9780683307474

The Chiropractic Theories A Textbook of Scientific Research

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780683307474

  • ISBN10:

    0683307479

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-11-21
  • Publisher: LWW

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Summary

The Fourth Edition of this highly respected text continues to be a useful tool that helps readers gain a thorough understanding of chiropractic theory, knowledge of the power of various research designs, and the ability to tell the difference between good and poor research.

Author Biography

Robert A. Leach, DC, FICC: Chairman, Mississippi Chiropractic Association Committee on Research, Postgraduate Faculty, National College of Chiropractic, Private general practice of chiropractic, Starkville, Mississippi

Table of Contents

SECTION I Introduction to Subluxation Theories
CHAPTER 1 General Introduction
3(10)
Robert A. Leach
THE SCIENCE OF CHIROPRACTIC,
4(2)
First Premise of Chiropractic,
4(1)
Problems Facing the Development of Chiropractic Science,
5(1)
HOW IMPORTANT ARE THEORIES TO A HEALTH-CARE PROFESSION'S DEVELOPMENT?,
6(1)
The Case of Organized Medicine,
6(1)
The Chiropractic Experience,
6(1)
THE THEORIES OF CHIROPRACTORS,
7(3)
Subluxation Redefined: Inflammation and Degeneration,
7(3)
Pathophysiologic Sequelae or Mimicry?,
10(1)
Why One Subluxation Theory?,
10(1)
SUMMARY,
10(3)
CHAPTER 2 History of the Chiropractic Theories
13(16)
Robert A. Leach
MANIPULATION BEFORE CHIROPRACTIC,
13(2)
Spinal Irritation,
13(1)
Vitalism in the Post-Civil War Era: Metaphysical Roots of Innate,
14(1)
D.D. PALMER AND THE REVIVAL OF SPINAL MANIPULATION,
15(3)
Palmer's First Hypothesis,
15(1)
The "Discovery" in Santa Barbara,
16(1)
Morikubo Trial: Chiropractic Philosophy Unique,
16(1)
Palmer's Final Stated Hypotheses,
17(1)
THE FIRST DECADES: DISSENT, JAIL, AND DIVISION,
18(5)
Dissenters: Langworthy, Smith, Paxon, and the Fixation Concept,
18(2)
You Can't Jail Ideas,
20(2)
A Profession Divided,
22(1)
THE MIDDLE TO LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY: EDUCATION AND RESEARCH OF NEW IDEAS,
23(3)
Research and Education Reform,
23(1)
Fixation and Inflammation Concept,
24(1)
Germ Theory Versus Wellness: Paradigm Shift?,
24(1)
FCER and CCE: New Era for Research and Education,
25(1)
Chiropractic Research Conferences,
26(1)
Chiropractic Consensus Conferences,
26(1)
SUMMARY,
26(3)
CHAPTER 3 Chiropractic Terminology
29(14)
Robert A. Leach
TRADITIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE MANIPULABLE LESION,
30(7)
Defining the Methods of Manipulation,
31(1)
Manual Therapy,
31(1)
Osteopathy,
31(1)
Chiropractic,
31(3)
Physical Therapy,
34(1)
Defining the Target of Manipulation: Subluxation-Medical Versus Chiropractic Perspectives,
34(1)
Nonmanipulable Subluxations,
35(1)
Manipulable Subluxation,
35(1)
Subluxation as a Mediating Radiographic Variable of VSC,
35(1)
Segmental Dysfunction as a Mediating Clinical Variable of VSC,
36(1)
ACC CONSENSUS AND PARADIGM,
37(3)
ACC Refines an Old Paradigm,
37(1)
Did the ACC Compromise Enough? The Case for Discarding the Term VSC,
38(2)
SUMMARY,
40(3)
CHAPTER 4 Philosophy: Foundation for Theory Development
43(14)
Robert A. Leach and Reed B. Phillips
PRINCIPLES OF PHILOSOPHY,
44(1)
Essentials of Philosophy,
44(1)
Definitions of Philosophy,
44(1)
Divisions of Philosophy,
44(1)
Issues in Philosophy,
44(1)
Pseudoscience Versus Science,
44(1)
Theory Development,
45(1)
Theory to Philosophy,
45(1)
PHILOSOPHY AND CHIROPRACTIC: DIVISIONS IN THE PROFESSION,
45(2)
Which Philosophy of Chiropractic?,
46(1)
Theosophy in a Philosophy of Chiropractic?,
46(1)
