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Christian Theology: An Introduction, 4th Edition

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Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9781405153607

ISBN10:
1405153601
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell
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Summary

Alister McGrath's internationally-acclaimed Christian Theology: An Introduction is one of the most widely used textbooks in Christian theology. Fully revised and featuring lots of new material, this fourth edition provides an unparalleled introduction to 2,000 years of Christian thought. A fully revised new edition of the bestselling introductory textbook in Christian theology Features new sections on monastic schools of theology, the English Reformation, and Radical Orthodoxy Includes increased discussion of women in the early Church, feminist theology, Eastern Orthodox theology and history, and Catholic teachings on the Doctrine of the Church Incorporates user-friendly key terms sections, and study questions Supported by a website at www.blackwellpublishing.com/mcgrath, containing additional lecturer resources.

Author Biography

Alister E. McGrath is Professor of Historical Theology at Oxford University, and Senior Research Fellow at Harris Manchester College, Oxford. He is a world-renowned theologian, and is the author of numerous bestselling titles available through Blackwell Publishing, including The Christian Theology Reader 3rd edition (2007), Theology: The Basics (2004), Christianity: An Introduction 2nd edition (2006), A Brief History of Heaven (2003), and Dawkins’ God (2004).

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
xx
Preface xxi
Mission Statement xxiii
To the Student: How to Use this Work xxiv
To the Teacher: How to Use this Book xxvi
Resources for Further Study: Bibliographies and Websites xxviii
Acknowledgments xxix
Part I Landmarks: Periods, Themes, and Personalities of Christian Theology
1(98)
Introduction
3(2)
The Patristic Period, c.100--c.700
5(17)
The Early Centers of Theological Activity
5(2)
An Overview of the Patristic Period
7(2)
A clarification of terms
7(1)
The theological agenda of the period
7(2)
Key Theologians
9(3)
Justin Martyr
9(1)
Irenaeus of Lyons
9(1)
Origen
10(1)
Tertullian
10(1)
Cyprian of Carthage
10(1)
Athanasius
10(1)
The Cappadocian fathers
11(1)
Augustine of Hippo
11(1)
Key Theological Debates and Developments
12(8)
The extent of the New Testament canon
12(1)
The role of tradition: the Gnostic controversies
13(1)
The fixing of the ecumenical creeds
14(2)
The two natures of Jesus Christ: the Arian controversy
16(1)
The doctrine of the Trinity
17(1)
The doctrine of the church: the Donatist controversy
17(1)
The doctrine of grace: the Pelagian controversy
18(2)
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
20(1)
Questions for Chapter 1
20(2)
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, c.700--c. 1500
22(21)
On Defining the ``Middle Ages''
22(3)
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Western Europe
25(6)
The Carolingian renaissance
25(1)
The rise of cathedral and monastic schools of theology
26(1)
The religious orders and their ``schools of theology''
27(1)
The founding of the universities
27(1)
Peter Lombard's Four Books of the Sentences
28(1)
The rise of scholasticism
29(1)
The Italian Renaissance
29(1)
The rise of humanism
30(1)
Medieval Theological Landmarks in Eastern Europe
31(2)
The emergence of Byzantine theology
31(1)
The iconoclastic controversy
32(1)
The hesychastic controversy
32(1)
The fall of Constantinople (1453)
32(1)
Key Theologians
33(5)
John of Damascus
33(1)
Simeon the New Theologian
34(1)
Anselm of Canterbury
34(1)
Thomas Aquinas
35(1)
Duns Scotus
36(1)
William of Ockham
36(1)
Erasmus of Rotterdam
37(1)
Key Theological Developments
38(4)
The consolidation of the patristic heritage
38(1)
The exploration of the role of reason in theology
38(1)
The development of theological systems
39(1)
The development of sacramental theology
40(1)
The development of the theology of grace
40(1)
The role of Mary in the scheme of salvation
40(1)
Returning directly to the sources of Christian theology
40(1)
The critique of the Vulgate translation of Scripture
41(1)
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
42(1)
Questions for Chapter 2
42(1)
The Age of Reformation, c.1500--c.1750
43(22)
Introducing the Reformation
43(3)
Reformation -- or Reformations?
