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Chemistry and Life: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry,9780135692943
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Chemistry and Life: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780135692943

ISBN10:
0135692946
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall Incorporated
List Price: $98.66
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Summary

Chemistry and life is an introduction to general, organic, and biological chemistry.

Table of Contents

Preface ix(3)
To the Student xii
1 Matter and Measurement
1(30)
1.1 Science and the Human Condition
2(1)
1.2 Problems in Paradise
3(1)
1.3 The Way Science Works--Sometimes
4(1)
1.4 What Is Chemistry? Some Fundamental Concepts
5(2)
1.5 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
7(2)
1.6 Energy and Energy Conversion
9(3)
1.7 Electric Forces
12(1)
1.8 Measurement: The Modern Metric System
12(4)
1.9 Measuring Energy: Temperature and Heat
16(3)
1.10 Density
19(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
21(5)
Special Topic A Unit Conversions
26(5)
A.1 Conversions Within a System
26(2)
A.2 Conversions Between Systems
28(1)
A.3 Density Problems
29(2)
2 Atoms
31(23)
2.1 Dalton's Atomic Theory
32(1)
2.2 The Nuclear Atom
33(4)
2.3 Nuclear Arithmetic
37(2)
2.4 The Bohr Model of the Atom
39(3)
2.5 Electron Configurations
42(3)
2.6 The Periodic Table
45(4)
2.7 Which Model to Use?
49(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
50(4)
3 Nuclear Processes
54(26)
3.1 Discovery of Radioactivity
55(1)
3.2 Types of Radioactivity
55(3)
3.3 Penetrating Power of Radiation
58(2)
3.4 Radiation Measurement
60(1)
3.5 Half-Life
61(2)
3.6 Radioisotopic Dating
63(2)
3.7 Artificial Transmutation and Induced Radioactivity
65(2)
3.8 Fission and Fusion
67(2)
3.9 Nuclear Medicine
69(2)
3.10 Medical Imaging
71(3)
3.11 Other Applications
74(1)
3.12 The Nuclear Age Revisited
75(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
76(4)
4 Chemical Bonds
80(33)
4.1 The Art of Deduction: Stable Electron Configurations
81(1)
4.2 Lewis (Electron Dot) Structures
82(1)
4.3 Sodium Reacts with Chlorine: The Facts
83(1)
4.4 The Sodium-Chlorine Reaction: Theory
84(1)
4.5 Ionic Bonds: Some General Considerations
85(1)
4.6 Names of Simple Ions and Ionic Compounds
86(4)
4.7 Covalent Bonds: Shared Electron Pairs
90(1)
4.8 Multiple Covalent Bonds
91(1)
4.9 Unequal Sharing: Polar Covalent Bonds
92(2)
4.10 Polyatomic Molecules: Water, Ammonia, and Methane
94(1)
4.11 Names for Covalent Compounds
94(1)
4.12 Polyatomic Ions
95(3)
4.13 Electronegativity
98(1)
4.14 Rules for Writing Lewis Formulas
98(3)
4.15 Exceptions to the Octet Rule
101(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
103(4)
Special Topic B Molecular Shapes and Properties
107(6)
B.1 The VESPR Theory
107(2)
B.2 Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
109(4)
5 Chemical Reactions
113(31)
5.1 Balancing Chemical Equations
114(3)
5.2 Volume Relationships in Chemical Equations
117(2)
5.3 Avogadro's Number: 6.02 x 10 23
119(1)
5.4 Molecular Weights and Formula Weights
119(2)
5.5 Chemical Arithmetic and the Mole
121(2)
