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The Child in the Family and the Community

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130922519

ISBN10:
013092251X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Recognizing that socialization is one of the most important aspects of child development, this lively and engaging book examines socialization issues of young children during child rearing, in child care facilities, and in the early education system within a developmental context. Child development as it relates to a child's first eight years, to a healthy family, and to a multicultural community is presented to readers through personal stories, vignettes, pictures, and a wealth of examples. For anyone with a personal or professional interest in early childhood development and education.

Table of Contents

PART 1 The Child: Socialization in a Developmental Context 1(94)
Attachment
4(22)
Attachment and Trust
6(3)
How Attachment Occurs
9(2)
Signs of Attachment
11(1)
Obstacles to Attachment
12(3)
Learning to Cope with Feelings of Loss
15(2)
Varying Attachment Patterns
17(2)
Attachment and Infant Mortality
19(1)
Judging Attachment in a Cross-Cultural Situation
20(1)
Child Care and Attachment
21(1)
Quality Care is Vital to Attachment
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
For Discussion
23(1)
References
24(1)
Further Reading
25(1)
Autonomy
26(22)
Toddlers and Autonomy
28(1)
Signs of Developing Autonomy
28(7)
Negativity
28(1)
Exploration
29(1)
Self-Help Skills
30(3)
A Sense of Possession
33(2)
Dealing with Issues of Power and Control
35(7)
Set Up a Developmentally Appropriate Environment
36(1)
Appreciate Play
36(1)
Encourage Self-Help Skills
37(1)
Give Choices
38(1)
Provide Control
39(1)
Set Limits
40(2)
Coping with Loss and Separation
42(3)
Taking Separation in Small Steps
42(1)
Entering Child Care
42(3)
Summary
45(1)
For Discussion
45(1)
References
46(1)
Further Reading
46(2)
Initiative
48(24)
What Initiative Looks Like in a 4-Year-Old
50(1)
Analyzing Initiative in a 4-Year-Old
51(2)
Developmental Conflicts
53(1)
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
53(1)
Initiative versus Guilt
53(1)
Imagination and Fantasy
54(1)
The Value of Play of All Sorts
55(1)
How the Environment Contributes to a Sense of Initiative
56(3)
``Dimensions'' of Play Environments
58(1)
How Adults Contribute to Children's Initiative
59(1)
The Shy Child
60(1)
A Look at Aggression
61(3)
Causes of Aggression
61(3)
Teaching Young Children Problem-Solving Skills
64(2)
Empowering the Preschool-Age Child
66(2)
Summary
68(1)
For Discussion
69(1)
References
70(1)
Further Reading
70(2)
Self-Esteem
72(23)
Portrait of a Person with High Self-esteem
74(1)
Definition of Self-esteem
75(1)
Dimensions of Self-esteem
76(2)
Significance
76(1)
Competence
77(1)
Power
78(1)
Virtue
78(1)
The Role of Beliefs and Expectations in Self-Esteem
78(1)
Where Does Self-Esteem Come From?
79(2)
Promoting Self-Esteem
81(3)
Give More Honest Feedback and Encouragement Than Praise
81(1)
Give Children Opportunities to Experience Success
81(3)
Children Learn from Failure
84(1)
Celebrating Differences: An Antibias Approach
85(6)
Bias Is Bad for People
86(2)
Cultural Differences and Self-Esteem
88(3)
Summary
91(1)
For Discussion
91(1)
References
92(1)
Further Reading
92(3)
PART 2 The Family: Socialization for High Self-Esteem in Healthy Families 95(166)
Goals, Values, and Culture
102(24)
Relationship of Goals and Values to Child-Rearing Practices
104(1)
Cultural Differences in Goals and Values
104(2)
Contrasting Cultural Patterns
106(1)
When Parents and/or Caregivers or Teachers Have Conflicting Goals and Values
107(2)
What to Do When Conflicts Arise
109(7)
Build Relationships
113(1)
Know Yourself
114(1)
Work to Bring Differences Out in the Open
114(1)
Discuss Differences
114(1)
Become an Effective Cross-Cultural Communicator
114(1)
Problem-Solve
115(1)
Commit Yourself to Education
115(1)
Helping Children Understand and Value Cultural Pluralism
116(1)
Teaching Morals and Values to Children
116(1)
Teaching Morals by Helping Children Examine Their Decision-Making Process
117(1)
Teaching Morals by Promoting Prosocial Development
118(3)
Summary
121(1)
For Discussion
121(1)
References
122(1)
Further Reading
122(4)
Child Care: An Extension of the Family
126(22)
Child Care as a Child-Rearing Environment
128(2)
Affordability and Availability
130(3)
Status and Salaries
131(2)
The State of Child Care in America Today
133(1)
Looking at Quality
134(1)
Adult-Child Interactions in Child Care and Early Education Settings
135(1)
Including Everybody
136(2)
Questions Concerning Continuity Between Child Care and Home
138(3)
Parent-Provider Relations
141(4)
Roadblocks to Mutual Appreciation, Respect, and Support
142(3)
Summary
145(1)
For Discussion
145(1)
References
146(1)
Further Reading
146(2)
Disciplining for High Self-Esteem
148(18)
Defining the Word Discipline
150(1)
