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The Changing Earth Exploring Geology and Evolution (with Physical GeologyNOW)

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780495010203

ISBN10:
0495010200
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/8/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $286.99

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Summary

THE CHANGING EARTH, a leader in the Introductory Geology course, is the only text specifically written for the combined physical and historical geology course. The Fourth Edition's content is based on the best-selling texts PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: EXPLORING THE EARTH and HISTORICAL GEOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF EARTH AND LIFE THROUGH TIME, both written by James Monroe and Reed Wicander. Briefer than the previous edition and maintaining a consistent and clear writing style throughout, the text provides a balanced coverage of physical and historical geology with engaging, real-life examples that draw students into the material. Examples in the Fourth Edition include new two-page art spreads, new paleogeographic maps, and "Geology in Unexpected Places"-a favorite feature from PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: EXPLORING THE EARTH, Fifth Edition. Known for its competitive and robust ancillary package, the Fourth Edition now features GeologyNow, the first assessment-centered student tutorial technology developed for the Geology market. The seamless integration of GeologyNow with chapter concepts emphasizes the connections between the content and students' own lives, through visual 3-D animations and chapter quizzes, helping students develop a greater appreciation for geology.

Table of Contents

Understanding Earth: A Dynamic and Evolving Planet
2(24)
Introduction
4(2)
What Is Geology?
6(1)
Geo-Focus 1.1: Interpreting Earth History
7(1)
Geology and the Formulation of Theories
7(1)
How Does Geology Relate to the Human Experience?
8(1)
How Does Geology Affect Our Everyday Lives?
9(1)
Natural Events
9(1)
Economics and Politics
9(1)
Our Role as Decision Makers
9(1)
Consumers and Citizens
9(1)
Sustainable Development
10(1)
Global Geologic and Environmental Issues Facing Humankind
10(1)
Origin of the Universe and Solar System, and Earth's Place in Them
11(5)
Origin of the Universe---Did It Begin with a Big Bang?
11(1)
Our Solar System---Its Origin and Evolution
12(1)
Earth---Its Place in Our Solar System
13(1)
The Terrestrial and Jovian Planets
14(2)
Why Is Earth a Dynamic and Evolving Planet?
16(3)
Plate Tectonic Theory
17(2)
The Rock Cycle
19(1)
How Are the Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics Related?
19(1)
Organic Evolution and the History of Life
20(2)
Geologic Time and Uniformitarianism
22(1)
How Does the Study of Geology Benefit Us?
23(1)
Geo-Recap
23(3)
Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory
26(32)
Introduction
28(1)
What Were Some of the Early Ideas About Continental Drift?
28(2)
Geo-Focus 2.1: Oil, Plate Tectonics, and Politics
29(1)
Alfred Wegener and the Continental Drift Hypothesis
30(1)
What Is the Evidence for Continental Drift?
30(4)
Continental Fit
30(1)
Similarity of Rock Sequences and Mountain Ranges
31(1)
Glacial Evidence
32(1)
Fossil Evidence
33(1)
Paleomagnetism and Polar Wandering
34(1)
How Do Magnetic Reversals Relate to Seafloor Spreading?
35(2)
Deep-Sea Drilling and the Confirmation of Seafloor Spreading
37(1)
Why Is Plate Tectonics a Unifying Theory?
37(5)
The Supercontinent Cycle
39(1)
Tectonics of the Terrestrial Planets
40(2)
What Are the Three Types of Plate Boundaries?
42(6)
Divergent Boundaries
42(2)
Convergent Boundaries
44(3)
Transform Boundaries
47(1)
What Are Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes?
48(1)
How Are Plate Movement and Motion Determined?
49(1)
What Is the Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics?
50(1)
How Does Plate Tectonics Affect the Distribution of Natural Resources?
51(1)
Mineral Deposits
51(1)
How Does Plate Tectonics Affect the Distribution of Life?