Chiropractic Philosophy: Dynamic or Static?,
46(1)
Philosophy of Chiropractic or Chiropractic Philosophy?,
47(1)
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF A UNIFIED PHILOSOPHY OF CHIROPRACTIC,
47(5)
ACC Chiropractic Paradigm: A Shift?,
48(2)
Influence of Philosophy on Chiropractic Research Agenda,
50(1)
Influence of Philosophy on Chiropractic Education,
51(1)
Philosophical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice,
52(1)
SUMMARY,
52(5)
SECTION II Introduction to Chiropractic Research Principles
CHAPTER 5 Principles of Measurement, Research, and Statistics
57(24)
Patrick L. Parker
WHAT IS RESEARCH?,
57(2)
Stating the Question,
57(1)
Dependent and Independent Variables,
58(1)
Finding Previous Research,
58(1)
Deciding How to Answer the Question,
58(1)
Stating the Answer,
59(1)
PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF STATISTICS,
59(6)
What Are Statistics?,
59(1)
Subjectivity Versus Objectivity,
59(1)
Signs and Symptoms,
60(1)
Quantitative Versus Qualitative,
60(1)
Measurement Scales and Properties,
60(1)
Likert and Borg Scales-Ordinal or Interval?,
61(1)
Simple Descriptive Statistics,
62(1)
Measures of Central Tendency,
62(1)
Measures of Variability,
63(2)
Summary of Descriptive Statistics,
65(1)
BEYOND DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS,
65(8)
Error and Bias in Measurement,
65(1)
Issues in Measurement,
66(1)
Validity,
66(1)
Reliability,
67(4)
Accuracy,
71(1)
Protocol,
72(1)
Minimizing Bias,
72(1)
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS,
73(5)
Likelihood of an Occurrence,
73(1)
Hypothesis Testing,
74(1)
Graphical Hypothesis Testing with Confidence Intervals,
74(1)
Parametric Hypothesis Tests,
75(1)
Post Hoc Means Comparison,
76(1)
Correlation,
76(1)
Graphical Correlation with Scatter Plots,
76(1)
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient,
76(1)
Significance of Correlations,
77(1)
Simple Linear Regression,
78(1)
MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR CHIROPRACTIC RESEARCH,
78(1)
SUMMARY,
78(4)
Literature,
79(2)
CHAPTER 6 Strategy for Validation of Subluxation Theories: Proposed Minimum Process
81(26)
Robert A. Leach
WHY A VALIDATION PROCESS?,
82(10)
Chiropractic Consensus Conferences,
82(1)
The Mercy Center Consensus Conference,
82(1)
Council on Chiropractic Practice Guidelines,
83(1)
Differences between the Chiropractic Guidelines,
83(1)
Theory Validation in a Philosophically Divided Profession,
84(1)
Goal for Biomedicine: Evidence-Based Practice,
84(1)
U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,
85(1)
Methodology of Randomized Controlled Trials,
86(4)
The National Workshop to Develop the Chiropractic Research Agenda,
90(1)
All RCTs Are Not Gold,
90(2)
PROPOSED MINIMUM PROCESS FOR THEORY VALIDATION,
92(9)
The Three-Phase FDA Approval Process,
93(1)
Phase 1: Smaller Studies,
94(1)
Phase 2: Intermediate Trials,
94(1)
Phase 3: Large Randomized Controlled Trials,
94(1)
Proposed Model for Chiropractic,
95(1)
Basic Science Research of the Subluxation Complex,
96(1)
Posing a Good Clinical Question,
97(1)
Steps 1-4: Validating Dependent and Outcome Variables,
98(1)
Steps 5-8: Mediating Variables of Subluxation,
99(1)
Step 9: Final Validation of a Subluxation Complex Model,
100(1)
UNTIL VALIDATION: THEORY, PRACTICE, AND A RESEARCH AGENDA,
101(1)
SUMMARY,
102(5)
CHAPTER 7 Chiropractic Research and the Scientist Practitioner Model
107(24)
Robert A. Leach
ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS: MOVING IN A NEW DIRECTION,
109(5)
What Is the Status of the Science of Chiropractic?,
109(1)
Who Is a Scientific Chiropractor?,
110(1)
Who Is a Scientist-Practitioner?,
110(1)
