nature of Knowledge: Reason Processing Experience
191(1)
Metaphysics: From the World to God
192(6)
The Physical World
192(1)
A Hierarchical Universe
192(1)
Essence and Existence
193(1)
The Existence of God
194(3)
The Problem of Religious Langauge
197(1)
Moral Philosophy: Human Nature and Divine Law
198(2)
Teological Ethics
198(1)
The Natural Law
199(1)
The Four Laws
200(1)
Political Philosophy
200(1)
Evaluation and Significance
201(2)
The Rejection of Platonic Dualism
201(1)
Science and Theology
201(2)
Contemporary Connections 11: St. Thomas Aquinas
203(2)
The Unraveling of the Medieval Synthesis
205(16)
John Duns Scotus
207(1)
The Subtle Scottish Professor
207(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Restricting Reason
207(1)
Metaphysics: Moving Away from Scholasticism
207(1)
Universals and Individuality
207(1)
Natural Theology
208(1)
Moral Philosophy and the Primacy of the Will
208(1)
William of Ockham
209(1)
Ockham's Controversial Life
209(1)
Ockham's Two Tasks
210(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Denying Universals
210(1)
Knowledge Begins in Experience
210(1)
Ockham's Nominalism
211(1)
Metaphysics and the Limits of Reason
212(1)
The Primacy of the Individual
212(1)
Causality
212(1)
The Decline of Metaphysics
212(1)
Rejection of Natural Theology
213(1)
Moral Philosophy: Radical Voluntarism
213(1)
Summary and Evaluation of Ockham
214(2)
Changes In The Methods of Science
216(1)
Mysticism
216(2)
The Decline of Medieval Philosophy
218(1)
Contemporary Connections 12: The Unraveling of the Medieval Synthesis
219(2)
PART III THE MODERN PERIOD
221(258)
Cultural Context: Renaissance, Reformation, and the Rise of Modern Science
223(12)
Renaissance Humanism
224(2)
The Protestant Reformation
226(1)
Social and Political Changes
227(1)
The Rise of Modern Science
228(3)
The Copernican Revolution
228(1)
The Galileo Incident
229(1)
The Implications of the New Science
230(1)
Philosophy in a New Key
231(2)
Contemporary Connections 13: Renaissance, Reformation, and Modern Science
233(2)
Early Empiricists: Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes
235(14)
Francis Bacon
235(1)
The Rise and Fall of Francis Bacon
235(1)
Bacon's Task: The Reconstruction of All Knowledge
236(1)
The Route to Knowledge: From Idols to Induction
236(2)
The Corruption of the Mind
236(1)
Restoration of the Mind's Original Condition
237(1)
Bacon's Inductive Method
238(1)
Bacon's Scientific Humanism
238(1)
Evaluation and Significance of Bacon
239(1)
Thomas Hobbes
240(1)
Hobbes's Life: Controversy and Innovation
240(1)
Hobbes's Task: Making Physics Sovereign in Philosophy
240(1)
The Physics of Knowledge
241(2)
Psychological Motions
241(1)
Verbal Motions
242(1)
Metaphysics: All Motion Is Determined
243(1)
Ethical Motions
243(1)
The Physics of Political Bodies
244(2)
A Personal Agenda and a Theoretical Program
244(1)
The State of Nature
244(1)
The Natural Laws
245(1)
The Social Contract
246(1)
Evaluation and Significance of Hobbes
246(1)
Contemporary Connections 14: Early Empiricists
247(2)
Rene Descartes: Founder of Modern Philosophy
249(17)
Descartes's Life: World Traveler and Intellectual Explorer
249(1)
Descartes's Philosophical Agenda
250(1)
The Discovery of a Method
251(1)
Finding the Foundations of Knowledge
252(3)
Method of Doubt
252(2)
The Foundation of Certainty
254(1)
The Nature of the Self
254(1)
The Criteria of Truth
255(1)
Metaphysics: God, World, Minds, and Bodies
255(7)
The Causal Argument for God's Existence
255(1)
Criticisms of Descartes's Causal Argument for God
256(1)
Further Arguments for God's Existence
257(1)
God and the Validity of Reason
258(1)
The Existence of the Physical World
259(1)
The Mind-Body Relation
260(1)
Descartes's Compromise
261(1)
Interactionism
261(1)
Evaluation and Significance
262(1)
Contemporary Connections 15: Rene Descartes
263(3)
Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza: Rationalist and Mystic
266(15)
Spinoza's Life: Heresy, Lens Grinding, and Philosophy
266(1)
Task: To Achieve Freedom from Bondage
267(1)
Spinoza's Geometrical Method
268(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Necessity Rules
268(1)
The Nature of Truth
268(1)
The Three Levels of Cognition
269(1)
Metaphysics: God Is the Only Reality
269(5)
Substance and God
269(2)
Atheist or Religious Mystic?
