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Chemistry : The Central Science

by ; ; ; ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780131096868

ISBN10:
0131096869
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $221.99

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Summary

Set apart by its scientific accuracy, clarity, innovative descriptions, and visuals,Chemistry: The Central Scienceis the most trusted book available. A comprehensive media package that works in tandem with the text helps students practice and learn while providing instructors the tools they need to succeed. Readers are given a consistent structure and guidelines to enhance comprehension. Problem-solving aids are integrated throughout, including Strategies in Chemistry boxes and dual-column problem-solving strategies for selected samples. Emphasizing visualization, the Tenth Edition has been designed expressly to help readerse better visualize the chemistry required. Introduction: Matter and Measurement; Atoms, Molecules, and Ions; Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry; Thermochemistry; Electronic Structure of Atoms; Periodic Properties of the Elements; Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding; Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories; Gases; Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids; Modern Materials; Properties of Solutions; Chemical Kinetics; Chemical Equilibrium; Acid-Base Equilibria; Additional Aspects of Equilibria; Chemistry of the Environment; Chemical Thermodynamics; Electrochemistry Nuclear Chemistry; Chemistry of the Nonmetals; Metals and Metallurgy; Chemistry of Coordination Compounds; The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry. A comprehensive reference for chemistry professionals.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiv
A Student's Guide to Using this Text xxxii
About the Authors xli
Introduction: Matter and Measurement
1(35)
The Study of Chemistry
2(2)
The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
2(1)
Why Study Chemistry?
3(1)
Classifications of Matter
4(5)
States of Matter
5(1)
Pure Substances
5(1)
Elements
6(1)
Compounds
7(1)
Mixtures
8(1)
Properties of Matter
9(5)
Physical and Chemical Changes
10(2)
Separation of Mixtures
12(2)
Units of Measurement
14(6)
SI Units
14(1)
Length and Mass
15(1)
Temperature
15(1)
Derived SI Units
16(1)
Volume
16(1)
Density
17(3)
Uncertainty in Measurement
20(5)
Precision and Accuracy
21(1)
Significant Figures
21(2)
Significant Figures in Calculations
23(2)
Dimensional Analysis
25(11)
Using Two or More Conversion Factors
27(1)
Conversions Involving Volume
27(3)
Summary and Key Terms
30(1)
Visualizing Concepts
30(1)
Exercises
31(4)
eMedia Exercises
35(1)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
36(42)
The Atomic Theory of Matter
38(1)
The Discovery of Atomic Structure
39(4)
Cathode Rays and Electrons
39(2)
Radioactivity
41(1)
The Nuclear Atom
41(2)
The Modern View of Atomic Structure
43(3)
Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes
45(1)
Atomic Weights
46(3)
The Atomic Mass Scale
47(1)
Average Atomic Masses
47(2)
The Periodic Table
49(3)
Molecules and Molecular Compounds
52(3)
Molecules and Chemical Formulas
52(1)
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
53(1)
Picturing Molecules
54(1)
Ions and Ionic Compounds
55(5)
Predicting Ionic Charges
56(1)
Ionic Compounds
57(3)
Naming Inorganic Compounds
60(7)
Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
60(5)
Names and Formulas of Acids
65(1)
Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
66(1)
Some Simple Organic Compounds
67(11)
Alkanes
67(1)
Some Derivatives of Alkanes
68(1)
Summary and Key Terms
69(1)
Visualizing Concepts
70(1)
Exercises
71(6)
eMedia Exercises
77(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
77(1)
Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
78(42)
Chemical Equations
80(5)
Balancing Equations
81(3)
Indicating the States of Reactants and Products
84(1)
Some Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
85(3)
Combination and Decomposition Reactions
85(2)
Combustion in Air
87(1)
Formula Weights
88(2)
Formula and Molecular Weights
88(1)
Percentage Composition from Formulas
89(1)
Avogadro's Number and the Mole
90(6)
Molar Mass
92(2)
Interconverting Masses and Moles
94(1)
Interconverting Masses and Numbers of Particles
