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Chemistry in Focus



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Cengage Learning
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From the opening example to the closing chapter, the Second Edition of CHEMISTRY IN FOCUS maintains a consistent focus on explaining the connections between the macroscopic world (what we can see) and the molecular world (what we cannot see). With multi-

Table of Contents

Molecular Reasonsp. xxii
Firesticksp. 2
Molecular Reasonsp. 2
The Scientist and the Artistp. 4
The First People to Wonder About Molecular Reasonsp. 5
Immortality and Endless Richesp. 7
The Beginning of Understandingp. 7
The Classification of Matterp. 8
The Atomic Theoryp. 11
Chapter Summaryp. 17
Key Termsp. 17
Referencesp. 18
Exercisesp. 18
The Chemist's Tool Boxp. 22
Curious About Orangesp. 24
Feynman's Antsp. 25
Measurementp. 26
Theorizingp. 30
Reading Graphsp. 31
Mathematics in Chemistryp. 34
Scientific Notationp. 35
Algebraic Manipulationsp. 38
Solving Word Problemsp. 39
A Ton of Bricks and a Ton of Feathersp. 41
Chapter Summaryp. 43
Key Termsp. 43
Referencesp. 43
Exercisesp. 44
Atoms and Elementsp. 48
A Walk on the Beachp. 50
Protons Determine the Elementp. 51
Electronsp. 53
Neutronsp. 55
Specifying an Atomp. 56
Atomic Weightp. 57
Periodic Lawp. 58
A Theory That Explains the Periodic Law: The Bohr Modelp. 59
Families of Elementsp. 63
A Dozen Nails and a Mole of Atomsp. 64
Chapter Summaryp. 69
Key Termsp. 70
Referencesp. 70
Exercisesp. 70
Molecules and Compoundsp. 76
What Matter Does, Molecules Dop. 78
Compoundsp. 79
Chemical Formulasp. 80
Ionic Compoundsp. 81
Covalent Compoundsp. 81
Molecular Weightp. 83
Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factorsp. 84
Naming Simple Compoundsp. 86
Forming and Transforming Compounds: Chemical Reactionsp. 89
Chemical Equations as Conversion Factorsp. 91
Chapter Summaryp. 95
Key Termsp. 96
Referencesp. 96
Exercisesp. 96
The Bonds That Changep. 100
From Poison to Seasoningp. 102
Chemical Bonding and Professor G. N. Lewisp. 103
Ionic Lewis Structuresp. 105
Covalent Lewis Structuresp. 106
The Lewis Structure of Ozonep. 111
The Shapes of Moleculesp. 111
Water: Polar Bonds and Polar Moleculesp. 115
Chapter Summaryp. 118
Key Termsp. 118
Referencesp. 119
Exercisesp. 119
Organic Chemistryp. 122
A Monstrous Thicketp. 124
A Vital Forcep. 124
The Simplest Organic Compounds: Hydrocarbonsp. 126
Naming Hydrocarbonsp. 135
Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Kekule's Dreamp. 137
Functional Groupsp. 138
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: Pesticides and Solventsp. 138
Alcohols: To Drink and to Disinfectp. 140
Aldehydes and Ketones: Smoke and Raspberriesp. 142
Carboxylic Acids: Vinegar and Bee Stingsp. 144
Esters and Ethers: Fruits and Anesthesiap. 145
Amines: The Smell of Rotten Fishp. 147
A Look at a Labelp. 147
Chapter Summaryp. 149
Key Termsp. 149
Referencesp. 150
Exercisesp. 151
Light and Colorp. 154
A New England Fallp. 156
Lightp. 159
The Electromagnetic Spectrump. 161
Excited Electronsp. 163
Identifying Molecules and Atoms with Lightp. 165
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Spectroscopy of the Human Bodyp. 165
Lasersp. 168
Lasers in Medicinep. 170
Chapter Summaryp. 173
Key Termsp. 173
Referencesp. 174
Exercisesp. 174
Nuclear Chemistryp. 178
A Tragedyp. 180
An Accidental Discoveryp. 181