52(2)
Geo-Recap
54(4)
Minerals---The Building Blocks of Rocks
58(28)
Introduction
60(1)
Matter---What Is It?
61(4)
Atoms and Elements
61(2)
Bonding and Compounds
63(2)
What Are Minerals?
65(2)
Naturally Occurring Inorganic Substances
65(1)
Mineral Crystals
65(1)
Chemical Composition of Minerals
66(1)
Physical Properties of Minerals
66(1)
How Many Minerals Are There?
67(1)
Geology in Unexpected Places: The Queen's Jewels
68(1)
Mineral Groups Recognized by Geologists
68(3)
Silicate Minerals
69(2)
Carbonate Minerals
71(1)
Other Mineral Groups
71(1)
Physical Properties of Minerals
71(7)
The Precious Metals
72(2)
Luster and Color
74(1)
Crystal Form
74(1)
Cleavage and Fracture
74(2)
Geo-Focus 3.1: Mineral Crystals
76(1)
Hardness
77(1)
Specific Gravity (Density)
77(1)
Other Useful Mineral Properties
77(1)
How Do Minerals Form?
78(1)
What Are Rock-Forming Minerals?
78(1)
Natural Resources and Reserves
79(3)
Geo-Recap
82(4)
Igneous Rocks and Intrusive Igneous Activity
86(26)
Introduction
88(1)
The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava
89(1)
Composition of Magma
89(1)
How Hot Are Magma and Lava?
89(1)
Viscosity---Resistance to Flow
90(1)
How Does Magma Originate and Change?
90(5)
Bowen's Reaction Series
91(1)
The Origin of Magma at Spreading Ridges
92(1)
Subduction Zones and the Origin of Magma
93(1)
Processes That Bring About Compositional Changes in Magma
93(2)
Igneous Rocks---Their Characteristics and Classification
95(5)
Igneous Rock Textures
95(1)
Composition of Igneous Rocks
95(1)
Classifying Igneous Rocks
96(4)
Plutons---Their Characteristics and Origins
100(6)
Dikes and Sills
101(1)
Plutons
102(2)
Geo-Focus 4.1: Some Remarkable Volcanic Necks
104(1)
Laccoliths
104(1)
Volcanic Pipes and Necks
105(1)
Batholiths and Stocks
105(1)
How Are Batholiths Intruded into Earth's Crust?
106(2)
Geo-Recap
108(4)
Volcanism and Volcanoes
112(26)
Introduction
114(2)
Volcanism
116(5)
Volcanic Gases
116(1)
Lava Flows
117(1)
Geo-Focus 5.1: Lava Flows Pose Little Danger to Humans---Usually
118(1)
Pyroclastic Materials
119(2)
What Are the Types of Volcanoes, and How Do They Form?
121(7)
Shield Volcanoes
121(1)
Types of Volcanoes
122(3)
Cinder Cones
125(1)
Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes)
125(1)
Geology in Unexpected Places: A Most Unusual Volcano
126(1)
Lava Domes
127(1)
Other Volcanic Landforms
128(1)
Fissure Eruptions and Basalt Plateaus
128(1)
Pyroclastic Sheet Deposits
128(1)
Volcanic Hazards
129(4)
How Large Is an Eruption, and How Long Do Eruptions Last?
130(1)
Is It Possible to Forecast Eruptions?
130(3)
Distribution of Volcanoes
133(1)
Plate Tectonics, Volcanoes, and Plutons
134(1)
Igneous Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
134(1)
Igneous Activity at Convergent Plate Boundaries
134(1)
Intraplate Volcanism
134(1)
Geo-Recap
135(3)
Weathering, Soil, and Sedimentary Rocks
138(34)
Introduction
140(1)
How Are Earth Materials Altered?
141(5)
Mechanical Weathering
141(1)
Chemical Weathering
142(4)
How Does Soil Form and Deteriorate?