95(1)
Empirical Formulas from Analyses
96(4)
Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula
98(1)
Combustion Analysis
98(2)
Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations
100(4)
Limiting Reactants
104(16)
Theoretical Yields
107(2)
Summary and Key Terms
109(1)
Visualizing Concepts
110(1)
Exercises
111(7)
eMedia Exercises
118(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
119(1)
Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
120(46)
General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
122(4)
Electrolytic Properties
122(1)
Ionic Compounds in Water
122(2)
Molecular Compounds in Water
124(1)
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
124(2)
Precipitation Reactions
126(5)
Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
127(1)
Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions
128(1)
Ionic Equations
129(2)
Acid-Base Reactions
131(6)
Acids
131(1)
Bases
131(1)
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
131(2)
Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes
133(1)
Neutralization Reactions and Salts
134(2)
Acid-Base Reactions with Gas Formation
136(1)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
137(7)
Oxidation and Reduction
138(1)
Oxidation Numbers
139(1)
Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts
140(2)
The Activity Series
142(2)
Concentrations of Solutions
144(7)
Molarity
146(1)
Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte
147(1)
Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume
147(1)
Dilution
148(3)
Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
151(15)
Titrations
152(4)
Summary and Key Terms
156(1)
Visualizing Concepts
157(1)
Exercises
158(6)
eMedia Exercises
164(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
165(1)
Thermochemistry
166(50)
The Nature of Energy
168(4)
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
168(1)
Units of Energy
169(1)
System and Surroundings
170(1)
Transferring Energy: Work and Heat
170(2)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
172(4)
Internal Energy
172(1)
Relating ΔE to Heat and Work
173(1)
Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
174(1)
State Functions
174(2)
Enthalpy
176(4)
Enthalpies of Reaction
180(2)
Calorimetry
182(5)
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
182(2)
Constant-Pressure Calorimetry
184(2)
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)
186(1)
Hess's Law
187(4)
Enthalpies of Formation
191(5)
Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction
193(3)
Foods and Fuels
196(20)
Foods
196(2)
Fuels
198(1)
Other Energy Sources
199(4)
Summary and Key Terms
203(1)
Visualizing Concepts
204(1)
Exercises
205(8)
eMedia Exercises
213(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
214(2)
Electronic Structure of Atoms
216(44)
The Wave Nature of Light
218(2)
Quantized Energy and Photons
220(4)
Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy
221(1)
The Photoelectric Effect and Photons
222(2)
Line Spectra and the Bohr Model
224(4)
Line Spectra
224(1)
Bohr's Model
225(1)
The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom
226(2)
Limitations of the Bohr Model
228(1)
The Wave Behavior of Matter
228(3)
The Uncertainty Principle
229(2)
Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
231(3)
Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
232(2)
Representations of Orbitals
234(4)
The s Orbitals
234(3)
The p Orbitals
237(1)
The d and f Orbitals
237(1)
Many-Electron Atoms
238(2)
Orbitals and Their Energies
238(1)
Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
239(1)
Electron Configurations
240(6)
Hund's Rule
242(1)
Condensed Electron Configurations
243(1)
Transition Metals
244(1)
The Lanthanides and Actinides
245(1)
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
246(14)
Anomalous Electron Configurations
249(1)
Summary and Key Terms
250(1)
Visualizing Concepts
251(1)
Exercises
252(6)
eMedia Exercises
258(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
259(1)
Periodic Properties of the Elements
260(40)
Development of the Periodic Table
262(1)
Effective Nuclear Charge
263(2)
Sizes of Atoms and Ions
265(6)
Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii
267(1)
Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii
268(3)
Ionization Energy
271(4)
Variations in Successive Ionization Energies
271(1)
Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies
272(2)
Electron Configurations of Ions
274(1)
Electron Affinities
275(1)
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
276(5)
Metals
277(2)
Nonmetals
279(2)
Metalloids
281(1)
Group Trends for the Active Metals
281(5)
Group 1 A: The Alkali Metals
281(4)
Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals
285(1)
Group Trends for Selected Nonmetals
286(14)
Hydrogen
286(1)
Group 6A: The Oxygen Group
286(2)
Group 7A: The Halogens
288(1)
Group 8A: The Noble Gases
289(1)
Summary and Key Terms
290(1)
Visualizing Concepts
291(1)
Exercises
292(6)
eMedia Exercises
298(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
299(1)
Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
300(44)
Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule
302(1)
Lewis Symbols
302(1)
The Octet Rule
303(1)
Ionic Bonding
303(6)
Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation
305(1)
Electron Configurations of Ions of the Representative Elements
306(1)
Transition-Metal Ions
307(2)
Polyatomic Ions
309(1)
Covalent Bonding
309(3)
Lewis Structures
310(1)
Multiple Bonds
311(1)
Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
312(5)
Electronegativity
312(1)
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
313(1)
Dipole Moments
314(3)
Bond Types and Nomenclature
317(1)
Drawing Lewis Structures
317(5)
Formal Charge
320(2)
Resonance Structures
322(3)
Resonance in Benzene
324(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
325(3)
Odd Number of Electrons
326(1)
Less than an Octet of Valence Electrons
326(1)
More than an Octet of Valence Electrons
327(1)
Strengths of Covalent Bonds
328(16)
Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions
330(3)
Bond Enthalpy and Bond Length
333(2)
Summary and Key Terms
335(1)
Visualizing Concepts
336(1)
Exercises
336(7)
eMedia Exercises
343(1)
Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
344(54)
Molecular Shapes
346(2)
The VSEPR Model
348(9)
The Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles
352(1)
Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells
353(3)
Shapes of Larger Molecules
356(1)
Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity
357(3)
Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap
360(1)
Hybrid Orbitals
361(6)
Hybrid Orbitals
361(2)
sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
363(2)
Hybridization Involving d Orbitals
365(1)
Summary
365(2)
Multiple Bonds
367(6)
Delocalized π Bonding
370(3)
General Conclusions
373(1)
Molecular Orbitals
373(3)
The Hydrogen Molecule
373(2)
Bond Order
375(1)
Second-Row Diatomic Molecules
376(22)
Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2
376(1)
Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals
377(3)
Electron Configurations for B2 Through Ne2
380(2)
Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties
382(2)
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
384(3)
Summary and Key Terms
387(1)
Visualizing Concepts
388(1)
Exercises
389(7)
eMedia Exercises
396(2)
Gases
398(44)
Characteristics of Gases
400(1)
Pressure
401(3)
Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer
401(3)
The Gas Laws
404(4)
The Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle's Law
404(2)
The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles's Law
406(1)
The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law
407(1)
The Ideal-Gas Equation
408(5)
Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws
410(3)
Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation
413(4)
Gas Densities and Molar Mass
413(2)
Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions
415(2)
Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures
417(3)
Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions
418(1)
Collecting Gases over Water
419(1)
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
420(3)
Application to the Gas Laws
422(1)
Molecular Effusion and Diffusion
423(4)
Graham's Law of Effusion
424(2)
Diffusion and Mean Free Path
426(1)
Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior
427(15)
The van der Waals Equation
429(2)
Summary and Key Terms
431(1)
Visualizing Concepts
432(1)
Exercises
433(7)
eMedia Exercises
440(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
440(2)
Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
442(44)