44(2)
The Dynamics of Reformation
46(5)
The German Reformation -- Lutheranism
46(1)
The Swiss Reformation -- the Reformed church
47(1)
The Radical Reformation -- Anabaptism
48(1)
The English Reformation -- Anglicanism
48(1)
The Catholic Reformation
49(1)
The Second Reformation -- Confessionalization
50(1)
Post-Reformation Movements
51(3)
The consolidation of Roman Catholicism
52(1)
Puritanism
53(1)
Pietism
53(1)
Key Theologians
54(4)
Martin Luther
55(1)
Huldrych Zwingli
55(1)
John Calvin
56(1)
Teresa of Avila
56(1)
Theodore Beza
57(1)
Johann Gerhard
57(1)
Roberto Bellarmine
57(1)
Jonathan Edwards
57(1)
Key Theological Developments
58(2)
The sources of theology
58(1)
The doctrine of grace
58(1)
The doctrine of the sacraments
59(1)
The doctrine of the church
59(1)
Developments in Theological Literature
60(4)
The catechisms
60(1)
Confessions of faith
61(1)
Works of systematic theology
62(2)
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
64(1)
Questions for Chapter 3
64(1)
The Modern Period, c. 1750--the Present
65(34)
Theology and Cultural Developments in the West
66(9)
Modernism: the new intellectual environment for theology
67(1)
The Enlightenment critique of traditional theology
67(3)
Romanticism and the renewal of the theological imagination
70(1)
The crisis of faith in Victorian England: George Eliot and Matthew Arnold
71(1)
An intellectual rival to Christianity: Marxism
72(1)
Postmodernism and a new theological agenda
73(2)
Key Theologians
75(3)
F. D. E. Schleiermacher
75(1)
John Henry Newman
75(1)
Karl Barth
76(1)
Paul Tillich
76(1)
Karl Rahner
76(1)
Hans Urs von Balthasar
77(1)
Jurgen Moltmann
77(1)
Wolfhart Pannenberg
77(1)
Denominational Developments in Theology
78(4)
Roman Catholicism
78(1)
Eastern Orthodoxy
79(1)
Protestantism
80(1)
Evangelicalism
80(1)
Pentecostalism and charismatic movements
81(1)
Some Recent Western Theological Movements and Trends
82(12)
Liberal Protestantism
82(2)
Roman Catholic modernism
84(1)
Neo-orthodoxy
85(2)
Ressourcement, or, La nouvelle theologie
87(1)
Feminism
88(2)
Liberation theology
90(1)
Black theology
91(1)
Postliberalism
92(2)
Radical orthodoxy
94(1)
Theologies of the Developing World
94(3)
India
95(1)
Africa
96(1)
Key Names, Words, and Phrases
97(1)
Questions for Chapter 4
97(2)
Part II Sources and Methods
99(102)
Getting Started: Preliminaries
101(20)
Defining Theology
101(4)
A working definition of theology
101(1)
The historical development of the idea of theology
102(1)
The development of theology as an academic discipline
103(2)
The Architecture of Theology
105(6)
Biblical studies
105(1)
Systematic theology
106(1)
Philosophical theology
107(1)
Historical theology
108(1)
Pastoral theology
109(1)
Spirituality, or mystical theology
109(2)
The Question of Prolegomena
111(1)
Commitment and Neutrality in Theology
112(2)
Orthodoxy and Heresy
114(2)
Historical aspects
114(1)
Theological aspects
115(1)
The Theology of the Relation of Christianity and Secular Culture
116(4)
Justin Martyr
117(1)
Tertullian
117(1)
Augustine of Hippo
118(1)
The twentieth century: H. Richard Niebuhr
119(1)
Questions for Chapter 5
120(1)
The Sources of Theology
121(32)
Scripture
121(15)
The Old Testament
121(1)
The New Testament
