9780199946174

Chemistry The Molecules of Life

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780199946174

  • ISBN10:

    0199946175

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-02-01
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Chemistry: The Molecules of Life emphasizes the fundamentals of chemistry to create a foundation of knowledge and connects the content to students' lives with relevant and contemporary examples. This text encourages students to develop problem-solving skills with practice exercises, worked examples, and support material. Chemistry: The Molecules of Life engages students from all majors with a wide range of pedagogical features and demonstrates chemistry's relevance to everyday life.

Rather than presenting chemistry as an isolated discipline, Chemistry: The Molecules of Life emphasizes the importance of chemical knowledge for understanding the molecular basis of life, which is relevant to students' health, environment, and everyday experiences. This contextual focus promotes scientific literacy and helps students develop the critical thinking skills needed to evaluate scientific information presented in the media and make informed decisions about their personal well-being.

Author Biography


Trace Jordan is Director of Foundations of Scientific Inquiry in the College Core Curriculum at New York University.

Neville Kallenbach is Professor of Chemistry at New York University.

Table of Contents


Preface

CHAPTER 1. ANTIBIOTICS AND RESISTANCE: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MOLECULES OF LIFE

1.1 Why Are Some Infections Resistant to Antibiotics?
Learning Objective: Show the importance of understanding scientific information and biological molecules in everyday life
MRSA: An Antibiotic-Resistant Infection
Why Study the Molecules of Life?
1.2 What is Science?
Learning Objective: Describe the stages of the scientific method.
1.3 Antiseptics: Preventing Infections
Learning Objective: Explain how the properties of ethanol enable it to function as an antiseptic.
1.4 Antibiotics: Treating Infections
Learning Objective: Characterize the discovery and function of penicillin.
Discovery and Isolation of Penicillin
What is the Molecular Structure of Penicillin?
How Does Penicillin Work?
1.5 How Do Bacteria Become Resistant to Antibiotics?
Learning Objective: Outline the origin and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
The Origin and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance
What Can Be Done about Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria?
Antibiotic-Resistance Revisited



CHAPTER 2 ELEMENTS OF LIFE AND DEATH: THE CHEMISTRY OF ELEMENTS AND ATOMS

2.1 Why Is There Iron in My Cereal?
Learning Objective: Illustrate the importance of iron for human health.
2.2 Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Learning Objective: Explain the organization of elements in the periodic table.
Properties of Matter
Classifying Matter
The Periodic Table
2.3 Atomic Structure
Learning Objective: Describe the structure of atoms in terms of their subatomic particles.
Scientific Notation and Scientific Units
The Composition of Atoms
Characterizing Atoms
Relative Atomic Mass
2.4 Electrons in Atoms
Learning Objective: Relate the electron configuration of an atom to its chemical properties.
The Electron Shell Model
Forming Ions
The Quantum Mechanical Model
2.5 Elements of Life and Death
Learning Objective: Illustrate the beneficial and harmful roles of chemical elements in the human body.
The Chemical Elements of Life
Why Do We Need Calcium?
Why Is Arsenic a Poison?
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Measuring the Mass of Atoms
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Why Is There Mercury in the Fish that We Eat?


CHAPTER 3. CHEMICAL BONDING

3.1 Why Do We Need Air to Survive?
Learning Objective: Explain why breathing air is necessary for human survival.
3.2 Covalent Bonding
Learning Objective: Explain the formation of a covalent chemical bond.
Forming a Covalent Bond by Sharing Electrons
Quantum Mechanical Description of Covalent Bonding
3.3 Making Molecules
Learning Objective: Apply the principles of chemical bonding and molecular structure.
Electrons and Bonding
Molecular Structure in Three Dimensions
Molecular Models
Representing Molecules
3.4 Molecules with Double and Triple Bonds
Learning Objective: Describe double and triple covalent bonds in molecules.
Molecular Structures of Oxygen and Nitrogen Gases
Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide
3.5 Beyond the Octet Rule
Learning Objective: Illustrate violations of the octet rule.
Radicals
Expanded Valence
3.6 Ionic Bonding
Learning Objective: Explain the formation of ionic compounds.
The Ionic Composition of Table Salt
A Variety of Ions
Ionic Compounds
Features
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR LIFE: Three-Dimensional Perspective in Chemistry and Art
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Measuring Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Nitric Oxide Is a Chemical Messenger