The Chiropractor as a Scientist,
111(1)
Clinical Observations: Critical Thinking in the Practice Setting,
111(1)
Why Do We Need Scientist-Practitioners,
111(3)
KEY ELEMENTS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY,
114(10)
Questions, Literature Searching, and Study Designs: Types of Investigations,
115(1)
Understanding the Literature,
115(1)
Literature Searching and the Internet,
115(1)
Sources of Error in Biomedical Literature,
116(1)
Clinical Questions Needing Answers,
117(1)
Descriptive Studies,
118(1)
Time Series and Quasi-Experimental Designs,
118(1)
Control Group Trials,
118(2)
Methods and Protocols: Choosing and Monitoring Dependent and Mediating Variables of Adjustive Efficacy and VSC,
120(1)
Reliability of Soft Outcome Measures,
121(1)
Reliability of Hard Outcome Measures,
122(1)
Reliability of Questionnaires and Social Measures,
123(1)
Statistical Issues in Chiropractic Research,
123(1)
SUMMARY,
124(7)
SECTION III Experimental and Clinical Evidence of the Subluxation Complex Model
CHAPTER 8 Inflammation Hypothesis
131(6)
Charles A. Lantz
ACUTE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE,
132(2)
Tissue-Level Response,
132(1)
Cellular-Level Response,
132(1)
Biochemical Response,
132(1)
Histamine,
133(1)
Protein-Derived Factors,
133(1)
Eicosanoids,
133(1)
Platelet-Activating Factor,
133(1)
Cytokines
133(1)
Nitric Oxide,
134(1)
Other Mediators of Inflammation,
134(1)
DISCUSSION: INFLAMMATION AND THE ARTHRITIDES,
134(1)
Immobilization and Inflammation,
134(1)
Proteoglycans and Inflammation,
134(1)
Initial Evidence of VSC-Inflammation and Its Management,
135(1)
SUMMARY
135(2)
CHAPTER 9 Segmental Dysfunction Hypothesis: Joint and Muscle Pathology and Facilitation
137(70)
Robert A. Leach and Joel G. Pickar
EARLY EVIDENCE OF FIXATION
139(1)
MYOPATHOLOGY AS A PRECURSOR TO FACILITATION,
139(7)
Neurobiology of Paraspinal Sensory Receptors,
140(1)
Joint Receptors,
141(1)
Muscle Receptors,
142(4)
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR FACET JOINT DYSFUNCTION,
146(5)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Posterior Facets,
146(1)
Experimental Models of Facet Pathophysiology,
147(2)
Animal Models of Facet Pathophysiology,
149(2)
NEUROBIOLOGIC MODELS OF SEGMENTAL DYSFUNCTION,
151(7)
Noninflammatory Neurologic Models,
151(1)
Korr Model,
151(2)
Patterson-Steinmetz Model,
153(1)
Other Noninflammatory-Neurologic Models,
154(1)
Inflammatory-Neurologic Models,
155(1)
Dvorak Model,
155(1)
Gatterman-Goe Model,
156(1)
Mense Model,
156(1)
Minimal Energy Hypothesis,
156(2)
PHYSIOLOGY AND PHYSICS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT ADJUSTMENT,
158(4)
Physiology of Joint Manipulation,
158(2)
Kinesiology of Joint Adjustment,
160(2)
MEASURES OF SPINAL DYSFUNCTION: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY ISSUES,
162(21)
Soft Outcome Measures of Dysfunction,
162(1)
Algometry,
162(4)
Leg Length Inequality,
166(2)
Pain and Functional Status Questionnaires,
168(1)
Range of Motion,
169(4)
Which Soft Outcome Variables to Use?,
173(1)
Hard Outcome Measures of Dysfunction,
173(1)
Imaging of the Spine in Motion,
173(2)
Measures of Physical Performance,
175(2)
Surface Electromyography,
177(4)
Thermography,
181(2)
SEGMENTAL OR REGIONAL DYSFUNCTION?,
183(7)
Diagnosing Spinal Dysfunction,
184(1)
Regional Assessments,
184(3)
Segmental Assessments,
187(3)
DISCUSSION: SDF, THE FIRST PHASE OF VSC,
190(7)
SUMMARY,
197(10)
CHAPTER 10 Instability Hypothesis
207(28)
Robert A. Leach
SPINOGRAPHY AND IMAGING IN CHIROPRACTIC,
208(2)
CAUSES OF INTERVERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION,
210(6)
Posture and the Biped Human,
210(1)
Trauma,
210(2)