Problems with Using Punishment to Teach Young Children
151(2)
Guidelines for Disciplining Young Children
153(11)
Discipline as Preventing Unacceptable Behavior
153(5)
Discipline as Responding to Unacceptable Behavior
158(6)
Summary
164(1)
For Discussion
164(1)
References
164(1)
Further Reading
165(1)
Accepting Feelings
166(22)
What Are Feelings?
169(2)
All Feelings Are Positive
170(1)
Learning Feelings
171(7)
Social Referencing
172(1)
Cultural Scripts
173(2)
The Importance of Accepting Feelings
175(1)
Teaching Children Healthy Expressions of Feelings
176(2)
Teaching Children to Cope with Feelings
178(6)
Developing Self-Calming Skills
178(2)
Coping by Playing Pretend
180(1)
Coping with Simultaneous Feelings
180(1)
Coping with Anger
181(1)
Coping with Fear
182(2)
Summary
184(1)
For Discussion
185(1)
References
185(1)
Further Reading
185(3)
Problem Solving
188(18)
Problem Solving When Needs Conflict
190(2)
The Direct Order and Its Disadvantages
190(1)
The Fear-Inducing Approach and Its Disadvantages
190(1)
Issues Around Obedience
191(1)
Suffering Silently
191(1)
Suffering Openly
191(1)
Parenting Approaches
192(1)
The Authoritarian Approach
192(1)
The Permissive Approach
192(1)
The Authoritative Approach
193(1)
The Problem-Solving Process
193(7)
Problem Solving When the Child Has a Problem
194(2)
Problem Solving When the Adult Has the Problem
196(3)
Using the RERUN Process: An Example
199(1)
Problem Solving and Cognitive Development
200(1)
Child-Initiated Problems
200(1)
Adult-Initiated Problems
201(1)
Summary of Steps of Problem Solving
201(3)
Summary
204(1)
For Discussion
204(1)
References
204(1)
Further Reading
204(2)
Strokes and Affirmations: A Path to Self-Esteem
206(20)
What Are Strokes?
208(2)
Using Positive Strokes to Change Behavior
210(1)
What Are Affirmations?
211(6)
Affirmations Can Create Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
212(2)
Children's Response to Affirmations and Strokes
214(3)
Relation of Adult Self-Esteem to Building Self-Esteem in Children
217(2)
Changing Negative Messages to Positive Ones
217(2)
Self-Stroking
219(1)
Learning New Skills
220(3)
Tips for Getting Yourself Nurtured
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
For Discussion
224(1)
References
224(1)
Further Reading
224(2)
Modeling and Teaching Sex Roles
226(16)
Why Think About Teaching Sex Roles?
228(1)
The Women of Today
228(1)
Sex Equity and Child Rearing
229(3)
Toys and Sex Roles
229(2)
The Power of Language
231(1)
Using Modeling to Teach
232(1)
Differential Socialization
232(4)
Differential Treatment from Parents
234(1)
Differential Treatment in Preschool
234(1)
Differential Treatment from Elementary School
235(1)
The Role of Biology in Creating Differences Between Boys and Girls
236(1)
Guidelines for Parents and Early Childhood Educators
237(2)
Summary
239(1)
For Discussion
239(1)
References
239(1)
Further Reading
239(3)
Stress and Success in Family Life
242(19)
Successful Families
244(1)
Traits of Successful Families
245(7)
Sara's Family
246(1)
Roberto's Family
247(1)
Hai's Family
248(1)
Michael's Family
248(1)
Courtney's Family
249(1)
The Jackson Family
250(2)
What Do the Six Families Have in Common?
252(1)
Stress Isn't Necessarily Bad
252(2)
What We Can Learn from Studies of Resilient Children
254(1)
Helping All Children Become Resilient Children
255(3)
Summary
258(1)
For Discussion
258(1)
References
259(1)
Further Reading
259(2)
PART 3 The Community: Socialization in the Community Context 261(60)
Community Resources
264(18)
Social Networks
266(3)
Developing a Broad Base of Support
267(1)
Forms Social Networks May Take
268(1)
Community Institutions That Serve Families
268(1)
Families Using Community Resources
269(6)
Sara's Family
269(2)
Roberto's Family
271(1)
Hai's Family
272(1)
Michael's Family
272(1)
Courtney's Family
273(1)
The Jackson Family
274(1)
Connections to the Community
275(3)
A Summary of Community Resources
275(2)
Availability of Community Resources
277(1)
Summary
278(1)
For Discussion
279(1)
References
279(1)
Further Reading
279(3)
Socializing Agents
282(22)
Socialization and the Family
284(5)
The Issue of Bias
285(4)
Schools as Socializing Agents
289(6)
Getting into Kindergarten
290(3)
Classroom Behavior
293(1)
Responding to Diversity
294(1)
Inequity and Schools
295(1)
The Peer Group as an Agent of Socialization
295(2)
Functions of the Peer Group
297(1)
The Media as an Influence on Socialization
297(5)
Commercial Advertising
299(1)
Violence
300(2)
Summary
302(1)
For Discussion
302(1)
References
302(1)
Further Reading
302(2)
Social Policy Issues
304(17)
Who Is Responsible for America's Children?
306(3)
Children and Equal Opportunity
308(1)
Ready to Learn: A Goal for All of America's Children
309(4)
Head Start
310(1)
Child Care
310(3)
Economic Development
313(1)
Adequate Health Services and Nutrition for All
313(2)
Taking a Preventive Approach
315(1)
Advocacy
316(1)
Summary
317(1)
For Discussion
318(1)
References
318(1)
Further Reading
318(3)
Index 321