146(7)
The Soil Profile
147(1)
Factors That Control Soil Formation
148(2)
Geo-Focus 6.1: The Dust Bowl---An American Tragedy
150(1)
Soil Degradation
151(2)
Weathering and Resources
153(1)
Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks
153(2)
Sediment Transport and Deposition
154(1)
How Does Sediment Become Sedimentary Rock?
154(1)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
155(4)
Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
156(2)
Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
158(1)
Sedimentary Facies
159(2)
Reading the Story in Sedimentary Rocks
161(5)
Sedimentary Structures
161(1)
Fossils---Remains and Traces of Ancient Life
162(1)
Determining the Environment of Deposition
162(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Sandstone Lion
164(2)
Important Resources in Sedimentary Rocks
166(2)
Petroleum and Natural Gas
166(1)
Uranium
167(1)
Banded Iron Formation
167(1)
Geo-Recap
168(4)
Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
172(24)
Introduction
174(3)
Geo-Focus 7.1: Asbestos: Good or Bad?
176(1)
What Are the Agents of Metamorphism?
177(1)
Heat
177(1)
Pressure
177(1)
Fluid Activity
178(1)
What Are the Three Types of Metamorphism?
178(3)
Contact Metamorphism
178(1)
Dynamic Metamorphism
179(1)
Regional Metamorphism
180(1)
How Are Metamorphic Rocks Classified?
181(6)
Foliated Metamorphic Rocks
181(3)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Starting Off with a Clean Slate
184(2)
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks
186(1)
What Are Metamorphic Zones and Facies?
187(3)
The Many Uses of Marble
188(2)
How Does Plate Tectonics Affect Metamorphism?
190(2)
Metamorphism and Natural Resources
192(1)
Geo-Recap
193(3)
Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
196(36)
Introduction
198(1)
What Is the Elastic Rebound Theory?
199(1)
What Is Seismology?
199(3)
The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake
200(2)
Where Do Earthquakes Occur, and How Often?
202(1)
What Are Seismic Waves?
203(2)
Body Waves
203(1)
Surface Waves
204(1)
How Is an Earthquake's Epicenter Located?
205(2)
How Are the Size and Strength of an Earthquake Measured?
207(3)
Intensity
207(1)
Magnitude
208(2)
What Are the Destructive Effects of Earthquakes?
210(5)
Ground Shaking
210(1)
Fire
211(1)
Tsunami: Killer Waves
211(1)
Geo-Focus 8.1: Designing Earthquake-Resistant Structures
212(3)
Ground Failure
215(1)
Can Earthquakes Be Predicted?
215(5)
The San Andreas Fault
216(2)
Earthquake Precursors
218(1)
Earthquake Prediction Programs
219(1)
Can Earthquakes Be Controlled?
220(1)
What Is Earth's Interior Like?
221(2)
Earth's Core
223(2)
Density and Composition of the Core
224(1)
Earth's Mantle
225(1)
The Mantle's Structure, Density, and Composition
225(1)
Seismic Tomography
226(1)
Earth's Internal Heat
226(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Diamonds and Earth's Interior
227(1)
Earth's Crust
228(1)
Geo-Recap
228(4)
The Seafloor
232(26)
Introduction
234(1)
Exploring the Oceans
234(3)
Early Exploration
235(1)
How Are Oceans Explored Today?
236(1)
Oceanic Crust---Its Structure and Composition
237(1)
What Are Continental Margins?
238(3)
The Continental Shelf
238(1)
The Continental Slope and Rise
239(1)
Submarine Canyons, Turbidity Currents, and Submarine Fans
239(2)
Types of Continental Margins
241(1)
What Features Are Found in the Deep-Ocean Basins?
241(5)
Abyssal Plains
242(1)
Oceanic Trenches
242(1)
Oceanic Ridges
243(1)
Submarine Hydrothermal Vents
243(2)
Seafloor Fractures
245(1)
Seamounts, Guyots, and Aseismic Ridges
245(1)
Sedimentation and Sediments on the Deep Seafloor
246(1)
Reefs
247(3)
Reefs: Rocks Made by Organisms
248(2)
Seawater and Seafloor Resources
250(4)
Geo-Focus 9.1: Oceanic Circulation and Resources from the Sea
252(2)
Geo-Recap
254(4)
Deformation, Mountain Building, and the Continents
258(32)
Introduction
260(1)
Rock Deformation---How Does It Occur?