122(1)
Other works: deutero-canonical and apocryphal writings
123(2)
The relation of the Old and New Testaments
125(2)
The Word of God
127(1)
Narrative theology
128(1)
Methods of interpretation of Scripture
129(5)
Theories of the inspiration of Scripture
134(2)
Tradition
136(5)
A single-source theory of tradition
138(1)
A dual-source theory of tradition
139(1)
The total rejection of tradition
139(1)
Theology and worship: the importance of liturgical tradition
140(1)
Reason
141(4)
Reason and revelation: three models
141(1)
Deism
142(1)
Enlightenment rationalism
143(1)
Criticisms of Enlightenment rationalism
144(1)
Religious Experience
145(7)
Existentialism: a philosophy of human experience
146(1)
Experience and theology: two models
147(4)
Ludwig Feuerbach's critique of experience-based theologies
151(1)
Questions for Chapter 6
152(1)
Knowledge of God: Natural and Revealed
153(20)
The Idea of Revelation
153(2)
Models of Revelation
155(4)
Revelation as doctrine
155(1)
Revelation as presence
156(1)
Revelation as experience
157(1)
Revelation as history
158(1)
Natural Theology: Its Scope and Limits
159(5)
Thomas Aquinas on natural theology
160(1)
John Calvin on natural theology
161(2)
The Reformed tradition on natural theology
163(1)
God's two books: nature and Scripture
163(1)
Approaches to Discerning God in Nature
164(1)
Human reason
164(1)
The ordering of the world
164(1)
The beauty of the world
165(1)
Objections to Natural Theology
165(5)
A theological objection: Karl Barth
165(1)
A theological response: Thomas F. Torrance
166(1)
A philosophical objection: Alvin Plantinga
167(1)
A philosophical response: William Alston
168(1)
A debate: Karl Barth versus Emil Brunner (1934)
169(1)
The Natural Sciences and Christian Theology: Models of Interaction
170(2)
The continuity between science and theology
170(1)
The distinctiveness of science and theology
171(1)
The convergence of science and theology
171(1)
The opposition of science and theology
172(1)
Questions for Chapter 7
172(1)
Philosophy and Theology: Introducing a Dialogue
173(28)
Philosophy and Theology: The Notion of the ``Handmaid''
174(7)
The ``handmaid'': the dialogue between theology and philosophy
174(2)
Platonism
176(1)
Aristotelianism
177(1)
Verification and falsification: can Christian ideas be proved?
178(2)
The debate over realism: to what do theological statements refer?
180(1)
The Nature of Faith
181(2)
Faith and knowledge
181(1)
Faith and salvation
182(1)
Can God's Existence be Proved?
183(10)
Anselm of Canterbury's ontological argument
184(3)
Thomas Aquinas's Five Ways
187(2)
The kalam argument
189(1)
The classic argument from design: William Paley
190(3)
The Nature of Theological Language
193(7)
Apophatic and kataphatic approaches to theology
193(1)
Analogy
194(2)
Metaphor
196(1)
Accommodation
197(1)
A case study: the Copernican debate
198(2)
Questions for Chapter 8
200(1)
Part III Christian Theology
201(285)
The Doctrine of God
203(40)
Is God Male?
203(2)
A Personal God
205(4)
Defining ``person''
206(1)
Dialogical personalism: Martin Buber
207(2)
Can God Suffer?
209(7)
The classic view: the impassibility of God
210(1)
A suffering God: Jurgen Moltmann
211(3)
The death of God?