A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
444(1)
Intermolecular Forces
445(8)
Ion-Dipole Forces
446(1)
Dipole-Dipole Forces
446(1)
London Dispersion Forces
447(2)
Hydrogen Bonding
449(3)
Comparing Intermolecular Forces
452(1)
Some Properties of Liquids
453(2)
Viscosity
453(1)
Surface Tension
454(1)
Phase Changes
455(4)
Energy Changes Accompanying Phase Changes
455(1)
Heating Curves
456(2)
Critical Temperature and Pressure
458(1)
Vapor Pressure
459(3)
Explaining Vapor Pressure on the Molecular Level
460(1)
Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature
460(1)
Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
461(1)
Phase Diagrams
462(2)
The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2
463(1)
Structures of Solids
464(6)
Unit Cells
466(1)
The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride
467(2)
Close Packing of Spheres
469(1)
Bonding in Solids
470(16)
Molecular Solids
470(2)
Covalent-Network Solids
472(1)
Ionic Solids
473(1)
Metallic Solids
473(2)
Summary and Key Terms
475(1)
Visualizing Concepts
476(2)
Exercises
478(6)
eMedia Exercises
484(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
485(1)
Modern Materials
486(42)
Classes of Materials
488(6)
Metals and Semiconductors
488(3)
Insulators and Ceramics
491(1)
Superconductors
491(3)
Materials for Structure
494(10)
Soft Materials: Polymers and Plastics
495(1)
Making Polymers
495(3)
Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers
498(3)
Hard Materials: Metals and Ceramics
501(2)
Making Ceramics
503(1)
Materials for Medicine
504(4)
Characteristics of Biomaterials
504(1)
Polymeric Biomaterials
505(1)
Examples of Biomaterial Applications
505(3)
Materials for Electronics
508(2)
The Silicon Chip
508(2)
Plastic Electronics
510(1)
Solar Energy Conversion
510(1)
Materials for Optics
510(5)
Liquid Crystals
510(1)
Types of Liquid Crystalline Phases
511(2)
Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes
513(2)
Materials for Nanotechnology
515(13)
Semiconductors on the Nanoscale
515(2)
Metals on the Nanoscale
517(1)
Carbon Nanotubes
517(2)
Summary and Key Terms
519(2)
Visualizing Concepts
521(1)
Exercises
522(5)
eMedia Exercises
527(1)
Properties of Solutions
528(46)
The Solution Process
530(5)
Energy Changes and Solution Formation
531(1)
Solution Formation, Spontaneity, and Disorder
532(1)
Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions
533(2)
Saturated Solutions and Solubility
535(2)
Factors Affecting Solubility
537(6)
Solute-Solvent Interactions
537(4)
Pressure Effects
541(1)
Temperature Effects
542(1)
Ways of Expressing Concentration
543(5)
Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb
543(1)
Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
544(2)
Conversion of Concentration Units
546(2)
Colligative Properties
548(10)
Lowering the Vapor Pressure
548(2)
Boiling-Point Elevation
550(1)
Freezing-Point Depression
551(2)
Osmosis
553(3)
Determination of Molar Mass
556(2)
Colloids
558(16)
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
559(2)
Removal of Colloidal Particles
561(2)
Summary and Key Terms
563(1)
Visualizing Concepts
564(2)
Exercises
566(6)
eMedia Exercises
572(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
573(1)
Chemical Kinetics
574(54)
Factors that Affect Reaction Rates
576(1)
Reaction Rates
577(5)
Change of Rate with Time
579(1)
Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry
580(2)
Concentration and Rate
582(5)
Exponents in the Rate Law
583(2)
Units of Rate Constants
585(1)
Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws
585(2)
The Change of Concentration with Time
587(6)
First-Order Reactions
587(2)
Second-Order Reactions
589(2)
Half-life
591(2)
Temperature and Rate
593(6)
The Collision Model
594(1)
The Orientation Factor
594(1)
Activation Energy
595(1)
The Arrhenius Equation
596(1)
Determining the Activation Energy
597(2)
Reaction Mechanisms
599(8)
Elementary Reactions
599(1)
Multistep Mechanisms
600(1)
Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions
601(1)
The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism
602(1)
Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step
603(2)
Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step
605(2)
Catalysis
607(21)
Homogeneous Catalysis
607(2)
Heterogeneous Catalysis
609(1)
Enzymes
610(5)
Summary and Key Terms
615(2)
Visualizing Concepts
617(1)
Exercises
618(9)