Excerpts

This third edition ofThe Child in the Family and the Communityis still the same personal book, written to the reader from the author about the socialization of young children in child rearing, caring, and educational contexts. It focuses on developmental theory, but also on diverse perspectives. The style is different from most textbooks because of its emphasis on real-life experience and personal insight, in addition to academic discipline. The theory behind the practical emphasis is explained in terms of specific concrete examples. This text approaches learning by using constructivist theory and fits with Jean Piaget's ideas about learners attaching new knowledge to existing knowledge. In other words, readers are encouraged to reach into their own experience to make sense of new information in terms of what they already know. Because whatever we read is always filtered through our own subjective experience, this text acknowledges that fact and capitalizes on it. The author lets her voice come through as she tells personal stories and shares insights. Students are asked regularly to look at the issues, information, and examples the text presents in light of their own ideas, feelings, and experience. Examples given are designed to appeal to both traditional and nontraditional students by reflecting the demographics of the United States today. This book is based on twenty-eight years of experience teaching a course on socialization called "Child, Family, and Community" in early childhood departments in several community colleges and in the Child and Family Studies Program at Napa Valley College in northern California. It provides information that students need to work with and rear young children. It is written for early childhood students who plan to be teachers, caregivers, child care workers, family child care providers, or parents. General education students will also benefit. Trainers in the field will find -the book valuable for use in inservice training for teachers and child care workers; parent educators will find it useful as well. WHAT'S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION The age range the text focuses on is now expanded from birth to 8 years of age in accordance with the definition of early childhood education. The first section shows a developmental sequence, with chapter 4 focusing more on kindergarten and primary children than in the past editions. The subject of play which had been mostly contained in chapter 3 about preschool children, has expanded beyond that chapter. Cognitive development as it relates to socialization as well as some information about brain research, is now included in this new edition. Because inclusion of children who have special needs has become more and more a focus in the field of early care and education, the needs of those children are addressed in greater detail in this edition. This information is important to students going into early childhood education because the field of special education and early education are working more closely together than ever before. The pedagogical material at the beginning and end of each chapter has been consolidated so it is not so daunting to the student. Teasers designed to pique the student's curiosity still open each chapter and discussion questions still end the chapters. The references and Further Reading sections are designed for the student who wants to go further into a subject. Of course, the new edition continues to focus on up-to-the minute issues, and gives an even broader coverage of topics than before. The extensive reference lists represent an expansive view of culture and gender issues, reflecting both recent and classic well-respected works in the field. This edition contains even more material on cultural perspectives, and racial, class, and gender issues, always emphasizing a multicultural/antibias approach for a pluralistic America. Perhaps the highest compliment paid to


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