271(1)
Freedom and Necessity
272(1)
The Mind-Body Problem
273(1)
Ethics: How to Be Free from Bondage
274(3)
Evaluation and Significance
277(1)
Contemporary Connections 16: Spinoza
278(3)
Gottfried Leibniz: The Optimistic Rationalist
281(15)
Leibniz's Life: Diplomat, Scientist, and Philosopher
281(1)
Task: The Search for Unity and Harmony
282(1)
Method: Logic Is the Key
282(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Unpacking the Truths of Reason
283(3)
Innate Ideas
283(1)
Necessity and Contingency
284(2)
Metaphysics: God as the Divine Programmer
286(7)
Does God Exist?
286(1)
Is This the Best of All Possible Worlds?
286(2)
Why Is There Evil in the Best of All Possible Worlds?
288(1)
The Problems Descartes Could Never Solvs
288(1)
Are You a Monad?
289(1)
Monads Are Windowless
290(1)
The Pre-established Harmony of the World
290(1)
Extension, Space, and Time
291(1)
The Mind-Body Problem Revisited
291(1)
Teleology and Mechanism Reconciled
292(1)
Is Freedom Compatible with Determinism?
292(1)
Evaluation and Significance
293(1)
Contemporary Connections 17: Leibniz
294(2)
Cultural Context: The Enlightenment and the Age of Newton
296(7)
The Impact of Newton's Science
296(2)
Philosophizing in a Newtonian Style
298(1)
The Consequences for Religion
299(1)
The French Enlightenment
300(1)
Summary of the Enlightenment
301(1)
Contemporary Connections 18: The Enlightenment
302(1)
John Locke: The Rise of Modern Empiricism
303(17)
Physician, Political Adviser, and Philosopher
303(1)
Locke's Task: Discovering What We Can Know
304(1)
Locke's Method for Analyzing Ideas
304(1)
Locke's Empirical Theory of Knowledge
305(4)
Critique of Innate Ideas
305(1)
Simple Ideas
305(1)
Complex Ideas
306(1)
Primary and Secondary Qualities
307(1)
Representative Realism
308(1)
Degrees of Knowledge
308(1)
Metaphysics: The Reality Behind the Appearances
309(1)
What Is the Source of Moral Knowledge?