eMedia Exercises
627(1)
Chemical Equilibrium
628(40)
The Concept of Equilibrium
630(2)
The Equilibrium Constant
632(5)
Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp
635(2)
Equilibrium Constants and Units
637(1)
Interpreting and Working with Equilibrium Constants
637(4)
The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants
637(1)
The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K
638(1)
Relating Chemical Equations and Equilibrium Constants
639(2)
Heterogeneous Equilibria
641(2)
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
643(3)
Applications of Equilibrium Constants
646(3)
Predicting the Direction of Reaction
646(1)
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
647(2)
Le Chatelier's Principle
649(19)
Change in Reactant or Product Concentrations
650(1)
Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes
651(2)
Effect of Temperature Changes
653(3)
The Effect of Catalysts
656(3)
Summary and Key Terms
659(1)
Visualizing Concepts
660(1)
Exercises
661(6)
eMedia Exercises
667(1)
Acid-Base Equilibria
668(52)
Acids and Bases: A Brief Review
670(1)
Bronsted--Lowry Acids and Bases
670(6)
The H+ Ion in Water
670(1)
Proton-Transfer Reactions
671(1)
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
672(2)
Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
674(2)
The Autoionization of Water
676(2)
The Ion Product of Water
676(2)
The pH Scale
678(4)
Other ``p'' Scales
681(1)
Measuring pH
681(1)
Strong Acids and Bases
682(2)
Strong Acids
682(1)
Strong Bases
683(1)
Weak Acids
684(9)
Calculating Ka from pH
685(2)
Using Ka to Calculate pH
687(4)
Polyprotic Acids
691(2)
Weak Bases
693(3)
Types of Weak Bases
695(1)
Relationship Between Ka and Kb
696(3)
Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
699(3)
An Anion's Ability to React with Water
699(1)
A Cation's Ability to React with Water
700(1)
Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution
700(2)
Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure
702(4)
Factors that Affect Acid Strength
702(1)
Binary Acids
703(1)
Oxyacids
704(1)
Carboxylic Acids
705(1)
Lewis Acids and Bases
706(14)
Hydrolysis of Metal Ions
708(3)
Summary and Key Terms
711(1)
Visualizing Concepts
712(1)
Exercises
713(6)
eMedia Exercises
719(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
719(1)
Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
720(48)
The Common-Ion Effect
722(3)
Buffered Solutions
725(7)
Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions
725(1)
Calculating the pH of a Buffer
726(2)
Buffer Capacity and pH Range
728(1)
Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers
729(3)
Acid-Base Titrations
732(7)
Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations
732(3)
Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations
735(4)
Titrations of Polyprotic Acids
739(1)
Solubility Equilibria
739(4)
The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp
740(1)
Solubility and Ksp
741(2)
Factors that Affect Solubility
743(11)
Common-Ion Effect
744(1)
Solubility and pH
745(3)
Formation of Complex Ions
748(3)
Amphoterism
751(3)
Precipitation and Separation of Ions
754(2)
Selective Precipitation of Ions
754(2)
Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements
756(12)
Summary and Key Terms
759(1)
Visualizing Concepts
760(1)
Exercises
761(5)
eMedia Exercises
766(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
767(1)
Chemistry of the Environment
768(34)
Earth's Atmosphere
770(2)
Composition of the Atmosphere
771(1)
Outer Regions of the Atmosphere
772(2)
Photodissociation
772(2)
Photoionization
774(1)
Ozone in the Upper Atmosphere
774(4)
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
776(2)
Chemistry of the Troposphere
778(7)
Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain
778(2)
Carbon Monoxide
780(1)
Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
781(2)
Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate
783(2)
The World Ocean
785(2)
Seawater
785(1)
Desalination
786(1)
Fresh Water
787(3)
Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality
788(1)
Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies
789(1)
Green Chemistry
790(12)
Solvents and Reagents
791(2)
Other Processes
793(1)
The Challenges of Water Purification
793(2)
Summary and Key Terms
795(1)
Visualizing Concepts
796(1)
Exercises
797(4)
eMedia Exercises
801(1)
