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Chemistry : The Central Science

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780135334805

ISBN10:
0135334802
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $158.35

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Summary

The #1 best-selling general chemistry text. Known for the solid basics that comprise its core: engaging and clear writing; a comprehensive and balanced problem-solving program; and an emphasis on showing that chemistry is the central science by introducing students to interesting and relevant chemical applications. The 7/e introduces a dynamic new illustration program, new problem-solving material, and the most innovative and integrated suite of multimedia products available today.

Table of Contents

Chemical Applications and Essays xvii
Preface xix
A Student's Guide to Using this Text xxvii
About the Authors xxxi
Introduction: Matter and Measurement
1(36)
The Study of Chemistry
1(4)
The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
1(1)
Why Study Chemistry?
2(3)
Classification of Matter
5(6)
States of Matter
5(1)
Pure Substances and Mixtures
6(2)
Separation of Mixtures
8(1)
Elements
9(1)
Compounds
10(1)
Properties of Matter
11(3)
Physical and Chemical Changes
11(3)
Units of Measurement
14(7)
SI Units
14(1)
Length and Mass
15(1)
Temperature
15(2)
Derived SI Units
17(1)
Volume
17(1)
Density
17(4)
Uncertainty in Measurement
21(4)
Precision and Accuracy
22(1)
Significant Figures
22(1)
Significant Figures in Calculations
23(2)
Dimensional Analysis
25(12)
Summary of Dimensional Analysis
27(3)
Summary and Key Terms
30(1)
Exercises
31(6)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
37(34)
The Atomic Theory of Matter
37(1)
The Discovery of Atomic Structure
38(5)
Cathode Rays and Electrons
39(2)
Radioactivity
41(1)
The Nuclear Atom
41(2)
The Modern View of Atomic Structure
43(3)
Isotopes, Atomic Numbers, and Mass Numbers
45(1)
The Periodic Table
46(3)
Molecules and Molecular Compounds
49(3)
Molecules and Chemical Formulas
49(1)
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
50(1)
Picturing Molecules
51(1)
Ions and Ionic Compounds
52(5)
Predicting Ionic Charges
53(1)
Ionic Compounds
54(3)
Naming Inorganic Compounds
57(14)
Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
58(4)
Names and Formulas of Acids
62(1)
Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
63(1)
Summary and Key Terms
64(1)
Exercises
65(6)
Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
71(36)
Chemical Equations
71(3)
Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
74(4)
Using the Periodic Table
74(1)
Combustion in Air
75(1)
Combinations and Decomposition Reactions
76(2)
Atomic and Molecular Weights
78(3)
The Atomic Mass Scale
78(1)
Average Atomic Masses
78(1)
Formula and Molecular Weights
79(1)
Percentage Composition from Formulas
80(1)
The Mole
81(5)
Molar Mass
82(2)
Interconverting Masses, Moles, and Numbers of Particles
84(2)
Empirical Formulas from Analyses
86(4)
Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula
88(1)
Combustion Analysis
89(1)
Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations
90(3)
Limiting Reactants
93(14)
Theoretical Yields
97(1)
Summary and Key Terms
98(1)
Exercises
99(8)
Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
107(38)
Solution Composition
107(5)
Molarity
107(3)
Dilution
110(2)
Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution
112(3)
Ionic Compounds in Water
113(1)
Molecular Compounds in Water
114(1)
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
115(1)
Acids, Bases, and Salts
115(4)
Acids
116(1)
Bases
116(1)
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
117(1)
Neutralization Reactions and Salts
118(1)
Ionic Equations
119(2)
Metathesis Reactions
121(7)
Precipitation Reactions
122(1)
Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
122(2)
Reactions in Which a Weak Electrolyte or Nonelectrolyte Forms
124(2)
Reactions in Which a Gas Forms
126(2)