310(1)
An Empirical Philosophy of Religion
311(1)
Empirical Origins of the Idea of God
311(1)
Demonstrating God's Existence
312(1)
Locke's Influence on Deism
312(1)
A Political Theory for the Enlightenment
312(3)
The State of Nature
313(1)
Natural Law and Human Rights
313(1)
The Social Contract
314(1)
The Limits of Government
314(1)
Locke's Eighteenth-Century Assumptions
315(1)
Evaluation and Significance
315(2)
Defending Innate Knowledge
315(1)
Critics of Representative Realism
316(1)
Locke's Significance
316(1)
Contemporary Connections 19: Locke
317(3)
George Berkeley: Following the Road of Empiricism
320(15)
Philosopher, Educator, and Bishop
320(1)
Berkeley's Task: Battling Skepticism and Unbelief
321(1)
Berkeley's Reform of Empiricism
322(5)
Berkeley's Theory of Ideas
322(1)
Critique of Abstract Ideas
322(1)
Argument from the Mental Dependency of Ideas
323(1)
Argument from Pain and Pleasure
324(1)
Argument from Perceiver Relativity
324(1)
Inseparability of Primary and Secondary Qualities
325(1)
Argument from the Imagination
326(1)
Critique of the Representative Theory of Perception
326(1)
Metaphysics: Reality as Mind and Ideas
327(5)
The Existence of the World
327(1)
God's Existence
328(2)
Science and the Laws of Nature
330(1)
Problems with Spiritual Substances
331(1)
Evaluation and Significance
332(1)
Contemporary Connections 20: Berkeley
333(2)
David Hume: The Scottish Skeptic
335(16)
Hume's Life: A Passion for Literary Fame
335(1)
Task: Unlocking the Secrets of Human Nature
336(1)
Theory of Knowledge: The Gulf Between Reason and the World
336(3)
The Origins of Our Ideas
336(1)
The Association of Ideas
337(1)
Two Kinds of Reasoning
337(2)
Implications of the Theory of Knowledge
339(1)
Metaphysics: Skeptical Doubts About Reality
339(3)
Substance: An Empty Idea
339(1)
Self: The Stream of Consciousness
340(1)
Causality: Will the Sun Rise Tomorrow?
340(2)
Ethics: The Rule of the Passions---The Slavery of Reason
342(3)
Philosophy of Religion: Searching for What We Cannot Find
345(2)
God's Existence Cannot Be Proven
345(1)
Hume's Attitude Toward Religion
346(1)
Evaluation and Significance
347(2)
Contemporary Connections 21: Hume
349(2)
Immanuel Kant: Finding the Powers and the Limits of the Mind
351(23)
Kant's Life: A Methodical Man with Revolutionary Thoughts
351(1)
Task: Avoiding Dogmatism and Skepticism
352(1)
Theory of Knowledge: The Mind Makes Experience Possible
353(7)
Critical Philosophy
353(1)
Kant's Copernican Revolution
353(1)
The Varieties of Judgments
354(2)
The Transcendental Method
356(1)
Space and Time: The Forms of Sense Perception
357(1)
The Categories of the Understanding
357(1)
Answering Hume's Skepticism
358(1)
Kant's Theory of Experience
359(1)
Metaphysics: Bumping Against the Limits of Reason
360(5)
Phenomena and Noumena
360(1)
The Transcendent Illusions of Metaphysics
361(1)
The Elusive Self
362(1)
The Unthinkable Cosmos
362(1)
God: Neither Provable nor Disprovable
363(2)
Regulative Use of the Concepts of Pure Reason
365(1)
Ethics as a Rational Discipline
365(6)
The Nature of Ethics
365(1)
The Good Will
366(1)
Reason as the Source of the Moral Law
367(1)
The Categorical Imperative I: Conformity to a Universal Law
368(1)
The Categorical Imperative II: Persons as Ends in Themselves
369(1)
The Categorical Imperative III: Persons as Moral Legislators
370(1)
The Three Postulates of Morality
370(1)
Evaluation and Significance
371(1)
Contemporary Connections 22: Kant
371(3)
The Nineteenth-Century Cultural Context: Romanticism, Science, and the Sense of History
374(13)
Overcoming the Kantian Dualism
374(1)
German Idealism
375(3)
Fichte: Reality Is Known in Moral Experience
376(1)
Schelling: Reality Is Known in Aesthetic Experience
377(1)
Romanticism
378(2)
The Importance of History
380(3)
The Evolutionary Model
381(1)
The Rise of Historicism
381(1)
The Ideal of Progress
382(1)
Questions About Reason and Subjectivity
383(2)
Summary of the Nineteenth-Century Agenda
385(1)
Contemporary Connections 23: The Nineteenth Century
385(2)
G. W. F. Hegel: Biographer of the World Spirit
387(19)
Hegel's Life: From Average Student to World-Famous Philosopher
387(1)
Task: Fitting the Pieces of History and Reality Together
388(1)
Theory of Knowledge: Reason Reveals Reality
389(4)
Dialectic
389(1)
Beginning the Search for Knowledge
390(1)
The Journey of Consciousness
391(1)
Historicism
392(1)
Absolute Knowledge
393(1)
Whose Mind, Whose Consciousness Are We Talking About?