Chemical Thermodynamics
802(44)
Spontaneous Processes
804(4)
Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity
806(1)
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
806(2)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
808(3)
Entropy Change
808(1)
ΔS for Phase Changes
809(1)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
810(1)
The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy
811(9)
Molecular Motions and Energy
812(1)
Boltzmann's Equation and Microstates
812(3)
Making Qualitative Predictions About ΔS
815(3)
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
818(2)
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
820(2)
Entropy Changes in the Surroundings
821(1)
Gibbs Free Energy
822(5)
Standard Free-Energy Changes
824(3)
Free Energy and Temperature
827(3)
Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
830(16)
Summary and Key Terms
835(1)
Visualizing Concepts
836(1)
Exercises
837(7)
eMedia Exercises
844(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
845(1)
Electrochemistry
846(54)
Oxidation States
848(2)
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
850(5)
Half-Reactions
850(1)
Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions
850(4)
Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution
854(1)
Voltaic Cells
855(5)
A Molecular View of Electrode Processes
859(1)
Cell EMF Under Standard Conditions
860(8)
Standard Reduction (Half-Cell) Potentials
861(5)
Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
866(2)
Free Energy and Redox Reactions
868(3)
EMF and ΔG
869(2)
Cell EMF Under Nonstandard Conditions
871(6)
The Nernst Equation
872(2)
Concentration Cells
874(3)
Batteries and Fuel Cells
877(4)
Lead-Acid Battery
878(1)
Alkaline Battery
879(1)
Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal-Hydride, and Lithium-Ion Batteries
879(1)
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
880(1)
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
881(1)
Corrosion
881(2)
Corrosion of Iron
881(1)
Preventing the Corrosion of Iron
882(1)
Electrolysis
883(17)
Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
885(1)
Electrical Work
886(3)
Summary and Key Terms
889(1)
Visualizing Concepts
890(1)
Exercises
890(9)
eMedia Exercises
899(1)
eLaboratory Exercises
899(1)
Nuclear Chemistry
900(36)
Radioactivity
902(3)
Nuclear Equations
902(1)
Types of Radioactive Decay
903(2)
Patterns of Nuclear Stability
905(3)
Neutron-to-Proton Ratio
905(2)
Radioactive Series
907(1)
Further Observations
907(1)
Nuclear Transmutations
908(2)
Accelerating Charged Particles
909(1)
Using Neutrons
909(1)
Transuranium Elements
910(1)
Rates of Radioactive Decay
910(5)
Dating
911(1)
Calculations Based on Half-life
912(3)
Detection of Radioactivity
915(1)
Radiotracers
916(1)
Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
916(4)
Nuclear Binding Energies
918(2)
Nuclear Fission
920(4)
Nuclear Reactors
921(3)
Nuclear Fusion
924(1)
Biological Effects of Radiation
925(11)
Radiation Doses
926(1)
Radon
927(3)
Summary and Key Terms
930(1)
Visualizing Concepts
931(1)
Exercises
931(4)
eMedia Exercises
935(1)
Chemistry of the Nonmetals
936(56)
General Concepts: Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions
938(3)
Chemical Reactions
940(1)
Hydrogen
941(4)
Isotopes of Hydrogen
941(1)
Properties of Hydrogen
942(1)
Preparation of Hydrogen
943(1)
Uses of Hydrogen
943(1)
Binary Hydrogen Compounds
944(1)
Group 8A: The Noble Gases
945(2)
Noble-Gas Compounds
946(1)
Group 7A: The Halogens
947(6)
Properties and Preparation of the Halogens
948(1)
Uses of the Halogens
949(1)
The Hydrogen Halides
950(1)
Interhalogen Compounds
950(1)
Oxyacids and Oxyanions
951(2)
Oxygen
953(5)
Properties of Oxygen
953(1)
Preparation of Oxygen
953(1)
Uses of Oxygen
953(1)
Ozone
954(1)
Oxides
955(2)
Peroxides and Superoxides
957(1)
The Other Group 6A Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po
958(4)
General Characteristics of the Group 6A Elements
958(1)
Occurrence and Preparation of S, Se, and Te
958(1)
Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
959(1)
Sulfides
960(1)
Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur
960(2)
Nitrogen
962(5)
Properties of Nitrogen
962(1)
Preparation and Uses of Nitrogen
963(1)
Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
963(1)
Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen
964(3)
