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Chemistry for Engineering Students

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534389741

ISBN10:
0534389740
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/6/2005
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

To be an engineering major, you'll need a solid comprehension of basic chemistry. CHEMISTRY FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS explains chemistry from your angle, demonstrating how it's relevant to the various engineering fields. From this molecular level to the macro level, this chemistry textbook connects chemistry to math and physics so you won't be confused. And with tons of study tools built right in, this textbook helps you make sure you've mastered the material for the test.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Student Introduction xxviii
Introduction to Chemistry
1(36)
Insight Into Aluminum
3(2)
The Study of Chemistry
5(6)
The Macroscopic Perspective
5(2)
The Microscopic or Particulate Perspective
7(3)
Symbolic Representation
10(1)
The Science of Chemistry: Observations and Models
11(4)
Observations in Science
11(2)
Interpreting Observations
13(1)
Models in Science
14(1)
Numbers and Measurements in Chemistry
15(7)
Units
15(4)
Numbers and Significant Figures
19(3)
Problem Solving in Chemistry and Engineering
22(8)
Using Ratios
22(2)
Ratios in Chemistry Calculations
24(2)
Conceptual Chemistry Problems
26(1)
Visualization in Chemistry
27(3)
Insight Into Material Selection and Bicycle Frames
30(7)
Focus on Problem Solving
31(1)
Summary
32(1)
Key Terms
33(1)
Problems and Exercises
33(4)
Atoms and Molecules
37(41)
Insight Into Polymers
38(2)
Atomic Structure and Mass
40(6)
Fundamental Concepts of the Atom
41(1)
Atomic Number and Mass Number
42(1)
Isotopes
42(2)
Atomic Symbols
44(1)
Atomic Masses
44(2)
Ions
46(3)
Mathematical Description
47(1)
Ions and Their Properties
48(1)
Compounds and Chemical Bonds
49(5)
Chemical Formulas
49(2)
Chemical Bonding
51(3)
The Periodic Table
54(4)
Periods and Groups
54(3)
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
57(1)
Inorganic and Organic Chemistry
58(7)
Inorganic Chemistry --- Main Groups and Transition Metals
59(1)
Organic Chemistry
60(4)
Functional Groups
64(1)
Chemical Nomenclature
65(4)
Binary Systems
66(1)
Naming Covalent Compounds
66(1)
Naming Ionic Compounds
67(2)
Insight Into Polyethylene
69(9)
Focus on Problem Solving
72(1)
Summary
72(1)
Key Terms
73(1)
Problems and Exercises
74(4)
Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations
78(44)
Insight Into Explosions
79(2)
Chemical Formulas and Equations
81(8)
Writing Chemical Equations
81(2)
Balancing Chemical Equations
83(3)
MathConnections
86(3)
Aqueous Solutions and Net Ionic Equations
89(10)
Solutions, Solvents, and Solutes
90(4)
Chemical Equations for Aqueous Reactions
94(1)
Acid--Base Reactions
95(4)
Interpreting Equations and the Mole
99(4)
Interpreting Chemical Equations
100(1)
Avogadro's Number and the Mole
100(2)
Determining Molar Mass
102(1)
Calculations Using Moles and Molar Masses
103(9)
Elemental Analysis: Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
106(3)
Molarity
109(2)
Dilution
111(1)
Insight Into Fuel Cells
112(10)
Focus on Problem Solving
114(1)
Summary
115(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
Problems and Exercises
116(6)
Stoichiometry
122(33)
Insight Into Gasoline and Other Fuels
123(4)
Fundamentals of Stoichiometry
127(6)
Obtaining Ratios from a Balanced Chemical Equation
128(5)
Limiting Reactants
133(6)
Theoretical and Percentage Yields
139(2)
Solution Stoichiometry
141(4)
Insight Into Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives
145(10)
Focus on Problem Solving
146(1)
Summary
147(1)
Key Terms
148(1)
Problems and Exercises
148(7)
Gases
155(41)
Insight Into Air Pollution
156(4)
Properties of Gases
159(1)
Pressure
160(3)
Measuring Pressure
161(1)
Units of Pressure
162(1)
History and Application of the Gas Law
163(6)
Units and the Ideal Gas Law
167(2)
Partial Pressure
169(4)
Stoichiometry of Reactions Involving Gases
173(3)
STP Conditions
174(2)
Kinetic--Molecular Theory and Ideal Versus Real Gases
176(8)
Postulates of the Model
176(2)
MathConnections
178(2)
Real Gases and Limitations of the Kinetic Theory
180(1)
Correcting the Ideal Gas Equation
181(3)
Insight Into Gas Sensors
184(12)
Capacitance Manometer
184(1)
Thermocouple Gauge
185(1)
Ionization Gauge
185(2)
Mass Spectrometer
187(1)
Focus on Problem Solving
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Key Terms
189(1)