Radioactivityp. 182
Half-Lifep. 185
Nuclear Fissionp. 188
The Manhattan Projectp. 189
Nuclear Powerp. 191
Mass Defect and Nuclear Binding Energyp. 195
Fusionp. 195
The Effect of Radiation on Human Lifep. 196
Carbon Dating and the Shroud of Turinp. 199
Uranium and the Age of the Earthp. 201
Nuclear Medicinep. 202
Chapter Summaryp. 203
Key Termsp. 204
Referencesp. 204
Exercisesp. 204
Energy for Todayp. 208
Molecules in Motionp. 210
Our Absolute Reliance on Energyp. 211
The Total Amount of Energy Is Constant: You Cannot Get Something for Nothingp. 213
The Total Amount of Disorder Increases: Nature's Heat Taxp. 214
Some Units and Definitionsp. 216
Chemistry and Energyp. 220
Energy for Our Societyp. 221
Electricity from Fossil Fuelsp. 224
Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil-Fuel Use: Smogp. 224
Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil-Fuel Use: Acid Rainp. 226
Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil-Fuel Use: Global Warmingp. 228
Chapter Summaryp. 233
Key Termsp. 233
Referencesp. 234
Exercisesp. 234
Energy for Tomorrow: Solar and Other Renewable Energy Sourcesp. 240
Earth's Ultimate Energy Source: The Sunp. 242
Hydroelectric Power: The World's Most Used Solar Energy Sourcep. 242
Wind Powerp. 244
Solar Thermal Energy: Focusing and Storing the Sunp. 244
Photovoltaic Energy: From Light to Electricity with No Moving Partsp. 247
Energy Storage: The Plague of Solar Sourcesp. 248
Biomass: Energy from Plantsp. 250
Geothermal Powerp. 250
Nuclear Powerp. 251
Efficiency and Conservationp. 251
2040 World: A Speculative Glimpse into the Futurep. 254
Chapter Summaryp. 256
Key Termsp. 256
Referencesp. 257
Exercisesp. 257
The Air Around Usp. 260
Air Bagsp. 262
A Gas Is a Swarm of Particlesp. 263
Pressurep. 264
The Relationships Between Gas Propertiesp. 266
The Atmosphere: What Is in It?p. 270
The Atmosphere: A Layered Structurep. 271
Air Pollution: An Environmental Problem in the Tropospherep. 273
Cleaning Up Air Pollution: The Clean Air Actp. 275
Ozone Depletion: An Environmental Problem in the Stratospherep. 277
The Montreal Protocol: The End of Chlorofluorocarbonsp. 281
Myths Concerning Ozone Depletionp. 282
Chapter Summaryp. 284
Key Termsp. 284
Referencesp. 284
Exercisesp. 285
The Liquids and Solids Around Us: Especially Waterp. 288
No Gravity, No Spillsp. 290
Liquids and Solidsp. 291
Separating Molecules: Melting and Boilingp. 292
The Forces That Hold Us--And Everything Else--Togetherp. 294
Smelling Molecules: The Chemistry of Perfumep. 299
Chemists Have Solutionsp. 300
Water: An Oddity Among Moleculesp. 303
Water: Where Is It and How Did It Get There?p. 304
Water: Pure or Polluted?p. 304
Hard Water: Good for Our Health, Bad for Our Pipesp. 305
Biological Contaminantsp. 307
Chemical Contaminantsp. 307
Ensuring Good Water Quality: The Safe Drinking Water Actp. 310
Public Water Treatmentp. 310
Home Water Treatmentp. 312
Chapter Summaryp. 314
Key Termsp. 314
Referencesp. 315
Exercisesp. 315
Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitterp. 318
If It Is Sour, It Is Probably an Acidp. 320
The Properties of Acids: Tasting Sour and Dissolving Metalsp. 320
The Properties of Bases: Tasting Bitter and Feeling Slipperyp. 321
Acids and Bases: Molecular Definitionsp. 323
Strong and Weak Acids and Basesp. 324
Specifying the Concentration of Acids and Bases: The pH Scalep. 326
Some Common Acidsp. 326