214(2)
The Omnipotence of God
216(3)
Defining omnipotence
216(1)
The two powers of God
217(1)
The notion of divine self-limitation
218(1)
God's Action in the World
219(4)
Deism: God acts through the laws of nature
219(1)
Thomism: God acts through secondary causes
220(1)
Process theology: God acts through persuasion
221(1)
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Point Omega
222(1)
God as Creator
223(8)
Development of the doctrine of creation
224(1)
Creation and the rejection of dualism
225(1)
The doctrine of creation ex nihilo
226(1)
Implications of the doctrine of creation
227(1)
Models of God as creator
228(2)
Creation and Christian approaches to ecology
230(1)
Theodicies: The Problem of Evil
231(4)
Irenaeus of Lyons
231(1)
Augustine of Hippo
232(1)
Karl Barth
233(1)
Alvin Plantinga
233(1)
Other recent contributions
234(1)
The Holy Spirit
235(7)
Models of the Holy Spirit
235(2)
The debate over the divinity of the Holy Spirit
237(2)
Augustine of Hippo: the Spirit as bond of love
239(1)
The functions of the Spirit
240(2)
Questions for Chapter 9
242(1)
The Doctrine of the Trinity
243(29)
The Origins of the Christian Doctrine of the Trinity
243(5)
The apparent illogicality of the doctrine
243(2)
The Trinity as a statement about Jesus Christ
245(1)
The Trinity as a statement about the Christian God
245(2)
Islamic critiques of the doctrine of the Trinity
247(1)
The Biblical Foundations of the Doctrine of the Trinity
248(1)
The Historical Development of the Doctrine
249(5)
The emergence of the trinitarian vocabulary
249(1)
The emergence of trinitarian concepts
250(2)
The problem of visualization: analogies of the Trinity
252(1)
``Economic'' and ``essential'' approaches to the Trinity
253(1)
Two Trinitarian Heresies
254(3)
Modalism: chronological and functional
254(1)
Tritheism
255(2)
The Trinity: Six Classic and Contemporary Approaches
257(8)
The Cappadocians
257(1)
Augustine of Hippo
258(2)
Karl Barth
260(1)
Karl Rahner
261(1)
Robert Jenson
262(2)
John Macquarrie
264(1)
Some Discussions of the Trinity in Recent Theology
265(3)
F. D. E. Schleiermacher on the dogmatic location of the Trinity
265(1)
Jurgen Moltmann on the social Trinity
265(1)
Eberhard Jungel on the Trinity and metaphysics
266(1)
Catherine Mowry LaCugna on the Trinity and salvation
267(1)
The Filioque Controversy
268(3)
Questions for Chapter 10
271(1)
The Doctrine of the Person of Christ
272(33)
The Place of Jesus Christ in Christian Theology
273(3)
Jesus Christ is the historical point of departure for Christianity
274(1)
Jesus Christ reveals God
274(1)
Jesus Christ is the bearer of salvation
275(1)
Jesus Christ defines the shape of the redeemed life
275(1)
New Testament Christological Titles
276(5)
Messiah
276(1)
Son of God
277(1)
Son of Man
278(1)
Lord
279(1)
Savior
279(1)
God
280(1)
The Patristic Debate over the Person of Christ
281(10)
Early contributions: from Justin Martyr to Origen
282(1)
The Arian controversy
283(3)
The Alexandrian school
286(1)
The Antiochene school
287(2)
The ``communication of attributes''
289(1)
Adolf von Harnack on the evolution of patristic Christology
290(1)
The Relation of the Incarnation and the Fall in Medieval Christology
291(1)
The Relation Between the Person and Work of Christ
292(2)
Christological Models -- Classic and Contemporary
294(10)
The substantial presence of God in Christ
295(1)
Christ as mediator between God and humanity
296(1)
The revelational presence of God in Christ
297(1)
Christ as a symbolic presence of God
298(1)
Christ as the bearer of the Holy Spirit
299(1)
Christ as the example of a godly life
300(1)
Christ as a hero
301(1)
Kenotic approaches to Christology
302(2)