260(3)
Stress and Strain
261(1)
Types of Strain
261(1)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Ancient Ruins and Geology
262(1)
Strike and Dip---The Orientation of Deformed Rock Layers
263(1)
Deformation and Geologic Structures
264(12)
Folded Rock Layers
264(5)
Joints
269(1)
Faults
270(2)
Types of Faults
272(4)
Deformation and the Origin of Mountains
276(8)
Mountain Building
276(1)
Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building
277(1)
Geo-Focus 10.1: Geologic Maps---Their Construction and Uses
278(5)
Terranes and the Origin of Mountains
283(1)
Earth's Continental Crust
284(3)
Floating Continents?
284(1)
The Principle of Isostasy
284(1)
Isostatic Rebound
285(2)
Geo-Recap
287(3)
Mass Wasting
290(30)
Introduction
292(1)
What Factors Influence Mass Wasting?
293(4)
Slope Angle
293(1)
Weathering and Climate
294(1)
Water Content
294(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: New Hampshire Says Good-Bye to the ``Old Man''
296(1)
Vegetation
296(1)
Overloading
296(1)
Geology and Slope Stability
297(1)
Triggering Mechanisms
297(1)
What Are the Different Types of Mass Wasting?
297(16)
Geo-Focus 11.1: The Tragedy at Aberfan, Wales
298(1)
Falls
298(1)
Slides
299(7)
Point Fermin---Slip Sliding Away
306(2)
Flows
308(4)
Complex Movements
312(1)
How Can We Recognize and Minimize the Effects of Mass Movements?
313(5)
Geo-Recap
318(2)
Running Water
320(32)
Introduction
322(1)
Water on Earth
323(3)
Geo-Focus 12.1: Dams, Reservoirs, and Hydroelectric Power Plants
324(1)
The Hydrologic Cycle
324(2)
Fluid Flow
326(1)
Running Water
326(2)
Sheet Flow and Channel Flow
326(1)
Gradient, Velocity, and Discharge
327(1)
How Does Running Water Erode and Transport Sediment?
328(1)
Deposition by Running Water
329(8)
The Deposits of Braided and Meandering Channels
330(3)
Floodplain Deposits
333(1)
Deltas
334(1)
Alluvial Fans
335(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Floating Burial Chambers
337(1)
Can Floods Be Predicted and Controlled?
337(4)
The Flood of '93
338(3)
Drainage Basins and Drainage Patterns
341(4)
The Significance of Base Level
343(1)
What Is a Graded Stream?
344(1)
How Do Valleys Form and Evolve?
345(4)
Stream Terraces
347(1)
Incised Meanders
348(1)
Superposed Streams
348(1)
Geo-Recap
349(3)
Groundwater
352(32)
Introduction
354(1)
Groundwater and the Hydrologic Cycle
354(1)
How Do Earth Materials Absorb Water?
355(1)
What Is the Water Table?
356(1)
How Does Groundwater Move?
356(1)
What Are Springs, Water Wells, and Artesian Systems?
357(3)
Springs
357(1)
Water Wells
357(2)
Artesian Systems
359(1)
How Does Groundwater Erode and Deposit Material?
360(7)
Sinkholes and Karst Topography
360(2)
Caves and Cave Deposits
362(2)
The Burren Area of Ireland
364(3)
How Do Humans Affect the Groundwater System?
367(8)
Lowering the Water Table
367(1)
Saltwater Incursion
368(1)
Subsidence
369(1)
Groundwater Contamination
370(2)
Geo-Focus 13.1: Arsenic and Old Lace
372(2)
Groundwater Quality
374(1)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Water-Treatment Plants
375(1)
Hydrothermal Activity---What Is It, and Where Does It Occur?