Introduction to Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
128(5)
Oxidation and Reduction
129(1)
Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts
129(1)
The Activity Series
130(3)
Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
133(12)
Titrations
136(2)
Summary and Key Terms
138(1)
Exercises
139(6)
Thermochemistry
145(38)
The Nature of Energy
145(2)
Kinetic and Potential Energy
146(1)
Energy Units
146(1)
Systems and Surroundings
147(1)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
147(4)
Internal Energy
148(1)
Relating ΔE to Heat and Work
148(1)
Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
149(1)
State Functions
150(1)
Enthalpy
151(3)
Enthalpies of Reactions
154(2)
Calorimetry
156(6)
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
157(2)
Constant-Pressure Calorimetry
159(1)
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)
160(2)
Hess's Law
162(2)
Enthalpies of Formation
164(6)
Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction
165(5)
Foods and Fuels
170(13)
Foods
172(1)
Other Energy Sources
173(1)
Summary and Key Terms
174(1)
Exercises
175(8)
Electronic Structure of Atoms
183(40)
The Wave Nature of Light
183(2)
Quantized Energy and Photons
185(4)
The Photoelectric Effect
187(2)
Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom
189(5)
Line Spectra
189(1)
Bohr's Model
190(4)
The Wave Behavior of Matter
194(1)
The Uncertainty Principle
195(1)
Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
195(4)
Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
197(2)
Representations of Orbitals
199(3)
The s Orbitals
200(1)
The p Orbitals
201(1)
The d and f Orbitals
201(1)
Orbitals in Many-Electron Atoms
202(4)
Effective Nuclear Charge
203(1)
Energies of Orbitals
203(1)
Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
204(2)
Electron Configurations
206(5)
Periods 1, 2, and 3
206(4)
Period 4 and Beyond
210(1)
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
211(12)
Summary and Key Terms
215(2)
Exercises
217(6)
Periodic Properties of the Elements
223(32)
Development of the Periodic Table
223(2)
Electron Shells and the Sizes of Atoms
225(4)
Electron Shells in Atoms
225(1)
Atomic Sizes
226(3)
Ionization Energy
229(3)
Periodic Trends in Ionization Energies
230(2)
Electron Affinities
232(2)
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
234(5)
Metals
235(2)
Nonmetals
237(1)
Metalloids
238(1)
Group Trends for the Active Metals
239(4)
The Alkali Metals
239(2)
The Alkaline Earth Metals
241(2)
Group Trends for Selected Nonmetals
243(12)
Hydrogen
243(1)
The Oxygen Family
244(1)
The Halogens
245(1)
The Noble Gases
246(2)
Summary and Key Terms
248(1)
Exercises
249(6)
Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
255(40)
Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
255(1)
Ionic Bonding
256(7)
Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation
258(1)
Electron Configuration of Ions of the Representative Elements
259(3)
Transition-Metal Ions
262(1)
Polyatomic Ions
262(1)
Size of Ions
263(1)
Covalent Bonding
264(2)
Multiple Bonds
266(1)
Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
266(3)
Electronegativity
267(1)
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
268(1)
Drawing Lewis Structures
269(4)
Formal Charge
271(2)
Resonance Structures
273(3)
Resonance in Benzene
275(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
276(3)
Odd Number of Electrons
276(1)
Less Than an Octet
276(1)
More Than an Octet
277(2)
Strengths of Covalent Bonds
279(5)
Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions
280(2)
Bond Strength and Bond Length
282(2)
Oxidation Numbers
284(11)
Oxidation Numbers and Nomenclature
287(1)
Summary and Key Terms
287(2)
Exercises
289(6)
Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
295(48)
Molecular Shapes
295(1)
The VSEPR Model
296(9)
Predicting Molecular Geometries
297(3)
The Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles
300(3)
Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells
303(1)
Molecules with More than One Central Atom