Questions for Chapter 11
304(1)
Faith and History: The Christological Agenda of Modernity
305(21)
Faith and History: A Modernist Agenda
305(1)
The Enlightenment and Christology
305(3)
The philosophical uselessness of history
306(1)
The critique of miracles
306(1)
The development of doctrinal criticism
307(1)
The Problem of Faith and History
308(2)
The chronological difficulty
308(1)
The metaphysical difficulty
309(1)
The existential difficulty
310(1)
The Quest of the Historical Jesus
310(10)
The original quest of the historical Jesus
311(1)
The quest for the religious personality of Jesus
312(1)
The critique of the quest, 1890-1910
313(3)
The retreat from history: Rudolf Bultmann
316(1)
The new quest of the historical Jesus
317(1)
The third quest of the historical Jesus
318(2)
The Resurrection of Christ: Event and Meaning
320(5)
The Enlightenment: the resurrection as nonevent
320(1)
David Friedrich Strauss: the resurrection as myth
320(2)
Rudolf Bultmann: the resurrection as an event in the experience of the disciples
322(1)
Karl Barth: the resurrection as an historical event beyond critical inquiry
322(1)
Wolfhart Pannenberg: the resurrection as an historical event open to critical inquiry
323(2)
Resurrection and the Christian hope
325(1)
Questions for Chapter 12
325(1)
The Doctrine of Salvation in Christ
326(34)
Christian Approaches to Salvation
327(3)
Salvation is linked with Jesus Christ
327(2)
Salvation is shaped by Jesus Christ
329(1)
The eschatological dimension of salvation
329(1)
The Foundations of Salvation: The Cross of Christ
330(19)
The cross as a sacrifice
330(4)
The cross as a victory
334(3)
The cross and forgiveness
337(6)
The cross as a demonstration of God's love
343(5)
Violence and the cross: the theory of Rene Girard
348(1)
Models of Salvation in Christ -- Classic and Contemporary
349(5)
Some Pauline images of salvation
350(1)
Deification: being made divine
351(1)
Righteousness in the sight of God
351(1)
Personal holiness
352(1)
Authentic human existence
353(1)
Political liberation
353(1)
Spiritual freedom
354(1)
The Appropriation of Salvation in Christ
354(2)
The institutionalization of salvation: the church
354(1)
The privatization of salvation: personal faith
355(1)
The Scope of Salvation in Christ
356(3)
Universalism: all will be saved
356(1)
Only believers will be saved
357(1)
Particular redemption: only the elect will be saved
358(1)
Questions for Chapter 13
359(1)
The Doctrines of Human Nature, Sin, and Grace
360(31)
The Place of Humanity Within Creation: Early Reflections
360(2)
The image of God
360(2)
The concept of sin
362(1)
Augustine of Hippo and the Pelagian Controversy
362(6)
The ``freedom of the will''
363(1)
The nature of sin
364(1)
The nature of grace
365(2)
The basis of salvation
367(1)
The Medieval Synthesis of the Doctrine of Grace
368(3)
The Augustinian legacy
368(1)
The medieval distinction between actual and habitual grace
369(1)
The late medieval critique of habitual grace
370(1)
The medieval debate over the nature and grounds of merit
370(1)
The Reformation Debates over the Doctrine of Grace
371(9)
From ``salvation by grace'' to ``justification by faith''
372(1)
Martin Luther's theological breakthrough
372(1)
Luther on justifying faith
373(2)
The concept of forensic justification
375(1)
John Calvin on justification
376(1)
The Council of Trent on justification
377(3)
The Doctrine of Predestination
380(7)
Augustine of Hippo
380(1)
John Calvin
381(1)
Reformed orthodoxy
382(1)
Arminianism
383(1)
Karl Barth
384(1)
Predestination and economics: the Weber thesis
385(2)
The Darwinian Controversy and the Nature of Humanity
387(3)
Young earth creationism
387(1)