CHAPTER 4 CARBON-THE ELEMENT OF LIFE

4.1 What is the Difference Between Saturated and Unsaturated Fats?
Learning Objective: Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
4.2 Why is Life Based on Carbon?
Learning Objective: Describe the unique chemical properties of carbon.
4.3 Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with Single Bonds
Learning Objective: Characterize the bonding and structure of alkane hydrocarbons.
What Are Hydrocarbons?
Methane
Ethane
Naming Hydrocarbons
Propane
Butane and Structural Isomers
Drawing Hydrocarbons
4.4 Alkenes: Hydrocarbons with Double Bonds
Learning Objective: Characterize the bonding and structure of alkene hydrocarbons.
The Planar Structure of Ethene
Isomerization in Alkenes
4.5 The Chemistry of Fats
Learning Objective: Compare and contrast saturated, unsaturated, and trans fats.
What Are Fats?
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
Trans Fats
4.6 Cyclic Hydrocarbons
Learning Objective: Characterize the bonding and structure of cyclic hydrocarbons.
Cyclohexane
Benzene
Cholesterol
Features
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH Omega-3 Fatty Acids
SCIENCE IN ACTION: How Do We Know the Structures of Molecules?


Chapter 5 Molecular Diversity
5.1 What Do Drug Molecules Look Like?
Learning Objective: Explain the role of functional groups in molecular structure.
5.2 Functional Groups Containing Oxygen Atoms
Learning Objective: Illustrate functional groups containing oxygen atoms.
Alcohol
Ether
Aldehyde
Ketone
Carboxylic Acid
Ester
A Summary of Functional Groups Containing Oxygen Atoms
5.3 Functional Groups Containing Nitrogen Atoms
Learning Objective: Illustrate functional groups containing nitrogen atoms.
5.4 Functional Groups in Complex Molecules
Learning Objective: Identify a variety of functional groups in complex molecules.
5.5 Functional Groups Containing Sulfur or Phosphorus Atoms
Learning Objective: Illustrate functional groups containing sulfur or phosphorus atoms.
5.6 Heterocycles
Learning Objective: Illustrate molecules containing heterocycles.
Features
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: How Does Your Body Metabolize Alcohol?
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR LIFE: Chemical Signaling in the Brain
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Chemical Synthesis of Antibiotics


CHAPTER 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS

6.1 What Happens When You "Burn Carbs" at the Gym?
Learning Objective: Relate a combustion reaction to "burning" carbs during exercise.
6.2 Chemical Reactions Produce Changes in Matter
Learning Objective: Describe chemical reactions using balanced chemical equations.
Chemical Reactions Change Reactants into Products
Chemical Equations Represent Chemical Reactions
Stoichiometry: Measuring Reactants and Products
6.3 Measuring Matter: Mass and Moles
Learning Objective: Use the mole as a unit of measurement for chemical quantities.
What Is a Mole, and Why Do We Use It?
Molar Mass of Atoms
Chemical Calculations for Atoms
Molar Mass of Molecules
Chemical Calculations for Molecules
Burning Carbs (Part 1): Changes in Matter
6.4 Chemical Reactions Produce Changes in Energy
Learning Objective: Relate the energy produced by a reaction to the chemical bonds in the reactants and products.
What Is Energy?
Making and Breaking Covalent Bonds
Energy Changes during Chemical Reactions
Burning Carbs (Part 2): Changes in Energy
6.5 Biochemical Reactions: The Basis for Life
Learning Objective: Explain how cells use glucose to generate energy.
Burning Carbs (Part 3): Cellular Respiration
Exercise and Chemical Reactions
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Antoine Lavoisier and the Origin of Modern Chemistry
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning


CHAPTER 7 MONOMERS AND POLYMERS

7.1 What is the Difference Between Simple and Complex Carbs?
Learning Objective: Distinguish between simple and complex carbohydrates.
7.2 Synthetic Polymers
Learning Objective: Illustrate examples of monomers and polymers.
Monomers and Polymers
Polyethylene
Polyesters and Polyamides
7.3 Carbohydrates: Sugars as Monomers and Polymers
Learning Objective: Relate the principles of monomers and polymers to various sugars.
Glucose: A Monosaccharide
Sucrose and Lactose: Two Important Disaccharides
Starch: A Polysaccharide
Blood Sugar and Glycemic Index
Cellulose: A Polysaccharide We Cannot Digest
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Measuring the Sizes of Polymers
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Insulin and Diabetes