The Other Group 5A Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi
967(5)
General Characteristics of the Group 5A Elements
967(1)
Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus
968(1)
Phosphorus Halides
968(1)
Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus
969(3)
Carbon
972(5)
Elemental Forms of Carbon
972(1)
Oxides of Carbon
973(2)
Carbonic Acid and Carbonates
975(1)
Carbides
976(1)
Other Inorganic Compounds of Carbon
977(1)
The Other Group 4A Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb
977(4)
General Characteristics of the Group 4A Elements
977(1)
Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon
978(1)
Silicates
978(2)
Glass
980(1)
Silicones
981(1)
Boron
981(11)
Summary and Key Terms
983(1)
Visualizing Concepts
984(2)
Exercises
986(5)
eMedia Exercises
991(1)
Metals and Metallurgy
992(32)
Occurrence and Distribution of Metals
994(2)
Minerals
994(1)
Metallurgy
995(1)
Pyrometallurgy
996(3)
The Pyrometallurgy of Iron
997(1)
Formation of Steel
998(1)
Hydrometallurgy
999(1)
The Hydrometallurgy of Aluminum
1000(1)
Electrometallurgy
1000(4)
Electrometallurgy of Sodium
1001(1)
Electrometallurgy of Aluminum
1001(1)
Electrorefining of Copper
1001(3)
Metallic Bonding
1004(2)
Physical Properties of Metals
1004(1)
Electron-Sea Model for Metallic Bonding
1004(1)
Molecular-Orbital Model for Metals
1005(1)
Alloys
1006(4)
Intermetallic Compounds
1008(2)
Transition Metals
1010(3)
Physical Properties
1010(1)
Electron Configurations and Oxidation States
1011(2)
Magnetism
1013(1)
Chemistry of Selected Transition Metals
1013(11)
Chromium
1014(1)
Iron
1014(1)
Copper
1015(2)
Summary and Key Terms
1017(1)
Visualizing Concepts
1018(1)
Exercises
1019(3)
eMedia Exercises
1022(2)
Chemistry of Coordination Compounds
1024(38)
Metal Complexes
1026(5)
The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner's Theory
1026(2)
The Metal-Ligand Bond
1028(1)
Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries
1029(2)
Ligands with More than One Donor Atom
1031(6)
Metals and Chelates in Living Systems
1033(4)
Nomenclature of Coordination Chemistry
1037(1)
Isomerism
1038(5)
Structural Isomerism
1039(1)
Stereoisomerism
1039(4)
Color and Magnetism
1043(2)
Color
1043(2)
Magnetism
1045(1)
Crystal-Field Theory
1045(17)
Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes
1049(1)
Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes
1050(4)
Summary and Key Terms
1054(1)
Visualizing Concepts
1055(1)
Exercises
1056(5)
eMedia Exercises
1061(1)
The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
1062
Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules
1064(2)
The Structures of Organic Molecules
1064(1)
The Stabilities of Organic Substances
1065(1)
Solubility and Acid-Base Properties of Organic Substances
1066(1)
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
1066(1)
Alkanes
1067(8)
Structures of Alkanes
1068(1)
Structural Isomers
1069(1)
Nomenclature of Alkanes
1070(2)
Cycloalkanes
1072(1)
Reactions of Alkanes
1073(2)
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
1075(7)
Alkenes
1075(2)
Alkynes
1077(1)
Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
1077(2)
Mechanism of Addition Reactions
1079(2)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
1081(1)
Functional Groups: Alcohols and Ethers
1082(4)
Alcohols ---OH
1084(1)
Ethers ---O---
1085(1)
Compounds with a Carbonyl Group
1086(5)
Aldehydes O==C---H and Ketones ---O==C---
1086(1)
Carboxylic Acids O==C---OH
1087(1)
Esters ---O==C---O---
1088(2)
Amines and Amides
1090(1)
Chirality in Organic Chemistry
1091(2)
Introduction to Biochemistry
1093(1)
Proteins
1094(5)
Amino Acids
1094(2)
Polypeptides and Proteins
1096(1)
Protein Structure
1097(2)
Carbohydrates
1099(4)
Disaccharides
1101(1)
Polysaccharides
1101(2)
Nucleic Acids
1103(13)
Summary and Key Terms
1107(2)
Visualizing Concepts
1109(1)
Exercises
1110(5)
eMedia Exercises
1115(1)
Appendices
A Mathematical Operations
1116(6)
B Properties of Water
1122(1)
C Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25°C)
1123(3)
D Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
1126(2)
E Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C
1128
Answers to Selected Exercises 1(34)
Answers to ``Give it Some Thought'' Questions 35
Glossary 1(1)
Photo/Art Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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