375(6)
Hot Springs
376(1)
Geysers
377(3)
Geothermal Energy
380(1)
Geo-Recap
381(3)
Glaciers and Glaciation
384(28)
Introduction
386(1)
Glaciers
387(2)
Glaciers---Part of the Hydrologic Cycle
388(1)
How Do Glaciers Form and Move?
388(1)
What Kinds of Glaciers Are There?
389(2)
Valley Glaciers
390(1)
Continental Glaciers and Ice Caps
390(1)
Accumulation and Wastage---The Glacial Budget
391(3)
How Fast Do Glaciers Move?
392(1)
Glacial Surges
393(1)
Glacial Erosion and Transport
394(3)
Erosion by Valley Glaciers
396(1)
Continental Glaciers and Erosional Landforms
397(1)
Glacial Deposits
397(9)
Geo-Focus 14.1: Glaciers in U.S. and Canadian National Parks
398(2)
Valley Glaciers and Erosion
400(2)
Landforms Composed of Till
402(2)
Landforms Composed of Stratified Drift
404(2)
Glacial Lake Deposits
406(1)
What Causes Ice Ages?
406(3)
The Milankovitch Theory
407(1)
Short-Term Climatic Events
408(1)
Geo-Recap
409(3)
The Work of Wind and Deserts
412(26)
Introduction
414(1)
How Does Wind Transport Sediment?
415(1)
Bed Load
415(1)
Suspended Load
415(1)
How Does Wind Erode Landforms?
415(6)
Abrasion
415(1)
Geo-Focus 15.1: Radioactive Waste Disposal---Safe or Sorry?
416(2)
Deflation
418(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Blowing in the Wind
420(1)
What Are the Different Types of Wind Deposits?
421(4)
The Formation and Migration of Dunes
421(1)
Dune Types
422(3)
Loess
425(1)
How Are Air-Pressure Belts and Global Wind Patterns Distributed?
425(1)
Where Do Deserts Occur?
426(2)
What Are the Characteristics of Deserts?
428(4)
Temperature, Precipitation, and Vegetation
428(1)
Weathering and Soils
429(1)
Mass Wasting, Streams, and Groundwater
429(1)
Rock Art for the Ages
430(2)
Wind
432(1)
What Types of Landforms Are Found in Deserts?
432(3)
Geo-Recap
435(3)
Shorelines and Shoreline Processes
438(32)
Introduction
440(1)
Tides, Waves, and Nearshore Currents
441(7)
Tides
441(1)
Geo-Focus 16.1: Energy from the Oceans
442(3)
Waves
445(1)
Nearshore Currents and Sediment Transport
446(2)
Deposition Along Shorelines
448(7)
Beaches
448(2)
Shoreline Processes and Beaches
450(2)
Seasonal Changes in Beaches
452(1)
Spits, Baymouth Bars, and Tombolos
453(1)
Barrier Islands
454(1)
How Are Shorelines Eroded?
455(1)
Wave-Cut Platforms
455(1)
Sea Caves, Arches, and Stacks
456(1)
The Nearshore Sediment Budget
456(2)
How Are Coastal Areas Managed As Sea Level Rises?
458(5)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Erosion and the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse
462(1)
Storm Waves and Coastal Flooding
463(1)
Types of Coasts
464(2)
Depositional and Erosional Coasts
464(1)
Submergent and Emergent Coasts
464(2)
Geo-Recap
466(4)
Geologic Time: Concepts and Principles
470(34)
Introduction
472(1)
How Has the Concept of Geologic Time and Earth's Age Changed Throughout Human History?
473(2)
Geo-Focus 17.1: Geologic Time and Climate Change
474(1)
Why Are James Hutton's Contributions to Geology Important?
475(4)
Uluru and Kata Tjuta
476(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Time Marches On---The Great Wall of China
478(1)
What Are Relative Dating Methods?
