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Chemistry in Focus : A Molecular View of Our World,9780495017691
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Chemistry in Focus : A Molecular View of Our World

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780495017691

ISBN10:
0495017698
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/3/2006
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

The main goals of this text are to develop students' appreciation for the molecular world and stress the fundamental role it plays in our daily lives. It also strives to help students understand the major scientific, technological, and environmental issues affecting our society. To accomplish these goals, the author has made extensive efforts to clearly identify and explain connections between the molecular world and macroscopic world as well as between principles and applications. The Third Edition of CHEMISTRY IN FOCUS adds new pedagogy and technological resources, such as OWL for Liberal Arts, that further enhance learning and appreciation of the molecular world.

Table of Contents

Molecular Reasons
2(26)
Firesticks
4(1)
Molecular Reasons
5(1)
The Scientist and the Artist
6(3)
The First People to Wonder About Molecular Reasons
9(1)
Immortality and Endless Riches
9(1)
The Beginning of Understanding
10(1)
The Classification of Matter
11(4)
The Properties of Matter
15(1)
The Development of the Atomic Theory
16(2)
The Nuclear Atom
18(10)
Chapter Summary
22(1)
Chemistry on the Web
23(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Exercises
23(3)
Feature Problems and Projects
26(2)
The Chemist's Toolbox
28(26)
Curious About Oranges
30(1)
Measurement
31(2)
Scientific Notation
33(2)
Units in Measurement
35(3)
Converting Between Units
38(2)
Reading Graphs
40(4)
Problem Solving
44(2)
Density: A Measure of Compactness
46(8)
Chapter Summary
49(1)
Chemistry on the Web
49(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
Exercises
50(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
52(2)
Atoms and Elements
54(34)
A Walk on the Beach
56(2)
Protons Determine the Element
58(2)
Electrons
60(2)
Neutrons
62(1)
Specifying an Atom
63(1)
Atomic Mass
64(2)
Periodic Law
66(1)
A Theory That Explains the Periodic Law: The Bohr Model
67(4)
The Quantum Mechanical Model for the Atom
71(2)
Families of Elements
73(3)
A Dozen Nails and a Mole of Atoms
76(12)
Chapter Summary
80(1)
Chemistry on the Web
81(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Exercises
81(4)
Feature Problems and Projects
85(3)
Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Reactions
88(28)
Molecules Cause the Behavior of Matter
90(1)
Chemical Compounds and Chemical Formulas
90(2)
Ionic and Molecular Compounds
92(4)
Naming Compounds
96(3)
Formula Mass and Molar Mass of Compounds
99(2)
Composition of Compounds: Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
101(2)
Forming and Transforming Compounds: Chemical Reactions
103(3)
Reaction Stoichiometry: Chemical Equations as Conversion Factors
106(10)
Chapter Summary
111(1)
Chemistry on the Web
112(1)
Key Terms
112(1)
Exercises
112(3)
Feature Problems and Projects
115(1)
Chemical Bonding
116(30)
From Poison to Seasoning
118(1)
Chemical Bonding and Professor G. N. Lewis
119(2)
Ionic Lewis Structures
121(2)
Covalent Lewis Structures
123(6)
Chemical Bonding in Ozone
129(2)
The Shapes of Molecules
131(4)
Water: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules
135(11)
Chapter Summary
141(1)
Chemistry on the Web
141(1)
Key Terms
142(1)
Exercises
142(3)
Feature Problems and Projects
145(1)
Organic Chemistry
146(40)
Carbon
148(1)
A Vital Force
149(2)
The Simplest Organic Compounds: Hydrocarbons
151(9)
Isomers
160(2)
Naming Hydrocarbons
162(3)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Kekule's Dream
165(3)
Functionalized Hydrocarbons
168(1)
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Pesticides and Solvents
169(1)
Alcohols: To Drink and to Disinfect
170(2)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Smoke and Raspberries
172(3)
Carboxylic Acids: Vinegar and Bee Stings
175(1)
Esters and Ethers: Fruits and Anesthesia
176(2)
Amines: The Smell of Rotten Fish
178(1)