CHAPTER 8 THE UNUSUAL NATURE OF WATER

8.1 Why Is Water Essential for Life?
Learning Objective: Characterize the ways in which water's properties sustain life on Earth
8.2 Chemical Bonding in H2O
Learning Objective: Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
H2O: A Review of Bonding and Structure
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Electronegativity: Attracting a Shared Electron Pair
H2O Is a Strongly Polar Molecule
8.3 From H2O Molecules to Liquid Water
Learning Objective: Explain why H2O is a liquid at room temperature.
Hydrogen Bonding Between H2O Molecules
Molecular Organization of Ice, Water, and Vapor
8.4 The Unusual Properties of Water
Learning Objective: Illustrate how water's unusual properties are related to hydrogen bonding.
Liquid Water Is Denser than Solid Ice
Water Has an Unusually High Boiling Point
Water Has a Large Capacity for Absorbing Heat Energy
Boiling Water Requires a Large Input of Energy
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Does Liquid Water Exist on Other Planets?
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR LIFE: Chemical and Biological Antifreeze
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Why Does Perspiring Make You Cooler?


CHAPTER 9 MOLECULES AND IONS IN SOLUTION

9.1 How Do Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins Differ?
Learning Objective: Distinguish between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
9.2 Molecules in Solution
Learning Objective: Analyze polar and nonpolar molecules to predict their solubilities in different solvents.
What Is a Solution?
Nonpolar Molecules in Water
The Hydrophobic Effect
Polar Molecules in Water
Nonpolar Solvents
Comparing Solubilities in Polar and Nonpolar Solvents
Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins
9.3 Molecular Self-Assembly
Learning Objective: Apply solubility principles to illustrate examples of molecular self-assembly.
Self-Assembly of Detergents
Self-Assembly of Cell Membranes
9.4 Ions in Solution
Learning Objective: Characterize the solubility of ions and ionic compounds.
Ions in Aqueous Solution
Solubility of Ionic Compounds
Ion Transport Across Cell Membranes
Features
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR LIFE: Why Do Chili Peppers Taste Hot?
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Using Solubility Principles for Drug Discovery
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Electrolyte Imbalance


Chapter 10 Measuring Concentration

10.1 Why Can Drinking Too Much Water be Harmful?
Learning Objective: Explain the importance of maintaining an appropriate concentration of sodium ions in the blood.
10.2 Measuring Concentration
Learning Objective: Use various measurements and units of concentration.
What is Concentration?
Measuring Concentration-Percent by Volume or Mass
Measuring Concentration-Parts per Million or Billion
Measuring Concentration-Molarity
Diluting a Concentrated Solution
10.3 Biological Applications of Concentration
Learning Objective: Relate concentration to osmosis and hyponatremia.
Osmosis: The Flow of Water Across a Membrane
Why Is Hyponatremia Harmful?
Changing Concentrations
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Measuring Unknown Concentrations Using Light
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: How Much Salt Should We Eat?


CHAPTER 11 ACIDS AND BASES

11.1 What Causes Acid Reflux Disease?
Learning Objective: Explain the origin of acid reflux disease.
11.2 What Are Acids and Bases?
Learning Objective: Apply the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases.
Examples of Acids and Bases
Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
Acid-Base Neutralization
11.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Learning Objective: Compare and contrast strong and weak acids and bases.
11.4 Measuring Acidity: The pH Scale
Learning Objective: Use pH as a measurement of acidity.
Ionization of Pure Water
Neutral, Acidic, and Basic Solutions
Defining the pH Scale
11.5 Biological Applications of Acid-Base Chemistry
Learning Objective: Illustrate two biological applications of acid-base chemistry.
Origin and Treatment of Acid Reflux Disease
Blood as a Buffer System
Features
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: What Is "Freebase" Cocaine?
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Don't Try This at Home: Discovering the Cause of Stomach Ulcers


CHAPTER 12 DNA-THE MOLECULE OF HEREDITY

12.1 How Was the DNA Double Helix Discovered?
Learning Objective: Explain why the DNA double helix was an important scientific discovery.
12.2 Nucleotides-The Building Blocks of DNA
Learning Objective: Analyze the structures of nucleotides and polynucleotides.
Molecular Structure of a Nucleotide
The Four Varieties of DNA Bases
Making a Polynucleotide Chain
12.3 Discovering the Double Helix
Learning Objective: Characterize the scientific methods and evidence that led to the discovery of the DNA double helix.
Biology: DNA Is the Molecule of Heredity
Chemistry: Building Molecular Models
Physics: X-ray Diffraction Studies of Molecular Structures
Constructing the DNA Double Helix
12.4 DNA Replication
Learning Objective: Analyze the mechanism of DNA replication.
12.5 DNA Mutations and Cancer
Learning Objective: Characterize the connections between DNA mutations and cancer.
What Is Cancer?
Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer
Chemical Carcinogens
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: How Does DNA Replicate?
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Do Indoor Tanning Beds Increase the Risk of Skin Cancer?