479(8)
Fundamental Principles of Relative Dating
479(2)
Unconformities
481(4)
Applying the Principles of Relative Dating
485(2)
How Do Geologists Correlate Rock Units?
487(4)
Subsurface Correlation
488(3)
What Are Absolute Dating Methods?
491(5)
Atoms, Elements, and Isotopes
491(1)
Radioactive Decay and Half-Lives
491(2)
Sources of Uncertainty
493(1)
Long-Lived Radioactive Isotope Pairs
494(1)
Fission Track Dating
495(1)
Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Dating Methods
495(1)
How Was the Geologic Time Scale Developed?
496(1)
Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Terminology
496(4)
Geo-Recap
500(4)
Evolution---The Theory and Its Supporting Evidence
504(26)
Introduction
506(1)
Evolution: What Does It Mean?
507(2)
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and His Ideas on Evolution
507(1)
The Contributions of Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
507(1)
Geo-Focus 18.1: The Tragic Lysenko Affair
508(1)
Natural Selection---What Is Its Significance?
509(1)
Mendel and the Birth of Genetics
509(2)
Mendel's Experiments
509(1)
Genes and Chromosomes
510(1)
The Modern View of Evolution
511(6)
What Brings About Variation?
511(1)
Speciation and the Rate of Evolution
512(2)
Divergent, Convergent, and Parallel Evolution
514(1)
Cladistics and Cladograms
514(2)
Evolutionary Trends
516(1)
Extinctions
516(1)
What Kinds of Evidence Support Evolutionary Theory?
517(9)
Classification---A Nested Pattern of Similarities
518(1)
How Does Biological Evidence Support Evolution?
518(2)
Fossils: What Do We Learn from Them?
520(2)
Fossilization
522(4)
Geo-Recap
526(4)
Precambrian Earth and Life History
530(32)
Introduction
532(1)
What Happened During the Hadean?
533(1)
Continental Foundations---Shields, Platforms, and Cratons
534(1)
Archean Earth History
535(4)
Archean Rocks
537(1)
Archean Plate Tectonics and the Origin of Cratons
538(1)
Proterozoic Earth History
539(8)
Proterozoic Evolution of Laurentia
539(3)
Proterozoic Supercontinents
542(1)
Proterozoic Rocks
543(4)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Little Rock, Big Story
547(1)
Origin and Evolution of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere
547(3)
The Atmosphere
547(2)
The Hydrosphere
549(1)
Life---Its Origin and Early History
550(6)
The Origin of Life
550(1)
Archean Organisms
551(2)
Life of the Proterozoic
553(3)
Geo-Focus 19.1: Banded Iron Formation---From Mine to Steel Mill
556(1)
What Kinds of Resources Are Found in Precambrian Rocks?
556(2)
Archean Resources
557(1)
Proterozoic Resources
557(1)
Geo-Recap
558(4)
Paleozoic Earth History
562(40)
Introduction
564(1)
Continental Architecture: Cratons and Mobile Belts
564(1)
Paleozoic Paleogeography
565(4)
Early-Middle Paleozoic Global History
566(3)
Late Paleozoic Global History
569(1)
Paleozoic Evolution of North America
569(2)
The Sauk Sequence
571(2)
Geo-Focus 20.1: Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore
572(1)
The Tippecanoe Sequence
573(4)
Tippecanoe Reefs and Evaporites
575(2)
The End of the Tippecanoe Sequence
577(1)
The Kaskaskia Sequence
577(5)
Reef Development in Western Canada
579(1)
Black Shales
580(1)
The Late Kaskaskia---A Return to Extensive Carbonate Deposition
581(1)
The Absaroka Sequence
582(4)
What Are Cyclothems, and Why Are They Important?
583(3)
Cratonic Uplift---The Ancestral Rockies
586(1)
The Late Absaroka---More Evaporite Deposits and Reefs
586(1)
History of the Paleozoic Mobile Belts
586(8)
Appalachian Mobile Belt
586(5)
Cordilleran Mobile Belt
591(1)
Geology in Unexpected Places: A Man's Home Is His Castle
592(1)
Ouachita Mobile Belt
593(1)
What Role Did Microplates and Terranes Play in the Formation of Pangaea?