393(1)
Metaphysics: Reason Becoming Self-Conscious
393(3)
Hegel's Idealism
393(1)
Do Objects Exist Only in the Mind?
394(1)
What Is the Relationship Between Mind and Nature?
394(1)
How Are the Absolute Spirit and Human Spirit Related?
395(1)
Was Hegel a Theist?
395(1)
Ethics and Community Life
396(2)
Custom as the Source of Ethical Values
397(1)
The Rise of Individualistic Morality
397(1)
Kant: The Culmination of Individualistic Ethics
397(1)
Ethical Life
398(1)
Political Philosophy: The Glorification of the State
398(2)
Criticism: Hegel Deifies the Status Quo
399(1)
Defense: Hegel Does Not Deify the Status Quo
400(1)
Philosophy of History: Are We Pawns in History's Game?
400(3)
History Is Purposeful
400(2)
Art, Religion, Philosophy
402(1)
The End of History?
402(1)
Evaluation and Significance
403(1)
Evaluation of Hegel
403(1)
Hegel's Influence
403(1)
Contemporary Connections 24: Hegel
403(3)
Karl Marx: A Philosophy for Changing the World
406(20)
Marx's Life: The Making of a Radical
407(1)
Marx's Background and Influences
407(2)
The Rational Society: Actual or Potential?
408(1)
God: Absolute Spirit or Humanity?
408(1)
Task: Achieving an Earthly Salvation
409(3)
The Struggle Toward a Rational, Humane Society
409(1)
The Salvation of Humanity
410(1)
The Realization of Philosophy
411(1)
The Early Marx: The Tragedy of Human Alienation
412(1)
What Does It Mean to Be Human?
412(1)
Are There Two Marxisms?
413(1)
Historical Materialism
413(7)
Materialism
413(1)
The Marxian Dialectic
414(1)
The Economic Interpretation of History
415(1)
Ideology
416(3)
The Theory of Revolution
419(1)
Marx's Analysis of Capitalism
420(2)
Communism: The New Humanity and the New Society
422(1)
Evaluation and Significance
423(1)
Contemporary Connections 25: Marx
424(2)
Soren Kierkegaard: The Founder of Religious Existentialism
426(17)
The Stages in Kierkegaard's Life: From Passionate Playboy to Passionate Christian
427(1)
Task: To Make Life More Difficult
428(1)
Kierkegaard's Method: Indirect Communication
429(1)
Kierkegaard on Knowledge: Truth and Subjectivity
430(3)
Objective Knowing Versus Subjective Knowing
430(1)
Knowing the Truth Versus Being in the Truth
430(1)
The Result Versus the Process
431(1)
Religious Belief
431(2)
Kierkegaard the Antimetaphysician: Existence, Time, Eternity
433(1)
Stages on Life's Way
434(5)
The Aesthetic Stage
435(1)
The Ethical Stage
436(1)
The Religious Stage
437(2)
Christianity as the Paradox and the Absurd
439(1)
Evaluation and Significance
440(1)
Contemporary Connections 26: Kierkegaard
440(3)
Friedrich Nietzsche: The Founder of Secular Existentialism
443(17)
Nietzsche's Life: The Lonely Prophet
443(1)
Task: The Journey from Darkness to Daybreak
444(1)
Nietzsche's Theory of Knowledge: Perspectives and Instincts
445(4)
Radical Perspectivism
445(1)
Romantic Primitivism
446(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Perspectives
447(1)
Philosophy as Pathology
448(1)
Philosophy as Therapy
448(1)
Living Without Metaphysical Hopes
449(2)
The Death of God
449(2)
The Will to Power
451(1)
Moral Values and Personality Types
451(5)
Master and Slave Morality
451(2)
Revaluation of Values