Disc Degeneration,
212(2)
Developmental Factors,
214(1)
Other Causes,
214(1)
Erosive Arthritides,
214(1)
Infections,
214(1)
Ligamentous Instability,
215(1)
Congenital Anomalies,
215(1)
SUBLUXATION AND INSTABILITY: VSC PHASE 2,
216(10)
The Kirkaldy-Willis and Sandoz Models,
216(1)
Reliability and Validity of Chiropractic Radiographic Procedures,
216(2)
Chiropractic Reduction of VSC,
218(1)
Abnormal Curvatures,
219(6)
Radiographically Demonstrable Spinal Lesions,
225(1)
DISCUSSION: THE SECOND PHASE OF VSC,
226(3)
SUMMARY,
229(6)
CHAPTER 11 Immobilization Degeneration Hypothesis
235(16)
Robert A. Leach and Charles A. Lantz
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR DEGENERATION,
236(5)
Models of Immobilization,
236(1)
Animal Studies,
236(1)
Human Studies,
237(1)
Histopathologic Effects of Immobilization,
238(1)
Connective Tissue,
238(2)
Muscle,
240(1)
Nervous,
241(1)
ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DEGENERATION OF THE ZYGAPOPHYSES AND INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS,
241(2)
STABILIZATION: THE FINAL PHASE OF THE SPINAL LESION,
243(3)
Sandoz's Four-Phase Model of Spinal Degeneration,
243(1)
Kirkaldy-Willis's Three-Phase Model of Spinal Degeneration,
244(2)
DISCUSSION: THE THIRD PHASE OF VSC,
246(2)
SUMMARY,
248(3)
CHAPTER 12 Neuropathology Hypothesis
251(18)
Robert A. Leach
THE PINCHED NERVE THEORY?,
251(3)
Cretin's Test of Chiropractic Theory,
252(1)
Anatomy of the Spinal Nerve Roots,
252(2)
NERVE BLOOD FLOW AND NEUROLOGIC DYSFUNCTION-A BIOLOGIC PROBLEM?,
254(7)
Postmortem Histologic Examination,
255(1)
Operative Confirmation,
256(1)
Experimental Studies,
256(5)
All-or None Law,
261(1)
CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS,
261(2)
Indications for Chiropractic,
262(1)
Contraindications for Chiropractic,
262(1)
DISCUSSION: NEUROPATHOLOGY AND BEYOND: INFLUENCE OF NONPAINFUL LESIONS ON VISCERA?,
263(2)
SUMMARY,
265(4)
CHAPTER 13 Somatoautonomic Reflex Hypothesis
269(42)
Robert A. Leach and Patrick L. Parker
MODULATION OF SPINAL REFLEXES,
270(1)
Central Modulation,
270(1)
Peripheral Modulation,
271(1)
SOMATOAUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION,
271(5)
Early Osteopathic and Medical Research,
272(1)
Osteopathic Basic Science Research: Louisa Burns,
272(1)
Medical Research: Viscerospinal Syndrome,
272(1)
Experimental Research,
273(1)
Acidity (Gastric),
273(1)
Angina Pectoris,
273(1)
Asthma,
273(1)
Emotions,
274(1)
Epileptogenic Activity,
274(1)
Sympathicotonia: Modern Support for the Korr Hypothesis,
274(1)
Arteriopathy,
274(1)
Cardiovascular-Renal Disorders,
275(1)
Immunocompetence,
275(1)
Neurogenic Pulmonary edema,
275(1)
Peptic Ulcer-Pancreatitis,
275(1)
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy,
275(1)
Shock,
276(1)
Type 2 Diabetes,
276(1)
Uterine Disorders,
276(1)
Visual Disturbances,
276(1)
CMT AND NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS,
276(6)
Clinical Evidence for Somatoautonomic Dysfunction,
276(1)
Barré Syndrome,
276(1)
Bell Palsy,
276(1)
Down Syndrome,
277(1)
Dysphagia,
277(1)
Headache: Migraine Type,
277(2)
Myoclonus,
279(1)
Nystagmus,
279(1)
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy,
279(1)
Seizure Disorders,
280(1)
Spasmodic Dysphonia,
280(1)
Tourette Syndrome,
281(1)
Vertigo (Cervicogenic),
281(1)
CMT AND ORGANIC DISORDERS,
282(19)
Cardiovascular Disease,
283(1)
Coronary Pathophysiology,
283(1)
Angina Pectoris,
283(1)
Dysrhythmias,
284(1)
Myocardial Infarction,
285(1)
Essential Hypertension,
285(1)
Gastrointestinal Disorders,
286(1)
Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction,
287(1)
Gastritis,
288(1)
Genitourinary Disorders,
288(1)