594(1)
Paleozoic Mineral Resources
594(2)
Geo-Recap
596(6)
Paleozoic Life History
602(34)
Introduction
604(1)
What Was the Cambrian Explosion?
604(1)
The Emergence of a Shelly Fauna
605(1)
Paleozoic Invertebrate Marine Life
606(9)
The Present Marine Ecosystem
606(1)
Cambrian Marine Community
607(1)
The Burgess Shale Biota
608(2)
Trilobites---Paleozoic Arthropods
610(2)
Ordovician Marine Community
612(1)
Silurian and Devonian Marine Communities
613(1)
Carboniferous and Permian Marine Communities
613(1)
The Permian Marine Invertebrate Mass Extinction
614(1)
Vertebrate Evolution
615(1)
Fish
616(5)
Amphibians---Vertebrates Invade the Land
621(2)
Evolution of the Reptiles---The Land Is Conquered
623(2)
Plant Evolution
625(6)
Geo-Focus 21.1: Palynology: A Link Between Geology and Biology
626(1)
Silurian and Devonian Floras
627(1)
Late Carboniferous and Permian Floras
628(3)
Geo-Recap
631(5)
Mesozoic Earth and Life History
636(44)
Introduction
638(1)
The Breakup of Pangaea
638(3)
The Effects of the Breakup of Pangaea on Global Climates and Ocean Circulation Patterns
641(1)
Mesozoic History of North America
641(11)
Continental Interior
642(1)
Eastern Coastal Region
642(2)
Gulf Coastal Region
644(1)
Western Region
645(2)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Ancient Seafloor in San Francisco
647(5)
What Role Did Accretion of Terranes Play in the Growth of Western North America?
652(2)
Mesozoic Mineral Resources
654(1)
Life of the Mesozoic Era
655(16)
Marine Invertebrates and Phytoplankton
655(2)
Plants---Primary Producers on Land
657(1)
The Diversification of Reptiles
658(4)
Dinosaurs
662(4)
Geo-Focus 22.1: Mary Anning's Contributions to Paleontology
666(1)
From Reptiles to Birds
667(1)
Origin and Early History of Mammals
668(3)
Mesozoic Climates and Paleogeography
671(1)
Mass Extinctions---A Crisis in the History of Life
672(1)
Geo-Recap
673(7)
Cenozoic Earth and Life History
680(38)
Introduction
682(1)
Cenozoic Plate Tectonics and Orogeny---An Overview
683(1)
Paleogene and Neogene Evolution of North America
683(9)
The North American Cordillera
683(3)
The Interior Lowlands
686(1)
The Gulf Coastal Plain
687(1)
Eastern North America
688(4)
The Quaternary Period
692(4)
Pleistocene Tectonism and Volcanism
692(1)
Pleistocene Glaciation
692(2)
Cascade Range Volcanoes
694(2)
Geo-Focus 23.1: Supervolcanoes
696(1)
Cenozoic Mineral Resources
696(4)
Geology in Unexpected Places: Evidence of Glaciation in New York City
698(2)
Paleogene and Neogene Life History
700(6)
Marine Invertebrates and Phytoplankton
700(1)
Paleogene and Neogene Birds
700(1)
Diversification of Mammals
701(1)
Cenozoic Mammals
701(5)
Pleistocene Faunas
706(9)
Mammals and Birds
706(2)
Primate Evolution
708(1)
Hominids
709(5)
Pleistocene Extinctions
714(1)
Geo-Recap
715(3)
Physical and Historical Geology in Perspective
718(9)
Appendices
A: English--Metric Conversion Chart
723(1)
B: Periodic Table of the Elements
724(2)
Answers
Multiple-Choice Review Questions
726(1)
Glossary 727(9)
Index 736


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