304(1)
Polarity of Molecules
305(4)
Dipole Moments of Polyatomic Molecules
307(2)
Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap
309(2)
Hybrid Orbitals
311(6)
sp Hybrid Orbitals
311(2)
sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
313(1)
Hybridization Involving d Orbitals
314(1)
Summary
315(2)
Multiple Bonds
317(7)
Delocalized π Bonding
320(3)
General Conclusions
323(1)
Molecular Orbitals
324(3)
The Hydrogen Molecule
324(2)
Bond Order
326(1)
Second-Row Diatomic Molecules
327(16)
Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2
327(2)
Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals
329(1)
Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2
330(2)
Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties
332(3)
Summary and Key Terms
335(1)
Exercises
336(7)
Gases
343(40)
Characteristics of Gases
343(1)
Pressure
344(5)
Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer
344(2)
Properties of Enclosed Gases and Manometers
346(3)
The Gas Laws
349(3)
The Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle's Law
349(1)
The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles's Law
350(1)
The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law
351(1)
The Ideal-Gas Equation
352(5)
Relationship Between the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws
354(3)
Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation
357(3)
Gas Densities and Molar Mass
357(2)
Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions
359(1)
Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures
360(4)
Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions
361(1)
Collecting Gases Over Water
362(2)
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
364(3)
Application to the Gas Laws
366(1)
Molecular Effusion and Diffusion
367(3)
Graham's Law of Effusion
368(2)
Diffusion and Mean Free Path
370(1)
Real Gases: Deviations From Ideal Behavior
370(13)
The van der Waals Equation
372(2)
Summary and Key Terms
374(1)
Exercises
375(8)
Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
383(40)
A Molecular Comparison of Liquids and Solids
383(2)
Intermolecular Forces
385(8)
Ion-Dipole Forces
385(1)
Dipole-Dipole Forces
386(1)
London Dispersion Forces
386(3)
Hydrogen Bonding
389(3)
Comparing Intermolecular Forces
392(1)
Some Properties of Liquids
393(1)
Viscosity
394(1)
Surface Tension
394(1)
Phase Changes
394(5)
Energy Changes Accompanying Phase Changes
395(1)
Heating Curves
396(2)
Critical Temperature and Pressure
398(1)
Vapor Pressure
399(3)
Explaining Vapor Pressure on the Molecular Level
399(1)
Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature
400(1)
Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
401(1)
Phase Diagrams
402(2)
The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2
403(1)
Structures of Solids
404(7)
Unit Cells
405(1)
The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride
406(2)
Close Packing of Spheres
408(3)
Bonding in Solids
411(12)
Molecular Solids
411(1)
Covalent-Network Solids
412(1)
Ionic Solids
413(1)
Metallic Solids
414(1)
Summary and Key Terms
415(1)
Exercises
416(7)
Modern Materials
423(30)
Liquid Crystals
423(5)
Types of Liquid-Crystalline Phases
424(4)
Polymers
428(9)
Types of Polymers
432(1)
Structures and Physical Properties of Polymers
432(3)
Crosslinking Polymers
435(2)
Ceramics
437(5)
Processing of Ceramics
438(1)
Ceramic Composites
439(1)
Applications of Ceramics
440(1)
Superconducting Ceramics
440(2)
Thin Films
442(11)
Uses of Thin Films
443(1)
Formation of Thin Films
444(3)
Summary and Key Terms
447(1)
Exercises
447(6)
Properties of Solutions
453(38)
The Solution Process
453(5)
Energy Changes and Solution Formation
454(2)
Solution Formation, Spontaneity, and Disorder
456(1)
Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions
457(1)
Ways of Expressing Concentration
458(4)
Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
459(3)
Saturated Solutions and Solubility
462(1)
Factors Affecting Solubility
463(6)
Solute-Solvent Interactions