5.6 Mole and Mass Relationships in Chemical Equations
123(4)
5.7 Structure, Stability, and Spontaneity
127(1)
5.8 Reversible Reactions
128(2)
5.9 Reaction Rates: Collisions, Orientation, and Energy
130(1)
5.10 Reaction Rates: The Effect of Temperature
131(2)
5.11 Reaction Rates: Catalysis
133(1)
5.12 Reaction Rates: The Effect of Concentration
134(1)
5.13 Equilibrium in Chemical Reactions
135(3)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
138(6)
6 Oxidation and Reduction
144(20)
6.1 Oxygen: Abundant and Essential
145(1)
6.2 Chemical Properties of Oxygen: Oxidation
146(2)
6.3 Hydrogen: A Reactive Lightweight Element
148(2)
6.4 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
150(5)
6.5 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
155(1)
6.6 Some Common Oxidizing Agents
156(2)
6.7 Some Reducing Agents of Interest
158(2)
6.8 Oxidation, Reduction, and Living Things
160(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
161(3)
7 Gases
164(26)
7.1 Air: A Mixture of Gases
165(1)
7.2 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
165(2)
7.3 Atmospheric Pressure
167(1)
7.4 Boyle's Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship
168(5)
7.5 Charles's Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship
173(3)
7.6 Avogadro's Law: The Molar Volume of a Gas
176(1)
7.7 The Combined Gas Law
177(2)
7.8 The Ideal Gas Law
179(1)
7.9 Henry's Law: The Pressure-Solubility Relationship
180(1)
7.10 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
181(2)
7.11 Partial Pressures and Respiration
183(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
185(5)
8 Liquids and Solids
190(23)
8.1 Sticky Molecules: Intermolecular Forces
191(1)
8.2 Ionic Bonds as Forces Between Particles
192(1)
8.3 Dipole Forces
193(1)
8.4 Hydrogen Bonds
194(2)
8.5 Dispersion Forces
196(1)
8.6 The Liquid State
197(1)
8.7 From Liquid to Gas: Vaporization
198(4)
8.8 The Solid State
202(3)
8.9 From Solid to Liquid: Melting (Fusion)
205(2)
8.10 Water: A Most Unusual Liquid
207(3)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
210(3)
9 Solutions
213(26)
9.1 Solutions: Definitions and Types
214(1)
9.2 Qualitative Aspects of Solubility
214(1)
9.3 Solubility of Ionic Compounds
215(1)
9.4 Solubility of Covalent Compounds
216(2)
9.5 Dynamic Equilibria
218(3)
9.6 Solutions of Gases in Water
221(1)
9.7 Molarity
222(2)
9.8 Percent Concentrations
224(2)
9.9 Colligative Properties of Solutions
226(1)
9.10 Solutions and Cell Membranes: Osmosis
227(4)
9.11 Colloids
231(2)
9.12 Dialysis
233(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
235(4)
10 Acids and Bases I
239(19)
10.1 Acids and Bases: Definitions and Properties
240(2)
10.2 Strong and Weak Acids
242(2)
10.3 Names of Some Common Acids
244(1)
10.4 Some Common Bases
245(2)
10.5 Acidic and Basic Anhydrides
247(1)
10.6 Neutralization Reactions
248(1)
10.7 Reactions of Acids with Carbonates and Bicarbonates
249(2)
10.8 Antacids: A Basic Remedy
251(3)
10.9 Acids, Bases, and Human Health
254(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
255(3)
11 Acids and Bases II
258(25)
11.1 Concentrations of Acids and Bases
259(1)
11.2 Acid-Base Titrations
260(3)
11.3 The pH Scale
263(4)