Gynecological Disorders,
289(1)
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding,
289(1)
Dysmenorrhea,
290(1)
Pelvic Pain and Organic Dysfunction (Female),
291(1)
Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain,
292(1)
Premenstrual Syndrome,
292(1)
Opthalmologic Disorders,
293(1)
Pediatric Disorders,
294(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,
294(2)
Colic (Infantile),
296(1)
Dyslexia,
297(1)
Enuresis,
297(1)
Learning and Behavioral Disabilities,
298(1)
Scoliosis,
298(1)
Trauma (Pediatric),
299(1)
Respiratory Disorders,
299(1)
Allergies,
299(1)
Asthma/Asthmatic Bronchitis,
299(2)
Somatic Dyspnea,
301(1)
DISCUSSION: "SOMATIC VISCERAL DISEASE MIMICRY" AND SOMATOAUTONOMIC REFLEXES,
301(4)
SUMMARY,
305(6)
CHAPTER 14 Myelopathy Hypothesis
311(16)
Robert A. Leach
HISTORICAL CHIROPRACTIC CONCEPTS OF MYELOPATHY,
311(1)
SUBLUXATIONS IN THE MEDICAL LITERATURE,
312(1)
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,
313(1)
CERVICAL SUBLUXATION AND SUDDEN INFANT DEATH,
314(3)
Traumatic Birth,
314(1)
Sleep Apnea and Hypoxia,
315(1)
Chiropractic Implications,
315(2)
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF MYELOPATHY,
317(5)
Diagnostic Considerations of Disc Herniation and the Thecal Sac,
317(1)
Spondylosis,
317(1)
Other Causes of Subluxation-Induced Myelopathy,
318(1)
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis,
319(1)
Down Syndrome,
319(1)
Grisel Syndrome,
319(1)
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus,
319(1)
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type 7,
319(1)
Os Odontoideum,
319(1)
Reiter Syndrome,
319(1)
Rheumatoid Arthritis,
320(1)
Tumors,
320(1)
Complications of Chiropractic,
321(1)
Craniosacral Theory,
322(1)
DISCUSSION,
322(2)
SUMMARY,
324(3)
CHAPTER 15 Hypothesis of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
327(12)
Robert A. Leach
CHARACTERISTICS OF VBI,
328(3)
Role of Intervertebral Subluxation in the Origin of VBl,
329(1)
Other Causes of VBl,
330(1)
CHIROPRACTIC CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS,
331(2)
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJUSTMENTS,
333(2)
ETHICS, INFORMED CONSENT, AND THE RISK-BENEFIT RATIO,
335(1)
SUMMARY,
336(3)
CHAPTER 16 Neuroimmune Hypothesis
339(24)
Robert A. Leach and Shane C. Burgess
TRADITIONAL THEORIES OF IMMUNITY,
341(3)
Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory,
341(1)
Network Theory,
341(2)
Systemic Immunity,
343(1)
Cell-Mediated Immunity,
343(1)
Humoral Immunity,
343(1)
Genetic Influence,
344(1)
SELYE'S GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME,
344(2)
Alarm Reaction,
344(1)
Stage of Resistance,
345(1)
Diseases of Adaptation,
345(1)
NEUROENDOCRINE-IMMUNE CONNECTION,
346(2)
MECHANISM OF REFLEX IMMUNOLOGIC COMPETENCE,
348(4)
HYPOTHALAMUS AND IMMUNITY,
352(2)
Connections with the Anterior Hypothalamus,
352(2)
Noradrenergic Interactions with Immunity,
354(1)
SPINAL LESIONS AND IMMUNITY,
354(2)
Early Osteopathic Investigations,
355(1)
Modern Chiropractic Investigations,
355(1)
DISCUSSION,
356(3)
SUMMARY,
359(4)
CHAPTER 17 Clinical Aspects of Chiropractic Theory: Manipulative Effectiveness for Musculoskeletal Syndromes, Lesions, and Undifferentiated Disorders
363(26)
Robert A. Leach
MANIPULATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYNDROMES AND LESIONS,
364(13)
Entrapment Syndromes,
364(1)
Central Spinal Stenosis,
364(1)
Intervertebral Disc Syndrome,
365(3)
Nerve Root Syndromes,
368(1)
Mechanical Syndromes,
368(1)
Adhesive Capsulitis,
369(1)
Facet Syndrome,
369(1)
Meralgia Paresthetica,
369(1)
Rib Fixation,
369(1)
Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome,
370(1)