Some Common Basesp. 330
Acid Rain: Extra Acidity from the Combustion of Fossil Fuelsp. 332
Acid Rain: The Effectsp. 332
Cleaning Up Acid Rain: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990p. 333
Chapter Summaryp. 336
Key Termsp. 336
Referencesp. 336
Exercisesp. 337
Oxidation and Reductionp. 340
Rustp. 342
Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitionsp. 342
Some Common Oxidizing and Reducing Agentsp. 345
Respiration and Photosynthesisp. 347
Batteries: Making Electricity with Chemistryp. 347
Fuel Cellsp. 350
Corrosion: The Chemistry of Rustp. 352
Oxidation, Aging, and Antioxidantsp. 354
Chapter Summaryp. 355
Key Termsp. 355
Referencesp. 356
Exercisesp. 356
The Chemistry of Household Productsp. 360
Cleaning Clothes with Moleculesp. 362
Soap: A Surfactantp. 362
Synthetic Detergents: Surfactants for Hard Waterp. 365
Laundry-Cleaning Formulationsp. 367
Corrosive Cleanersp. 368
Hair Productsp. 368
Skin Productsp. 370
Facial Cosmeticsp. 372
Perfumes and Deodorants: Producing Pleasant Odors and Eliminating Unpleasant Onesp. 373
Polymers and Plasticsp. 377
Copolymers: Nylon, Polyethylene Terephthalate, and Polycarbonatep. 381
Rubberp. 382
Chapter Summaryp. 384
Key Termsp. 385
Referencesp. 385
Exercisesp. 386
Biochemistry and Biotechnologyp. 390
Brown Hair, Blue Eyes, and Big Micep. 392
Lipids and Fatsp. 393
Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Sawdustp. 398
Proteins: More Than Musclep. 404
Protein Structurep. 409
Some Common Proteinsp. 412
Nucleic Acids: The Blueprint for Proteinsp. 414
Recombinant DNA Technologyp. 419
Cloningp. 422
Chapter Summaryp. 425
Key Termsp. 426
Referencesp. 426
Exercisesp. 426
Drugs and Medicine: Healing, Helping, and Hurtingp. 434
Love and Depressionp. 436
Relieving Pain, Reducing Fever, and Lowering Inflammationp. 437
Killing Microscopic Bugs: Antibioticsp. 438
Antiviral Drugs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromep. 440
Sex Hormones and the Pillp. 444
Steroidsp. 445
Chemicals to Fight Cancerp. 446
Depressants: Drugs That Dull the Mindp. 448
Narcotics: Drugs That Diminish Painp. 451
Stimulants: Cocaine and Amphetaminep. 454
Legal Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotinep. 456
Hallucinogenic Drugs: Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamidep. 457
Marijuanap. 459
The Wonder Drugs of the 1990s: Prozac and Zoloftp. 459
Chapter Summaryp. 462
Key Termsp. 463
Referencesp. 463
Exercisesp. 464
The Chemistry of Foodp. 466
You Are What You Eat, Literallyp. 468
Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibersp. 469
Proteinsp. 473
Fats, Oils, and Cholesterolp. 474
Caloric Intake and the First Law: Extra Calories Lead to Fatp. 477
Vitaminsp. 480
Mineralsp. 484
Food Additivesp. 485
The Molecules Used to Grow Crops: Fertilizers and Nutrientsp. 488
The Molecules Used to Protect Crops: Insecticides and Herbicidesp. 489
Chapter Summaryp. 493
Key Termsp. 493
Referencesp. 494
Exercisesp. 494
Nanotechnologyp. 498
Extreme Miniaturizationp. 500
Scanning Tunneling Microscopep. 501
Atomic Force Microscopep. 502
Buckyballs--A New Form of Carbonp. 503
Carbon Nanotubesp. 504
Nanomedicinep. 505
Nanoproblemsp. 506
Chapter Summaryp. 507
Referencesp. 507
Exercisesp. 508
Significant Figuresp. 509
Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 513
Glossaryp. 537
Creditsp. 550
Indexp. 555
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