CHAPTER 13 FROM DNA TO PROTEINS

13.1 What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?
Learning Objective: Identify the characteristics of sickle cell disease.
13.2 Overview: The Expression of Genetic Information
Learning Objective: Outline the molecules and processes that are involved in the expression of genetic information.
13.3 Transcription
Learning Objective: Characterize the stages of transcription.
Comparing DNA and RNA
Synthesizing mRNA
13.4 Amino Acids: The Building Blocks of Proteins
Learning Objective: Describe the molecular properties of amino acids.
Chemical Diversity of Amino Acids
Amino Acids Are Chiral Molecules
13.5 Translation
Learning Objective: Outline the stages by which mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Translation and the Genetic Code
The Molecular Mechanism of Translation
13.6 Protein Structure
Learning Objective: Illustrate the formation of a polypeptide chain and its structural properties within proteins.
Making a Polypeptide
Four Levels of Protein Structure
13.7 The Molecular Origin of Sickle Cell Disease
Learning Objective: Outline the molecular origin of sickle cell disease.
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: How Did Scientists Crack the Genetic Code?
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: Human Insulin for Diabetes Therapy


CHAPTER 14 ENZYMES AS BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS

14.1 What Causes Lactose Intolerance?
Learning Objective: Define lactose intolerance.
14.2 How Do Chemical Reactions Happen?
Learning Objective: Characterize the changes that occur during a chemical reaction.
An Energy Barrier for Chemical Reactions
A Chemical Reaction Pathway
14.3 How Does a Catalyst Work?
Learning Objective: Explain how a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction.
What is a Catalyst?
The Catalytic Converter
14.4 Structure and Function of Enzymes
Learning Objective: Characterize the stages of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
The Molecular Structure of Enzymes
The Steps of an Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction
How Does an Enzyme Recognize Its Substrate?
14.5 Lactose Intolerance: Genes, Enzymes, and Culture
Learning Objective: Illustrate how human culture has influenced the ability to digest lactose.
The Catalytic Activity of Lactase
The Chemistry of Lactose Intolerance
The Evolutionary Origins of Lactase Persistence
Features
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR LIFE: Why Does Hydrogen Peroxide Bubble When You Put It on a Cut?
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Using the Transition State to Design a Drug
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: What Happens When Enzymes Don't Work?


CHAPTER 15 DRUG DEVELOPMENT

15.1 Why Are Antibiotic-Resistant Infections Increasing?
Learning Objective: Use tuberculosis as an example of an antibiotic-resistant disease.
15.2 Bacterial Cells
Learning Objective: Describe the size and composition of bacterial cells.
The Cell Is the "Unit of Life"
How Small Are Cells?
The Composition of a Bacterial Cell
15.3 How Do Antibiotics Work?
Learning Objective: Illustrate how antibiotics use different cellular targets to prevent the growth of bacterial cells.
Antibiotics Prevent the Growth of Bacterial Cells
Cellular Targets for Antibiotics
Antibiotic Target: Constructing the Cell Wall
Antibiotic Target: Replicating DNA
Antibiotic Target: Making Proteins
15.4 How Do Bacteria Become Resistant to Antibiotics?
Learning Objective: Illustrate the strategies used by bacteria to neutralize the effects of antibiotics.
Bacteria Fight Back: Strategies of Antibiotic Resistance
Use and Abuse of Antibiotics
15.5 Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Learning Objective: Outline the relationship between the development of new antibiotics and the rise of antibiotic resistance.
15.6 How Are New Drugs Tested and Approved?
Learning Objective: Outline the stages that are required to develop and evaluate a new pharmaceutical.
How Do We Know That the Drugs We Take Are Safe and Effective?
The Stages of Drug Development and Approval
Features
SCIENCE IN ACTION: Studying Cells with Microscopes
CHEMISTRY AND YOUR HEALTH: How Do Bacteria Keep Us Healthy?
CHEMISTRY IN YOUR LIFE: Why Can a Popular Painkiller Make You Sick?

Appendix A Scientific Notation and Units
Appendix B Significant Figures
Appendix C Logarithms and the pH Scale
Appendix D Answers to Try It Yourself and Practice Exercises
Appendix E Answers to Selected Learning Resources (End-of-Chapter Questions)
Glossary

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