Old earth creationism
388(1)
Intelligent design
388(1)
Evolutionary theism
388(2)
Questions for Chapter 14
390(1)
The Doctrine of the Church
391(28)
Biblical Models of the Church
391(2)
The Old Testament
391(1)
The New Testament
392(1)
The Early Development of Ecclesiology
393(1)
The Donatist Controversy
394(2)
Early Protestant Doctrines of the Church
396(6)
Martin Luther
397(1)
John Calvin
398(2)
The radical Reformation
400(2)
Christ and the Church: Some Twentieth-century Themes
402(4)
Christ is present sacramentally
402(2)
Christ is present through the word
404(1)
Christ is present through the Spirit
405(1)
The Second Vatican Council on the Church
406(2)
The church as communion
407(1)
The church as the people of God
407(1)
The church as a charismatic community
408(1)
The ``Notes'' of the Church
408(9)
One
408(4)
Holy
412(1)
Catholic
413(3)
Apostolic
416(1)
Questions for Chapter 15
417(2)
The Doctrine of the Sacraments
419(26)
The Early Development of Sacramental Theology
420(1)
The Definition of a Sacrament
421(3)
The Donatist Controversy: Sacramental Efficacy
424(2)
The Multiple Functions of the Sacraments
426(7)
Sacraments convey grace
426(1)
Sacraments strengthen faith
427(1)
Sacraments enhance unity and commitment within the church
428(2)
Sacraments reassure us of God's promises toward us
430(1)
A case study in complexity: the functions of the Eucharist
431(2)
The Eucharist: The Question of the Real Presence
433(7)
The ninth-century debates over the real presence
434(1)
The medieval clarification of the relation of ``sign'' and ``sacrament'' in the Eucharist
435(1)
Transubstantiation
436(1)
Transignification and transfinalization
437(2)
Consubstantiation
439(1)
A real absence: memorialism
440(1)
The Debate Concerning Infant Baptism
440(4)
Infant baptism remits the guilt of original sin
441(1)
Infant baptism is grounded in the covenant between God and the church
442(1)
Infant baptism is unjustified
443(1)
Questions for Chapter 16
444(1)
Christianity and the World Religions
445(19)
Western Pluralism and the Question of Other Religions
446(1)
Approaches to Religions
447(8)
The Enlightenment: religions as a corruption of the original religion of nature
448(1)
Ludwig Feuerbach: religion as an objectification of human feeling
449(1)
Karl Marx: religion as the product of socioeconomic alienation
450(1)
Sigmund Freud: religion as wish-fulfillment
451(1)
Emile Durkheim: religion and ritual
452(1)
Mircea Eliade: religion and myth
453(1)
Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer: religion as a human invention
454(1)
Christian Approaches to Other Religions
455(8)
Exclusivism
457(1)
Inclusivism
458(2)
Pluralism
460(2)
Parallelism
462(1)
Questions for Chapter 17
463(1)
The Last Things: The Christian Hope
464(22)
Developments in the Doctrine of the Last Things
465(12)
The New Testament
465(2)
Early Christianity and Roman beliefs about reunion after death
467(1)
Augustine: the two cities
468(1)
Joachim of Fiore: the three ages
468(1)
Dante Alighieri: the Divine Comedy
469(2)
Hope in the face of death: Jeremy Taylor
471(1)
The Enlightenment: eschatology as superstition
472(1)
The twentieth century: the rediscovery of eschatology
472(1)
Rudolf Bultmann: the demythologization of eschatology
473(1)
Jurgen Moltmann: the theology of hope
474(1)
Helmut Thielicke: ethics and eschatology
475(1)
Dispensationalism: the structures of eschatology
476(1)
The Last Things
477(8)
Hell
477(2)
Purgatory
479(1)
The millennium
480(2)
Heaven
482(3)
Questions for Chapter 18
485(1)
Glossary of Theological Terms 486(9)
Sources of Citations 495(11)
Index 506


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