11.4 Salts in Water: Acidic, Basic, or Neutral?
267(2)
11.5 Buffers: Control of pH
269(2)
11.6 Buffers in Blood
271(1)
11.7 Acidosis and Alkalosis
272(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
273(3)
Special Topic C Equilibrium Calculations
276(7)
C.1 Equilibrium Constant Expressions
276(1)
C.2 Ionization of Weak Acids
277(2)
C.3 Equilibria Involving Weak Bases
279(1)
C.4 Calculations Involving Buffers
279(4)
12 Electrolytes
283(33)
12.1 Early Electrochemistry
284(1)
12.2 Electrical Conductivity
285(1)
12.3 The Theory of Electrolytes: Ionization and Dissociation
286(1)
12.4 Electrolysis: Chemical Change Caused by Electricity
287(2)
12.5 Electrochemical Cells: Batteries
289(5)
12.6 The Activity Series
294(4)
12.7 Precipitation: The Solubility Product Relationship
298(4)
12.8 The Salts of Life: Minerals
302(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
303(3)
Special Topic D Inorganic Chemistry
306(10)
D.1 Group 8A: The Noble Gases
306(1)
D.2 Group 1A: The Alkali Metals
307(1)
D.3 Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Elements
308(1)
D.4 Group 3A: Boron and Aluminum
308(1)
D.5 Group 4A: Some Compounds of Carbon
308(2)
D.6 Group 5A: Some Nitrogen Compounds
310(1)
D.7 Group 6A: Compounds of Oxygen and Sulfur
311(1)
D.8 Group 7A: The Halogens
312(1)
D.9 The B Groups: Some Typical Transition Elements
313(3)
13 Hydrocarbons
316(45)
13.1 Organic Versus Inorganic
317(1)
13.2 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
318(3)
13.3 Condensed Structural Formulas
321(1)
13.4 Alkyl Groups
322(1)
13.5 The Universal Language: IUPAC Nomenclature
323(3)
13.6 Physical Properties of Alkanes
326(2)
13.7 Physiological Properties of Alkanes
328(1)
13.8 Chemical Properties of Alkanes: Little Affinity
329(1)
13.9 Halogenated Hydrocarbons
329(4)
13.10 Cycloalkanes
333(1)
13.11 Alkenes: Structure and Nomenclature
334(5)
13.12 Alkenes and Living Things
339(1)
13.13 Chemical Properties of Alkenes
339(2)
13.14 Polymerization
341(4)
13.15 Alkynes
345(1)
13.16 Benzene
345(2)
13.17 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Structure and Nomenclature
347(3)
13.18 Uses of Benzene and Benzene Derivatives
350(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
351(6)
Special Topic E Petroleum
357(4)
E.1 Natural Gas and Gasoline
357(2)
E.2 The Octane Rating of Gasoline
359(2)
14 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
361(28)
14.1 The Functional Group
362(2)
14.2 Classification and Nomenclature of Alcohols
364(2)
14.3 Physical Properties of Alcohols
366(3)
14.4 Preparation of Alcohols
369(3)
14.5 Physiological Properties of Alcohols
372(3)
14.6 Chemical Properties of Alcohols
375(2)
14.7 Multifunctional Alcohols: Glycols and Glycerol
378(2)
14.8 Phenols
380(2)
14.9 Ethers
382(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
384(5)
15 Aldehydes and Ketones
389(20)
15.1 The Carbonyl Group: A Carbon-Oxygen Double Bond
389(1)
15.2 How to Name the Common Aldehydes
390(3)
15.3 Naming the Common Ketones
393(2)
15.4 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
395(1)
15.5 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
396(2)
15.6 Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
398(5)
15.7 Some Common Carbonyl Compounds
403(2)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
405(4)
16 Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
409(37)
16.1 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: The Functional Groups
410(1)
16.2 Some Common Carboxylic Acids: Structures and Names
411(2)
16.3 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
413(1)
16.4 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
414(1)
16.5 Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids: Neutralization
415(2)