453(1)
The Overman
454(1)
The Myth of Eternal Recurrence
455(1)
Evaluation and Significance
456(1)
Contemporary Connections 27: Nietzsche
457(3)
Nineteenth-Century Empiricism: Comte, Bentham, and Mill
460(19)
Auguste Comte
461(1)
Comte's Life: A Reformer of Science, Society, and Religion
461(1)
Comte's Task: Moving from Superstition to Positive Science
462(1)
Comte's Scientific Religion
463(1)
Evaluation and Significance of Comte's Ideas
464(1)
Jeremy Bentham
465(1)
Bentham's Life: The Making of a Political Reformer
465(1)
Bentham's Task: A Scientific Foundation for Morals and Politics
465(1)
Bentham's Moral Philosophy: Pleasure Is the Only Source of Value
466(2)
Bentham's Social Philosophy: A Scientific Guide for Reform
468(1)
John Stuart Mill
469(1)
Mill's Life: Corporate Executive and Philosopher
469(1)
Mill's Refinement of Utilitarianism
470(2)
Mill's Social Philosophy: The Importance of Liberty
472(2)
Mill's Other Contributions
474(1)
Evaluation and Significance of Utilitarianism
474(2)
Contemporary Connections 28: Comte and the Utilitarians
476(3)
PART IV THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD
479(106)
The Twentieth-Century Cultural Context: Science, Language, and Experience
481(7)
Living in Kant's Shadow
482(1)
Philosophy: Piecemeal Analysis or Grasping the Big Picture?
482(2)
The Role of Science in Philosophy
484(1)
The Role of Language and Experience in Philosophy
484(3)
Contemporary Connections 29: The Twentieth Century
487(1)
Pragmatism: The Unity of Thought and Action
488(19)
The Origins of Pragmatism
488(2)
Charles Sanders Peirce
490(1)
The Obscure Founder of a Famous Philosophy
490(1)
The Nature of Inquiry
490(2)
The Theory of Meaning
492(1)
Truth and Reality
493(1)
Fallibilism
494(1)
William James
495(1)
From Physician to Philosopher
495(1)
James and Peirce
495(1)
The Cash Value of Truth
495(2)
The Subjective Justification of Beliefs
497(1)
Freedom and Determinism
498(1)
The Will to Believe
499(1)
John Dewey
500(1)
The Ambassador-at-Large of Pragmatism
500(1)
Dewey's Task
500(1)
Influences on Dewey's Thought
500(1)
Instrumentalism
501(1)
The Concept of Truth
502(1)
Ethics as Problem Solving
502(2)
Education, Social Philosophy, and Religion
504(1)
The Significance of Pragmatism
504(1)
Contemporary Connections 30: Pragmatism
505(2)
Analytic Philosophy and the Linguistic Turn
507(28)
The Turn to Language and Analysis
507(1)
Bertrand Russell
508(1)
Russell's Life: Mathematician, Philosopher, Reformer
508(1)
Background: The Revolt Against Hegelianism
509(1)
British Idealism
509(1)
G. E. Moore
509(1)
Russell's Task: Developing a Logically Perfect Language
510(1)
Russell's Logical Atomism
510(1)
How Language Connects with the World
511(1)
Russell's Theory of Logical Constructions
512(2)
Logical Positivism
514(1)
The Verifiability Principle
515(1)
The Demise of Metaphysics and Theology
515(1)
The Status of Ethics
516(1)
Problems with Logical Positivism
517(1)
Ludwig Wittgenstein
518(1)
Wittgenstein's Life: From Engineer to Philosopher
518(1)
The Early Wittgenstein: From Logic to Mysticism
519(3)
The Task of the Tractatus
519(1)
The Picture Theory of Language