Problems and Exercises
189(7)
The Periodic Table and Atomic Structure
196(51)
Insight Into Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights
197(2)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
199(10)
The Wave Nature of Light
200(1)
Math Connections
201(3)
The Particulate Nature of Light
204(5)
Atomic Spectra
209(5)
The Bohr Atom
212(2)
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
214(10)
MathConnections
215(1)
Potential Energy and Orbitals
216(1)
Quantum Numbers
217(4)
Visualizing Orbitals
221(3)
The Pauli Exclusion Principle and Electron Configurations
224(6)
Orbital Energies and Electron Configurations
225(2)
Hund's Rule and the Aufbau Principle
227(3)
The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations
230(1)
Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
231(7)
Atomic Size
232(1)
Ionization Energy
233(2)
Electron Affinity
235(3)
Insight Into Modern Light Sources: LEDs and Lasers
238(9)
Focus on Problem Solving
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Key Terms
241(1)
Problems and Exercises
242(5)
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
247(48)
Insight Into Familiar Fluorine Compounds
248(2)
The Ionic Bond
250(6)
Formation of Cations
250(2)
Formation of Anions
252(4)
The Covalent Bond
256(5)
Chemical Bonds and Energy
256(2)
Chemical Bonds and Reactions
258(1)
Chemical Bonds and the Structure of Molecules
259(2)
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
261(4)
Electronegativity
262(1)
Bond Polarity
263(2)
Keeping Track of Bonding: Lewis Structures
265(8)
Resonance
271(2)
Orbital Overlap and Chemical Bonding
273(3)
Hybrid Orbitals
276(2)
Shapes of Molecules
278(10)
Insight Into Chlorofluorocarbons
288(7)
Focus on Problem Solving
289(1)
Summary
290(1)
Key Terms
290(1)
Problems and Exercises
291(4)
Molecules and Materials
295(48)
Insight Into Carbon
296(3)
Condensed Phases---Solids
299(7)
Bonding in Solids: Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
306(9)
Models of Metallic Bonding
307(2)
Band Theory and Conductivity
309(2)
Semiconductors
311(4)
Intermolecular Forces
315(6)
Forces Between Molecules
315(1)
Dispersion Forces
315(2)
Dipole -- Dipole Forces
317(1)
Hydrogen Bonding
317(4)
Condensed Phases -- Liquids
321(5)
Vapor Pressure
322(1)
Boiling Point
323(1)
Surface Tension
324(2)
Polymers
326(9)
Addition Polymers
327(3)
Condensation Polymers
330(2)
Copolymers
332(1)
Physical Properties
332(3)
Polymers and Additives
335(1)
Insight Into The Invention of New Materials
335(8)
Focus on Problem Solving
337(1)
Summary
338(1)
Key Terms
338(1)
Problems and Exercises
339(4)
Energy and Chemistry
343(45)
Insight Into Energy Use and the World Economy
344(3)
Defining Energy
347(3)
Forms of Energy
347(1)
Heat and Work
348(1)
Energy Units
349(1)
Energy Transformation and Conservation of Energy
350(4)
Waste Energy
352(2)
Heat Capacity and Calorimetry
354(7)
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
354(4)
Calorimetry
358(3)
Enthalpy
361(8)
Defining Enthalpy
361(1)
ΔH of Phase Changes
362(3)
Vaporization and Electricity Production
365(1)
Heat of Reaction
366(1)
Bonds and Energy
366(2)
Heats of Reaction for Some Specific Reactions
368(1)
Hess's Law and Heats of Reaction
369(5)
Hess's Law
369(2)
Formation Reactions and Hess's Law
371(3)
Energy and Stoichiometry
374(3)
Energy Density and Fuels
376(1)
Insight Into Batteries
377(11)
Focus on Problem Solving
380(1)
Summary
381(1)
Key Terms
382(1)
Problems and Exercises
382(6)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
388(35)
Insight Into Recycling of Plastics
389(2)
Spontaneity
391(2)
Nature's Arrow
391(1)
Spontaneous Processes
391(1)
Enthalpy and Spontaneity
392(1)
Entropy
393(5)
Probability and Spontaneous Change
394(1)
Definition of Entropy
395(2)
Judging Entropy Changes in Processes
397(1)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
398(2)
The Second Law
398(1)
Implications and Applications
399(1)
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
400(3)
Gibbs Free Energy
403(4)
Free Energy and Spontaneous Change
403(4)
Free Energy and Work
407(1)
Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
407(3)
Implications of ΔG° for a Reaction
409(1)
Insight Into The Economics of Recycling
410(13)
Focus on Problem Solving
413(1)
Summary
414(1)
Key Terms
414(1)
Problems and Exercises
414(9)
Chemical Kinetics
423(53)
Insight Into Ozone Depletion
424(2)
Rates of Chemical Reactions
426(5)
Concept of Rate and Rates of Reaction
426(1)
Stoichiometry and Rate
427(2)
Average Rate and Instantaneous Rate
429(2)