16.6 An Ester by Any Other Name...
417(2)
16.7 Physical Properties of Esters
419(1)
16.8 Preparation of Esters: Esterification
420(2)
16.9 Chemical Properties of Esters: Hydrolysis
422(1)
16.10 Esters of Phosphoric Acid
423(2)
16.11 Amides: Structures and Names
425(2)
16.12 Physical Properties of Amides
427(1)
16.13 Synthesis of Amides
428(1)
16.14 Chemical Properties of Amides: Hydrolysis
429(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
430(3)
Special Topic F Drugs: Some Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides
436(10)
F.1 Aspirin and Other Salicylates
436(2)
F.2 Aspirin Substitutes and Combination Pain Relievers
438(1)
F.3 Opium Alkaloids
439(1)
F.4 Synthetic Narcotics: Analgesia and Addiction
440(1)
F.5 A Natural High: The Brain's Own Opiates
441(1)
F.6 LSD: A Hallucinogenic Drug
442(1)
F.7 Marijuana: Some Chemistry of Cannabis
443(3)
17 Amines and Derivatives
446(27)
17.1 Structure and Classification of Amines
447(1)
17.2 Naming Amines
448(3)
17.3 Physical Properties of Amines
451(1)
17.4 Amines as Bases
452(1)
17.5 Other Chemical Properties of Amines
453(2)
17.6 Heterocyclic Amines
455(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
456(5)
Special Topic G Brain Amines and Related Drugs
461(12)
G.1 Some Chemistry of the Nervous System
461(1)
G.2 Brain Amines
462(1)
G.3 Stimulant Drugs: Amphetamines
463(2)
G.4 Caffeine, Nicotine, and Cocaine
465(1)
G.5 Local Anesthetics
466(1)
G.6 Barbiturates: Sedation, Sleep, and Synergism
467(1)
G.7 Dissociative Anesthetics: Ketamine and PCP
468(1)
G.8 Antianxiety Agents
469(1)
G.9 Antipsychotic Agents
470(1)
G.10 Antidepressants
470(3)
18 Stereoisomerism
473(28)
18.1 Polarized Light and Optical Activity
474(3)
18.2 Chiral Centers
477(5)
18.3 Multiple Chiral Centers
482(3)
18.4 Geometric Isomerism (Cis-Trans Isomerism)
485(4)
18.5 Biochemical Significance
489(3)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
492(5)
Special Topic H Molecules to See and Smell
497(4)
H.1 Vision: Cis-Trans Isomerism
497(1)
H.2 Odors: The Shapes of Things We Smell
498(3)
19 Carbohydrates
501(24)
19.1 Carbohydrates: Definitions and Classifications
502(1)
19.2 Monosaccharides: General Terminology
503(1)
19.3 Stereochemistry
503(2)
19.4 Hexoses
505(2)
19.5 Monosaccharides: Cyclic Structures
507(2)
19.6 Properties of Some Monosaccharides
509(2)
19.7 Disaccharides
511(5)
19.8 Polysaccharides
516(4)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
520(5)
20 Lipids
525(37)
20.1 What Is a Lipid?
526(1)
20.2 Fatty Acids
527(1)
20.3 Fats and Oils
528(2)
20.4 Properties of Fats and Oils
530(2)
20.5 Soaps
532(3)
20.6 Waxes
535(1)
20.7 Phospholipids and Glycolipids
536(3)
20.8 Cell Membranes
539(3)
20.9 Steroids: Cholesterol and Bile Salts
542(2)
20.10 Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease
544(4)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
548(4)
Special Topic I Hormones
552(10)
I.1 The Endocrine System
552(1)
I.2 Adrenocortical Hormones
553(2)
I.3 Sex Hormones and Anabolic Steroids
555(2)
I.4 Conception and Contraceptives
557(2)
I.5 Estrogen Replacement Therapy
559(1)
I.6 Prostaglandins
560(2)
21 Proteins
562(33)
21.1 Amino Acids
563(4)
21.2 General Properties of Amino Acids
567(1)
21.3 Reactions of Amino Acids
568(2)
21.4 The Peptide Bond
570(3)
21.5 The Sequence of Amino Acids
573(1)
21.6 Some Peptides of Interest
573(2)
21.7 Classification of Proteins
575(1)
21.8 Structure of Proteins
576(2)
21.9 Secondary Structure of Proteins
578(1)
21.10 Tertiary Structure of Proteins
579(4)
21.11 Quaternary Structure of Proteins
583(3)
21.12 Electrochemical Properties of Proteins
586(1)
21.13 Denaturation of Proteins
587(4)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
591(4)
22 Enzymes
595(36)
22.1 Classification and Naming of Enzymes
596(1)
22.2 Characteristics of Enzymes
597(1)
22.3 Mode of Enzyme Action
598(4)
22.4 Specificity of Enzymes
602(1)
22.5 Factors That Influence Enzyme Activity
603(3)
22.6 Enzyme Inhibition: Poisons
606(5)
22.7 Chemotherapy
611(5)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
616(3)
Special Topic J Vitamins
619(12)
J.1 What Are Vitamins?