A Look at a Label
179(7)
Chapter Summary
181(1)
Chemistry on the Web
181(1)
Key Terms
182(1)
Exercises
182(3)
Feature Problems and Projects
185(1)
Light and Color
186(26)
A New England Fall
188(2)
Light
190(3)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
193(3)
Excited Electrons
196(2)
Identifying Molecules and Atoms with Light
198(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Spectroscopy of the Human Body
199(3)
Lasers
202(2)
Lasers in Medicine
204(8)
Chapter Summary
207(1)
Chemistry on the Web
208(1)
Key Terms
208(1)
Exercises
209(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
211(1)
Nuclear Chemistry
212(30)
A Tragedy
214(1)
An Accidental Discovery
215(1)
Radioactivity
216(3)
Half-Life
219(3)
Nuclear Fission
222(2)
The Manhattan Project
224(2)
Nuclear Power
226(3)
Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energy
229(1)
Fusion
230(1)
The Effect of Radiation on Human Life
231(3)
Carbon Dating and the Shroud of Turin
234(2)
Uranium and the Age of the Earth
236(1)
Nuclear Medicine
237(5)
Chapter Summary
238(1)
Chemistry on the Web
239(1)
Key Terms
239(1)
Exercises
239(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
241(1)
Energy for Today
242(34)
Molecules in Motion
244(1)
Our Absolute Reliance on Energy
245(2)
Energy and Its Transformations: You Cannot Get Something for Nothing
247(2)
Nature's Heat Tax: Energy Must Be Dispersed
249(2)
Units of Energy
251(3)
Temperature and Heat Capacity
254(2)
Chemistry and Energy
256(1)
Energy for Our Society
257(3)
Electricity from Fossil Fuels
260(1)
Smog
261(2)
Acid Rain
263(1)
Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil-Fuel Use: Global Warming
264(12)
Chapter Summary
270(1)
Chemistry on the Web
270(1)
Key Terms
271(1)
Exercises
271(3)
Feature Problems and Projects
274(2)
Energy for Tomorrow: Solar and Other Renewable Energy Sources
276(22)
Earth's Ultimate Energy Source: The Sun
278(1)
Hydroelectric Power: The World's Most Used Solar Energy Source
278(2)
Wind Power
280(1)
Solar Thermal Energy: Focusing and Storing the Sun
280(3)
Photovoltaic Energy: From Light to Electricity with No Moving Parts
283(2)
Energy Storage: The Plague of Solar Sources
285(1)
Biomass: Energy from Plants
286(1)
Geothermal Power
287(1)
Nuclear Power
287(1)
Efficiency and Conservation
288(2)
2050 World: A Speculative Glimpse into the Future
290(8)
Chapter Summary
293(1)
Chemistry on the Web
294(1)
Key Terms
294(1)
Exercises
295(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
297(1)
The Air Around Us
298(30)
Air Bags
300(1)
A Gas Is a Swarm of Particles
301(1)
Pressure
301(3)
The Relationships Between Gas Properties
304(4)
The Atmosphere: What Is in It?
308(2)
The Atmosphere: A Layered Structure
310(2)
Air Pollution: An Environmental Problem in the Troposphere
312(1)
Cleaning Up Air Pollution: The Clean Air Act
313(3)
Ozone Depletion: An Environmental Problem in the Stratosphere
316(4)
The Montreal Protocol: The End of Chlorofluorocarbons
320(1)
Myths Concerning Ozone Depletion
321(7)
Chapter Summary
323(1)
Chemistry on the Web
323(1)
Key Terms
324(1)
Exercises
324(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
326(2)
The Liquids and Solids Around Us: Especially Water
328(32)
No Gravity, No Spills
330(1)
Liquids and Solids
331(1)
Separating Molecules: Melting and Boiling
332(2)
The Forces That Hold Us--and Everything Else--Together
334(5)
Smelling Molecules: The Chemistry of Perfume
339(2)
Chemists Have Solutions
341(2)
Water: An Oddity Among Molecules
343(2)
Water: Where Is It and How Did It Get There?
345(1)
Water: Pure or Polluted?
345(1)
Hard Water: Good for Our Health, Bad for Our Pipes
346(2)
Biological Contaminants
348(1)
Chemical Contaminants
348(3)
Ensuring Good Water Quality: The Safe Drinking Water Act
351(1)
Public Water Treatment
352(2)
Home Water Treatment
354(6)
Chapter Summary
356(1)
Chemistry on the Web
356(1)
Key Terms
357(1)
Exercises
357(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
359(1)
Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter
360(22)
If It Is Sour, It Is Probably an Acid
362(1)
The Properties of Acids: Tasting Sour and Dissolving Metals
362(1)
The Properties of Bases: Tasting Bitter and Feeling Slippery