463(2)
Pressure Effects
465(2)
Temperature Effects
467(2)
Colligative Properties
469(10)
Lowering the Vapor Pressure
469(1)
Raoult's Law
470(2)
Boiling-Point Elevation
472(1)
Freezing-Point Depression
473(2)
Osmosis
475(1)
Determination of Molar Mass
476(3)
Colloids
479(12)
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
480(1)
Removal of Colloidal Particles
481(2)
Summary and Key Terms
483(1)
Exercises
484(7)
Chemical Kinetics
491(48)
Reaction Rates
492(5)
Rates in Terms of Concentrations
494(2)
Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry
496(1)
The Dependence of Rate on Concentration
497(4)
Reaction Order
499(1)
Units of Rate Constants
499(1)
Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws
500(1)
The Change of Concentration with Time
501(6)
First-Order Reactions
502(2)
Half-life
504(1)
Second-Order Reactions
505(2)
Temperature and Rate
507(6)
The Collision Model
507(1)
Activation Energy
508(3)
The Arrhenius Equation
511(2)
Reaction Mechanisms
513(8)
Elementary Steps
515(1)
Rate Laws of Elementary Steps
516(2)
Rate Laws of Multistep Mechanisms
518(1)
Mechanisms with an Initial Fast Step
519(2)
Catalysis
521(18)
Homogeneous Catalysis
521(1)
Heterogeneous Catalysis
522(2)
Enzymes
524(5)
Summary and Key Terms
529(1)
Exercises
530(9)
Chemical Equilibrium
539(34)
The Concept of Equilibrium
540(3)
The Equilibrium Constant
543(5)
Expressing Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp
546(1)
The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants
546(1)
The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K
547(1)
Heterogeneous Equilibria
548(2)
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
550(3)
Relating Kc and Kp
552(1)
Applications of Equilibrium Constants
553(4)
Predicting the Direction of Reaction
553(1)
Calculation of Equilibrium Concentrations
554(3)
Le Chatelier's Principle
557(16)
Change in Reactant or Product Concentrations
557(1)
Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes
558(2)
Effect of Temperature Changes
560(3)
The Effect of Catalysts
563(2)
Summary and Key Terms
565(1)
Exercises
566(7)
Acid-Base Equilibria
573(48)
Acids and Bases: A Brief Review
573(1)
The Dissociation of Water
574(2)
The Proton in Water
575(1)
The pH Scale
576(4)
Other ``p'' Scales
579(1)
Measuring pH
579(1)
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
580(5)
Proton-Transfer Reactions
580(1)
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
581(2)
Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
583(2)
Strong Acids and Bases
585(2)
Strong Acids
585(1)
Strong Bases
586(1)
Weak Acids
587(9)
Calculating pH for Solutions of Weak Acids
590(4)
Polyprotic Acids
594(2)
Weak Bases
596(4)
Types of Weak Bases
598(2)
Relationship Between Ka and Kb
600(3)
Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
603(2)
Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure
605(6)
Factors That Affect Acid Strength
605(1)
Binary Hydrides
606(1)
Oxyacids
606(3)
Carboxylic Acids
609(2)
Lewis Acids and Bases
611(10)
Hydrolysis of Metal Ions
612(1)
Summary and Key Terms
613(1)
Exercises
614(7)
Additional Aspects of Equilibria
621(42)
The Common-Ion Effect
621(3)
Buffered Solutions
624(8)
Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions
624(2)
Buffer Capacity and pH
626(2)
Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers
628(4)
Acid-Base Titrations
632(9)
Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations
632(2)
The Addition of a Strong Base to a Weak Acid
634(3)
Titration Curves for Weak Acids or Weak Bases
637(3)
Titrations of Polyprotic Acids
640(1)
Solubility Equilibria
641(3)
The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp
641(1)
Solubility and Ksp
642(2)
Factors that Affect Solubility
644(7)
Common-Ion Effect
644(2)
Solubility and pH
646(1)
Formation of Complex Ions
647(3)
Amphoterism
650(1)
Precipitation and Separation of Ions
651(3)
Selective Precipitation of Ions
653(1)
Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements
654(9)