519(1)
Wittgenstein's Mysticism
520(2)
The Later Wittgenstem. The Turn to Ordinary Language
522(5)
Language-Games
522
Meaning and Use
521(4)
Forms of Life
525(1)
Ordinary Language Versus Philosophical Language
525(1)
Philosophy as Therapy
526(1)
The Impact of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy
526(1)
Conceptual Analysis
527(1)
Gilbert Ryle
527(2)
Category Mistakes
527(1)
Descartes's Myth
528(1)
Ryle's Analysis of Mental Terms
528(1)
John Austin
529(2)
Austin's Philosophical Method
530(1)
Austin's Analysis of Excuses
530(1)
How to Do Things with Words
531(1)
The Significance of Analytic Philosophy
531(1)
Contemporary Connections 31: Analytic Philosophy
532(3)
Phenomenology and Existentialism
535(30)
Edmund Husserl
536(1)
The Life of a Perpetual Beginner
536(1)
Husserl's Task: Developing Philosophy into a Rigorous Science
536(1)
Phenomenology as a Science of Experience
537(1)
The Phenomenological Method
537(2)
The Thesis of the Natural Standpoint
537(1)
Bracketing the World
538(1)
Consciousness as Intentionality
538(1)
The Discovery of Essences
539(1)
Transcendental Phenomenology
539(1)
The Shift to the Life-World
540(1)
Husserl's Significance
541(1)
The Influence of Phenomenology
541(1)
The Transition to Existential Phenomenology
541(1)
Martin Heidegger
542(1)
Heidegger's Life
542(1)
Heidegger's Task: Understanding the Meaning of Being
542(1)
Heidegger's Radical Conception of Phenomenology
543(1)
Our Existence as a Window to Being
543(1)
Being-in-the-World
544(2)
Being-in
544(1)
The World
545(1)
Concern
546(1)
Modes of Dasein
546(1)
Facticity and Thrownness
546(1)
Being-Ahead-of-Myself
547(1)
Fallenness
547(1)
The Fundamental Division: Authentic Versus Inauthentic Existence
547(3)
Anxiety
549(1)
Being-Towards-Death
549(1)
Conscience
549(1)
The Call of Being
550(3)
The Question of Truth
550(1)
The Problem of Language
551(1)
The Task of the Poet
551(1)
Letting-Be
551(1)
Rediscovering the Holy
552(1)
Heidegger's Significance
553(1)
Jean-Paul Sartre
554(1)
A Life Lived Amidst Books
554(1)
Sartre's Task: A Human-Centered Ontology
555(1)
Two Kinds of Reality: Objects and Persons
555(1)
An Empty Universe
556(1)
Existence Precedes Essence
556(3)
Condemned to Freedom
557(1)
Facticity
557(1)
The Paradox of Human Existence
558(1)
Bad Faith Versus Authenticity
558(1)
Alienation and Other People
559(1)
Optimism in the Midst of Alienation
560(1)
Sartre's Turn to Marxism
560(1)
The Significance of Existentialism
561(1)
Contemporary Connections 32: Phenomenology and Existentialism
561(4)
Recent Issues in Philosophy
565(20)
Rethinking Empiricism
565(4)
W.V.O. Quine
566(1)
Thomas S. Kuhn
567(2)
Rethinking Philosophy: Postmodernism
569(5)
Michel Foucault
570(1)
Jacques Derrida
571(2)
Richard Rorty
573(1)
Rethinking Philosophy: Feminism
574(4)
Feminist Approaches to Epistemology
576(1)
Feminist Approaches to Ethics
577(1)
Philosophy in a Global Village
578(1)
New Issues in Philosophy of Mind
578(2)
New Issues in Ethics
580(1)
A Parting Word
581(1)
Contemporary Connections 33: Recent Issues in Philosophy
582(3)
Glossary 585(8)
Index 593


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