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Authors Steven and Susan Zumdahl offer all the elements instructors need for their general chemistry course. They bring a conceptual approach to chemistry and integrate problem-solving skills throughout, helping students transition from theory to practice. A strong emphasis on models, real-world applications, and visual learning prevails throughout the text. The Seventh Edition seamlessly integrates the strengths of the Zumdahl approach through a comprehensive and interwoven print and technology program. Enhanced Sample Exercises, online homework problems, and Classroom Response System content help instructors assess conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills, while new animations and images support visual learning. In addition, Houghton Mifflin offers implementation services through our TeamUP program to help instructors and students get the most out of the text and its supplements. New! Reality Checks at the end of selected Sample Exercises prompt students to ensure that their answers are reasonable. New! The expanded art program includes new electrostatic potential maps in Chapter 8, "Bonding" that illustrate bond and molecular polarity. New! The redesigned For Review section now includes bulleted key concepts for the chapter, as well as review questions of which approximately 50% are new. New! Integrative Problems in the end-of-chapter material assess students' cumulative understanding of multiple concepts and skills presented in previous chapters. End-of-chapter questions also include collaborative Active Learning Question (formerly In-Class Discussion Questions), Exercises organized by topic, Additional Exercises not keyed by topic, integrative Challenge Problems, and comprehensive Marathon Problems. New! Algorithmically-generated Test Questions as well as Conceptual Questions are available in HM Testing, all coded by level of difficulty to allow instructors to more easily choose appropriate test items. New! Animations with assignable exercises appear on the Online Study Center and Student CD. New! HM ClassPresent v.3 includes new animations and videos as well as enhanced search functionality. Eduspace Online Learning Tool features two kinds of problems: ChemWork interactive online homework and end-of-chapter algorithmic questions with links to corresponding textbook pages and media for student reference at point of learning.
Table of Contents
Contents Note: Each chapter concludes with For Review, Key Terms, and Questions and Exercises. 1. Chemical Foundations 1.1 Chemistry: An Overview 1.2 The Scientific Method 1.3 Units of Measurement 1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 1.5 Significant Figures and Calculations 1.6 Dimensional Analysis 1.7 Temperature 1.8 Density 1.9 Classification of Matter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory 2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.6 Molecules and Ions 2.7 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 2.8 Naming Simple Compounds 3. Stoichiometry 3.1 Counting by Weighing 3.2 Atomic Masses 3.3 The Mole 3.4 Molar Mass 3.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.6 Determining the Formula of a Compound 3.7 Chemical Equations 3.8 Balancing Chemical Equations 3.9 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products 3.10 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.8 Acid-Base Reactions 4.9 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.10 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 5. Gases 5.1 Pressure 5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Gas Stoichiometry 5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8 Real Gases 5.9 Characteristics of Several Real Gases 5.10 Chemistry in the Atmosphere 6. Thermochemistry 6.1 The Nature of Energy 6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry 6.3 Hess's Law 6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 6.5 Present Sources of Energy 6.6 New Energy Sources 7. Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 7.2 The Nature of Matter 7.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 7.4 The Bohr Model 7.5 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom 7.6 Quantum Numbers 7.7 Orbital Shapes and Energies 7.8 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle 7.9 Polyelectronic Atoms 7.10 The History of the Periodic Table 7.11 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 7.12 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 7.13 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals 8. Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 8.2 Electronegativity 8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 8.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 8.5 Energy Effects in Binary Ionic Compounds 8.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 8.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 8.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions 8.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 8.10 Lewis Structures 8.11 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.12 Resonance 8.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model 9. Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model 9.2 The Molecular Orbital Model 9.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 9.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 9.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models 10. Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces 10.2 The Liquid State 10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids 10.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals 10.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids 10.6 Molecular Solids 10.7 Ionic Solids 10.8 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State 10.9 Phase Diagrams 11. Properties of Solutions 11.1 So