Summary and Key Terms
656(1)
Exercises
657(6)
Chemistry of the Environment
663(28)
Earth's Atmosphere
663(3)
Composition of the Atmosphere
664(2)
The Outer Regions of the Atmosphere
666(2)
Photodissociation
666(1)
Photoionization
667(1)
Ozone in the Upper Atmosphere
668(4)
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
670(2)
Chemistry of the Troposphere
672(7)
Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain
673(1)
Carbon Monoxide
674(2)
Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
676(1)
Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate
677(2)
The World Ocean
679(2)
Seawater
679(1)
Desalination
680(1)
Fresh Water
681(10)
Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality
682(2)
Treatment of Municipal Water Supplies
684(1)
Summary and Key Terms
685(1)
Exercises
686(5)
Chemical Thermodynamics
691(32)
Spontaneous Processes
691(3)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
694(5)
Entropy
694(4)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
698(1)
A Molecular Interpretation of Entropy
699(4)
Calculation of Entropy Changes
703(3)
Gibbs Free Energy
706(4)
Standard Free-Energy Changes
707(3)
Free Energy and Temperature
710(1)
Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
711(12)
Summary and Key Terms
714(1)
Exercises
715(8)
Electrochemistry
723(48)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
723(2)
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
725(5)
Half-Reactions
725(1)
Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions
725(4)
Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution
729(1)
Voltaic Cells
730(3)
Cell EMF
733(7)
Standard Reduction Potentials
734(4)
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
738(2)
Spontaneity of Redox Reactions
740(3)
EMF and Free-Energy Change
742(1)
Effect of Concentration on Cell EMF
743(4)
The Nernst Equation
743(2)
Equilibrium Constants for Redox Equations
745(2)
Commercial Voltaic Cells
747(3)
Lead Storage Battery
748(1)
Dry Cell
749(1)
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
749(1)
Fuel Cells
750(1)
Electrolysis
750(4)
Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions
751(2)
Electrolysis with Active Electrodes
753(1)
Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
754(4)
Electrical Work
755(3)
Corrosion
758(13)
Corrosion of Iron
758(1)
Prevention of Corrosion
759(2)
Summary and Key Terms
761(2)
Exercises
763(8)
Nuclear Chemistry
771(36)
Radioactivity
771(3)
Nuclear Equations
772(1)
Types of Radioactive Decay
773(1)
Patterns of Nuclear Stability
774(5)
Neutron-to-Proton Ratio
775(2)
Radioactive Series
777(1)
Further Observations
777(2)
Nuclear Transmutations
779(2)
Using Charged Particles
779(1)
Using Neutrons
780(1)
Transuranium Elements
780(1)
Rates of Radioactive Decay
781(4)
Dating
783(1)
Calculations Based on Half-Life
784(1)
Detection of Radioactivity
785(2)
Radiotracers
786(1)
Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
787(4)
Nuclear Binding Energies
789(2)
Nuclear Fission
791(4)
Nuclear Reactors
792(3)
Nuclear Fusion
795(1)
Biological Effects of Radiation
796(11)
Radiation Doses
798(1)
Radon
799(2)
Summary and Key Terms
801(1)
Exercises
802(5)
Chemistry of the Nonmetals
807(62)
General Concepts: Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions
807(3)
Chemical Reactions
809(1)
Hydrogen
810(5)
Isotopes of Hydrogen
811(1)
Properties of Hydrogen
812(1)
Preparation of Hydrogen
812(1)
Uses of Hydrogen
813(1)
Binary Hydrogen Compounds
814(1)
Group 8A: The Noble Gases
815(2)
Noble-Gas Compounds
815(2)
Group 7A: The Halogens
817(8)
Properties and Preparation of the Halogens
818(2)
Uses of the Halogens
820(1)
The Hydrogen Halides
820(2)
Interhalogen Compounds
822(1)
Oxyacids and Oxyanions
823(2)
Oxygen
825(5)
Properties of Oxygen
825(1)
Preparation of Oxygen
825(1)
Uses of Oxygen
826(1)
Ozone
826(2)
Oxides
828(1)
Peroxides and Superoxides
829(1)
The Other Group 6A Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po
830(6)
General Characteristics of the Group 6A Elements