Rate Laws and the Concentration Dependence of Rates
431(5)
The Rate Law
431(2)
Determination of the Rate Law
433(3)
Integrated Rate Laws
436(10)
MathConnections
437(1)
Zero-Order Integrated Rate Law
438(1)
First-Order Integrated Rate Law
438(3)
Second-Order Integrated Rate Law
441(3)
Half-Life
444(2)
Temperature and Kinetics
446(9)
Temperature Effects and Molecules That React
447(2)
Arrhenius Behavior
449(3)
Making Mental Connections
452(3)
Reaction Mechanisms
455(4)
Elementary Steps and Reaction Mechanisms
455(3)
Mechanisms and Rate: The Rate-Determining Step
458(1)
Catalysis
459(3)
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts
459(2)
Molecular Perspective of Catalysis
461(1)
Catalysis and Process Engineering
461(1)
Insight Into Tropospheric Ozone
462(14)
Focus on Problem Solving
464(1)
Summary
465(1)
Key Terms
466(1)
Problems and Exercises
466(10)
Chemical Equilibrium
476(53)
Insight Into Hydrogen Cyanide
477(2)
Chemical Equilibrium
479(4)
Forward and Reverse Reactions
480(2)
Mathematical Relationships
482(1)
Equilibrium Constants
483(10)
The Equilibrium (Mass Action) Expression
484(1)
Gas Phase Equilibria: Kp vs. Kc
485(1)
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria
486(2)
Numerical Importance of the Equilibrium Expression
488(1)
Mathematical Manipulation of Equilibrium Constants
489(1)
Reversing the Chemical Equation
489(1)
Adjusting the Stoichiometry of the Chemical Reaction
490(1)
Equilibrium Constants for a Series of Reactions
491(1)
Units and the Equilibrium Constant
492(1)
Equilibrium Concentrations
493(5)
Equilibrium Concentrations from Initial Concentrations
493(5)
Mathematical Techniques for Equilibrium Calculations
498(1)
LeChatelier's Principle
498(7)
Effect of a Change in Concentration of Reactant or Product on Equilibrium
499(2)
Effect of a Change in Pressure on Equilibrium, When Gases Are Present
501(2)
Effect of a Change in Temperature on Equilibrium
503(2)
Effect of a Catalyst on Equilibrium
505(1)
Solubility Equilibria
505(5)
Solubility Product Constant
505(1)
Defining the Solubility Product Constant
505(1)
The Relationship Between Ksp and Molar Solubility
506(2)
Common Ion Effect
508(2)
Reliability of Using Molar Concentrations
510(1)
Acids and Bases
510(6)
The Bronsted -- Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
510(1)
The Role of Water in the Bronsted -- Lowry Theory
511(1)
Weak Acids and Bases
512(4)
Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium
516(3)
Graphical Perspective
516(1)
Free Energy and Nonstandard Conditions
517(2)
Insight Into Borates and Boric Acid
519(10)
Focus on Problem Solving
520(1)
Summary
521(1)
Key Terms
521(1)
Problems and Exercises
521(8)
Electrochemistry
529(94)
Insight Into Corrosion
530(1)
Oxidation--Reduction Reactions and Galvanic Cells
531(7)
Oxidation --- Reduction and Half-Reactions
532(2)
Building a Galvanic Cell
534(1)
Terminology for Galvanic Cells
535(1)
Atomic Perspective on Galvanic Cells
535(2)
Galvanic Corrosion and Uniform Corrosion
537(1)
Cell Potentials
538(9)
Measuring Cell Potential
539(2)
Standard Reduction Potentials
541(4)
Nonstandard Conditions
545(2)
Cell Potentials and Equilibrium
547(3)
Cell Potentials and Free Energy
547(2)
Equilibrium Constants
549(1)
Batteries
550(5)
Primary Cells
550(3)
Secondary Cells
553(2)
Limitations of Batteries
555(1)
Electrolysis
555(4)
Electrolysis and Polarity
556(1)
Passive Electrolysis in Refining Aluminum
557(1)
Active Electrolysis and Electroplating
558(1)
Electrolysis and Stoichiometry
559(5)
Current and Charge
559(3)
Calculations Using Masses of Substances Involved in Electrolysis
562(2)
Insight Into Corrosion Prevention
564(13)
Coatings
564(1)
Cathodic Protection
565(1)
Preventing Corrosion in Space
566(1)
Focus on Problem Solving
567(1)
Summary
567(1)
Key Terms
568(1)
Problems and Exercises
568(9)
Nuclear Chemistry
Appendixes
A. International Table of Atomic Weights
577(2)
B. Physical Constants
579(1)
C. Electron Configurations of Atoms in the Ground State
580(1)
D. Specific Heats and Heat Capacities of Some Common Substances
581(1)
E. Selected Thermodynamic Data at 298.15K
582(7)
S. Ionization Constants of Weak Acids at 25°C
589(2)
G. Ionization Constants of Weak Bases at 25°C
591(1)
H. Solubility Product Constants of Some Inorganic Compounds at 25°C
592(2)
I. Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C
594(4)
J. Answers to Check Your Understanding Exercises
598(3)
K. Answers to Odd-Numbered End-of-Chapter Exercises
601(22)
Glossary 623(14)
Index 637


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