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome,
370(1)
Muscular Syndromes,
371(1)
Cervicogenic Headache,
371(1)
Fibrositis Syndrome (Myofascitis, Fibromyalgia),
372(2)
Snapping Hip Syndrome,
374(1)
Strain-Sprain Injuries,
375(1)
Torticollis,
376(1)
Uncomplicated-Complicated Sciatica,
376(1)
MANIPULATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FOR UNDIFFERENTIATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS,
377(6)
Low Back Pain,
377(1)
Randomized Controlled Trials,
378(2)
Other Studies,
380(1)
Neck Pain,
381(1)
Randomized Controlled Trials,
381(1)
Other Studies,
382(1)
Other Disorders,
382(1)
Cervical End Range Motion Asymmetries,
382(1)
Sacroiliac Joint and Gait Disturbances,
382(1)
DISCUSSION,
383(1)
SUMMARY,
384(5)
CHAPTER 18 Axoplasmic Aberration Hypothesis
389(10)
Robert A. Leach
UNIFYING TRANSPORT MECHANISM,
389(1)
ANTEROGRADE AND RETROGRADE AXT,
390(1)
NERVE COMPRESSION AND AXT,
391(1)
DISCUSSION,
392(1)
SUMMARY,
393(6)
SECTION IV Alternative Approaches to Chiropractic Theory
CHAPTER 19 Wellness Hypothesis
399(18)
Cheryl K. Hawk
WHY WELLNESS?,
399(3)
Primary Health-Care Providers or Back Doctors?,
399(1)
Disease Model Versus Health Model,
399(1)
Adding Wellness to the Health-Care Equation,
400(1)
Who Will Be Wellness Providers?,
401(1)
A WELLNESS MODEL FOR CHIROPRACTIC,
402(10)
Basic Principles of a Chiropractic Wellness Model,
402(1)
The Chiropractic Clinical Encounter from a Wellness Model Perspective,
403(1)
Acceptance,
404(1)
Validation,
404(1)
Expectations,
404(1)
Explanations,
404(1)
Clinical Actions,
405(1)
Engagement of the Patient,
405(1)
Implications for Chiropractic Education,
405(2)
Implications for Chiropractic Research,
407(1)
How the Biomedical Model Affects Chiropractic Clinical Research,
408(1)
Alternative Hypotheses Based on the Wellness Model,
409(1)
Developing Wellness Hypotheses: Where Are We Looking for the Key?,
410(2)
DISCUSSION,
412(1)
SUMMARY,
412(5)
CHAPTER 20 Social Theory of Chiropractic
417(10)
Reed B. Phillips
FOUNDATIONS, 417
Health, 417
Disease, 417
Illness,
418(1)
ASSUMPTIONS,
418(1)
THEORETICAL MODELS,
419(1)
Disease Model,
419(1)
Symptom Model,
419(1)
Social Model,
419(1)
CHIROPRACTIC'S ROLE IN SOCIETY,
420(2)
Functional and Stress-related Illnesses,
420(2)
Chiropractic's Role in the Social Model,
422(1)
SUMMARY,
422(5)
SECTION V The Future of Chiropractic Research
CHAPTER 21 Disproved and Untested Hypotheses
427(12)
Robert A. Leach
IS THERE EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL SUPPORT FOR VSC?,
427(5)
ACC Definition of VSC,
428(2)
Subluxation Syndrome,
430(1)
Leach Modification of the VSC Model,
430(2)
UNTESTED HYPOTHESES,
432(2)
The First 100 Years of Chiropractic,
432(1)
Foot Reflexology,
432(1)
Iridology,
433(1)
Toftness Technique Theory,
433(1)
Research of Alternative Ideas,
433(1)
Hypotheses Associated with Applied Kinesiology,
434(1)
DISCUSSION,
434(2)
SUMMARY,
436(3)
CHAPTER 22 New Questions: Promising Areas for Future Research
439(18)
Robert A. Leach
ACC: CHIROPRACTIC PHILOSOPHY AND MISSION,
441(1)
CHIROPRACTIC BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH,
441(2)
CHIROPRACTIC CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS,
443(9)
Restoration of Health,
443(1)
Effectiveness and Efficacy Trials of LBP and Neck Pain,
444(1)
Trials of Other Clinical Outcomes,
444(1)
Research of VSC Theory: Validity of Mediating Variables,
445(3)
Barriers to Validity Research of Subluxation Mediators,
448(1)
Importance of Validity Trials of VSC Mediating Variables,
449(2)
Wellness and Preservation of Health,
451(1)
DISCUSSION,
452(1)
SUMMARY,
453(4)
Index 457

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