830(1)
Occurrences and Preparation of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
831(1)
Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
832(1)
Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur
833(2)
Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Se and Te
835(1)
Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides
835(1)
Nitrogen
836(5)
Properties of Nitrogen
836(1)
Preparation and Uses of Nitrogen
837(1)
Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
837(2)
Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen
839(2)
The Other Group 5A Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi
841(7)
General Characteristics of the Group 5A Elements
841(2)
Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus
843(1)
Phosphorus Halides
843(1)
Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus
844(3)
Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth
847(1)
Carbon
848(6)
Elemental Forms of Carbon
848(2)
Oxides of Carbon
850(1)
Carbonic Acid and Carbonates
851(1)
Carbides
852(1)
Other Inorganic Compounds of Carbon
853(1)
The Other Group 4A Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb
854(5)
General Characteristics of the Group 4A Elements
854(1)
Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon
855(1)
Silicates
856(1)
Glass
857(2)
Silicones
859(1)
Boron
859(10)
Summary and Key Terms
860(2)
Exercises
862(7)
Metals and Metallurgy
869(32)
Occurrence and Distribution of Metals
869(3)
Minerals
870(1)
Metallurgy
871(1)
Pyrometallurgy
872(3)
The Pyrometallurgy of Iron
873(2)
Formation of Steel
875(1)
Hydrometallurgy
875(2)
The Hydrometallurgy of Aluminum
877(1)
Electrometallurgy
877(4)
Electrometallurgy of Sodium
878(1)
Electrometallurgy of Aluminum
878(1)
Electrorefining of Copper
879(2)
Metallic Bonding
881(5)
Physical Properties of Metals
882(1)
Electron-Sea Model for Metallic Bonding
882(1)
Molecular-Orbital Model for Metals
883(3)
Alloys
886(2)
Intermetallic Compounds
888(1)
Transition Metals
888(4)
Physical Properties
888(2)
Electron Configurations and Oxidation States
890(1)
Magnetism
891(1)
Chemistry of Selected Transition Metals
892(9)
Chromium
892(1)
Iron
893(1)
Copper
894(1)
Summary and Key Terms
895(1)
Exercises
896(5)
Chemistry of Coordination Compounds
901(32)
The Structure of Complexes
901(3)
Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries
902(2)
Chelates
904(4)
Metals and Chelates in Living Systems
906(2)
Nomenclature
908(5)
Isomerism
913(3)
Structural Isomerism
913(1)
Stereoisomerism
914(2)
Color and Magnetism
916(3)
Color
917(1)
Magnetism
918(1)
Crystal-Field Theory
919(14)
Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes
924(1)
Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes
925(2)
Summary and Key Terms
927(1)
Exercises
928(5)
The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
933
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
933
Alkanes
934
Structure of Alkanes
935
Structural Isomers
936
Nomenclature of Alkanes
936
Cycloalkanes
939
Reactions of Alkanes
941
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
941
Alkenes
941
Alkynes
943
Additional Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
944
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
946
Functional Groups: Alcohols and Ethers
947
Alcohols (R-OH)
948
Ethers (R-O-R')
950
Compounds with a Carbonyl Group
951
Aldehydes and Ketones
951
Carboxylic Acids
952
Esters
953
Introduction to Biochemistry
955
Proteins
956
Amino Acids
956
Polypeptides and Proteins
958
Protein Structure
960
Carbohydrates
962
Disaccharides
963
Polysaccharides
964
Nucleic Acids
966
Summary and Key Terms
969
Exercises
971
APPENDICES
A Mathematical Operations
976
B Properties of Water
983
C Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25°C)
984
D Aqueous-Equilibrium Constants
988
E Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C
990
Answers to Selected Exercises A-1
Glossary G-1
Photo/Art Credits C-1
Index I-1


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