363(2)
Acids and Bases: Molecular Definitions
365(2)
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
367(1)
Specifying the Concentration of Acids and Bases: The pH Scale
368(1)
Some Common Acids
369(3)
Some Common Bases
372(2)
Acid Rain: Extra Acidity from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels
374(1)
Acid Rain: The Effects
375(1)
Cleaning Up Acid Rain: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
376(6)
Chapter Summary
378(1)
Chemistry on the Web
378(1)
Key Terms
379(1)
Exercises
379(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
381(1)
Oxidation and Reduction
382(20)
Rust
384(1)
Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
384(4)
Some Common Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
388(1)
Respiration and Photosynthesis
389(1)
Batteries: Making Electricity with Chemistry
389(4)
Fuel Cells
393(2)
Corrosion: The Chemistry of Rust
395(2)
Oxidation, Aging, and Antioxidants
397(5)
Chapter Summary
398(1)
Chemistry on the Web
398(1)
Key Terms
399(1)
Exercises
399(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
401(1)
The Chemistry of Household Products
402(30)
Cleaning Clothes with Molecules
404(1)
Soap: A Surfactant
405(2)
Synthetic Detergents: Surfactants for Hard Water
407(2)
Laundry-Cleaning Formulations
409(1)
Corrosive Cleaners
410(1)
Hair Products
411(1)
Skin Products
412(2)
Facial Cosmetics
414(1)
Perfumes and Deodorants: Producing Pleasant Odors and Eliminating Unpleasant Ones
415(4)
Polymers and Plastics
419(4)
Copolymers: Nylon, Polyethylene Terephthalate, and Polycarbonate
423(1)
Rubber
424(8)
Chapter Summary
426(1)
Chemistry on the Web
427(1)
Key Terms
427(1)
Exercises
428(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
430(2)
Biochemistry and Biotechnology
432(44)
Brown Hair, Blue Eyes, and Big Mice
434(1)
Lipids and Fats
434(6)
Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Sawdust
440(6)
Proteins: More Than Muscle
446(5)
Protein Structure
451(3)
Some Common Proteins
454(2)
Nucleic Acids: The Blueprint for Proteins
456(6)
Recombinant DNA Technology
462(3)
Cloning
465(11)
Chapter Summary
468(1)
Chemistry on the Web
469(1)
Key Terms
469(1)
Exercises
469(6)
Feature Problems and Projects
475(1)
Drugs and Medicine: Healing, Helping, and Hurting
476(34)
Love and Depression
478(1)
Relieving Pain, Reducing Fever, and Lowering Inflammation
478(2)
Killing Microscopic Bugs: Antibiotics
480(2)
Antiviral Drugs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
482(4)
Sex Hormones and the Pill
486(1)
Steroids
487(1)
Chemicals to Fight Cancer
488(2)
Depressants: Drugs That Dull the Mind
490(3)
Narcotics: Drugs That Diminish Pain
493(3)
Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetamine
496(2)
Legal Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine
498(1)
Hallucinogenic Drugs: Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
499(2)
Marijuana
501(1)
Prozac and Zoloft: SSRIs
502(8)
Chapter Summary
505(1)
Chemistry on the Web
506(1)
Key Terms
506(1)
Exercises
507(1)
Feature Problems and Projects
508(2)
The Chemistry of Food
510(32)
You Are What You Eat, Literally
512(1)
Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers
513(4)
Proteins
517(1)
Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol
518(3)
Caloric Intake and the First Law: Extra Calories Lead to Fat
521(3)
Vitamins
524(3)
Minerals
527(2)
Food Additives
529(3)
The Molecules Used to Grow Crops: Fertilizers and Nutrients
532(2)
The Molecules Used to Protect Crops: Insecticides and Herbicides
534(8)
Chapter Summary
538(1)
Chemistry on the Web
538(1)
Key Terms
539(1)
Exercises
539(2)
Feature Problems and Projects
541(1)
Nanotechnology
542
Extreme Miniaturization
544(1)
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
545(1)
Atomic Force Microscope
546(1)
Buckyballs--A New Form of Carbon
547(1)
Carbon Nanotubes
548(1)
Nanomedicine
549(1)
Nanoproblems
550
Chapter Summary
551(1)
Chemistry on the Web
551(1)
Exercises
552(1)
Feature Problems and Projects
552
Appendix 1: Significant Figures 1(4)
Appendix 2: Answers to Selected Exercises 5(26)
Appendix 3: Answers to Your Turn Questions 31
Glossary 1(1)
Index 1


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