619(1)
J.2 Vitamin A
620(1)
J.3 Vitamin D
621(1)
J.4 Vitamin E
622(1)
J.5 Vitamin K
623(1)
J.6 The B Complex
623(5)
J.7 Vitamin C
628(3)
23 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
631(42)
23.1 The Building Blocks: Sugars, Phosphates, and Bases
632(5)
23.2 The Base Sequence: Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids
637(2)
23.3 Base Pairing and the Double Helix: Secondary Structure of DNA
639(1)
23.4 DNA: Self-Replication
640(3)
23.5 RNA: The Different Ribonucleic Acids
643(3)
23.6 Protein Synthesis
646(5)
23.7 The Genetic Code
651(1)
23.8 Mutations and Genetic Diseases
652(5)
23.9 Genetic Engineering: Biotechnology
657(4)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
661(4)
Special Topic K Viruses and Cancer
665(8)
K.1 The Nature of Viruses
665(1)
K.2 Antiviral Drugs
666(1)
K.3 Cancer and Its Causes
667(1)
K.4 Chemical Carcinogens
668(2)
K.5 Testing for Carcinogens
670(1)
K.6 Chemicals Against Cancer
670(1)
K.7 Miscellaneous Anticancer Agents
671(2)
24 Carbohydrate Metabolism I
673(30)
24.1 ATP: Universal Energy Currency
675(3)
24.2 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
678(2)
24.3 Blood Glucose
680(1)
24.4 Hormonal Regulation of Blood Sugar Level
681(4)
24.5 Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
685(8)
24.6 Glycolysis
693(2)
24.7 Fermentation
695(2)
24.8 Reversal of Glycolysis and Fermentation
697(1)
24.9 Bioenergetics of Glycolysis and Fermentation
697(1)
24.10 Storage of Chemical Energy
698(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
699(4)
25 Carbohydrate Metabolism II
703(19)
25.1 The Krebs Cycle
704(5)
25.2 Respiratory Chain: Electron-Transport Chain
709(4)
25.3 Oxidative Phosphorylation
713(1)
25.4 Energy Yield of Carbohydrate Metabolism
714(2)
25.5 Muscle Power
716(3)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
719(3)
26 Lipid Metabolism
722(22)
26.1 Fats as Fuels
723(1)
26.2 Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
724(2)
26.3 Fat Depots
726(1)
26.4 Fatty Acid Oxidation
727(5)
26.5 Bioenergetics of Fatty Acid Oxidation
732(1)
26.6 Glycerol Metabolism
733(2)
26.7 Ketosis
735(1)
26.8 Obesity, Exercise, and Diets
736(5)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
741(3)
27 Protein Metabolism
744(19)
27.1 Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
745(2)
27.2 Nitrogen Balance
747(1)
27.3 The Essential Amino Acids
747(2)
27.4 The Chemistry of Starvation
749(2)
27.5 Amino Acid Metabolism
751(7)
27.6 Storage of Nitrogen
758(1)
27.7 Excretion of Nitrogen
758(1)
27.8 Relationships Among the Metabolic Pathways
759(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
760(3)
28 Body Fluids
763
28.1 Blood: An Introduction
764(1)
28.2 Electrolytes in Plasma and Erythrocytes
764(2)
28.3 Proteins in the Plasma
766(1)
28.4 The Formed Elements
766(3)
28.5 The Immune Response
769(1)
28.6 Osmotic Pressure
770(2)
28.7 Blood Pressure
772(1)
28.8 Clotting of Blood
773(2)
28.9 Hemoglobin: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport
775(4)
28.10 Blood Buffers
779(1)
28.11 Lymph: A Secondary Transport System
780(1)
28.12 Urine: Formation and Composition
780(2)
28.13 Sweat
782(1)
28.14 Tears: The Chemistry of Crying
782(1)
28.15 The Chemistry of Mother's Milk
783(1)
Summary, Review Questions, Problems
784
Appendix I The International System of Measurement A-1(1)
Appendix II Exponential Notation A-2(3)
Appendix III Significant Figures A-5(3)
Appendix IV Glossary A-8(12)
Answers to Practice Exercises, Selected Review Questions, and Selected Problems A-20(12)
Credits for Photographs
A-32
Index I-1


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