9780824798710

Chronic Lung Disease in Early Infancy

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780824798710

  • ISBN10:

    0824798716

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-09-21
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Presents the clinical & pathological features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a disease that accounts for the majority of long-term hospitalizations, slow growth, & recurrent early childhood respiratory ailments that are common in low-birth-weight newborns. Highlights relevant animal models for studying the process of chronic lung disease through its evolution & during recovery. Written by nearly 75 leading international authorities on lung disease during early childhood development.

Table of Contents

Introduction iii
Claude Lenfant
Preface v
Contributors vii
Part One CLINICAL ASPECTS
Historical Perspective: Early Observations and Subsequent Evolution of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
1(20)
William H. Northway, Jr.
Introduction and Background
1(1)
Historical Perspective
2(3)
Early Observations
5(3)
The Evolution of BPD
8(13)
References
14(7)
Epidemiology of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Clinical Risk Factors and Associated Clinical Conditions
21(20)
Alma Martinez
Peter Dargaville
H. William Taeusch
Introduction
21(1)
Major Perinatal Clinical Risk Factors for BPD
22(7)
Clinical Risk Scoring Systems
29(3)
Postnatal Factors That Affect BPD
32(4)
Summary
36(5)
References
36(5)
Clinical Course and Lung Function Abnormalities During Development of Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease
41(24)
Eduardo Bancalari
Alvaro Gonzalez
Introduction
41(1)
Definition and Incidence
42(1)
Clinical Presentation
43(10)
Differential Diagnosis of CLD
53(1)
Lung Function During Development of CLD
54(3)
Therapeutic Interventions and Lung Function During Development of CLD
57(8)
References
59(6)
Radiographic Features of BPD and Potential Application of New Imaging Techniques
65(20)
David K. Edwards
William H. Northway, Jr.
Introduction
65(1)
The Radiographic Progression of BPD
65(3)
BPD as a Chronic Lung Disease
68(4)
New Imaging Techniques
72(2)
Potential Applications
74(11)
References
79(6)
Pathology of Chronic Lung Disease of Early Infancy
85(40)
Jacqueline J. Coalson
Introduction
85(1)
Comparison of Classic BPD Pathology with BPD Pathology in the 1990s
86(15)
Major Differences in ``Old'' BPD Versus ``New'' BPD Pathology: Airway and Interstitial Disease
101(7)
Alveolar Hypoplasia and Vascular Dysmorphic Changes: The Consistent Findings in New BPD
108(6)
Pathogenesis of BPD in the 1990s
114(3)
Summary
117(8)
References
118(7)
The Usefulness of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Infants with Evolving Chronic Lung Disease
125(22)
Carl W. White
Leland L. Fan
Introduction
125(1)
General Considerations
126(6)
Inflammation: Marker or Protagonist of Injury?
132(7)
Clinical Usefulness of BAL in BPD
139(1)
Conclusion
140(7)
References
141(6)
Inflammatory Mediators in Neonatal Lung Disease
147(16)
Christian P. Speer
Peter Groneck
Introduction
147(1)
Neutrophils and Macrophages
148(1)
Neutrophil and Macrophage Recruitment
149(1)
Cytokines
150(2)
Elastolytic Damage
152(1)
Inflammatory Mediators and Pulmonary Infections
153(1)
Pulmonary Protein Leaks
154(1)
Oxygen Toxicity
155(1)
Conclusions and Outlook
156(7)
References
157(6)
Infection in the Pathogenesis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
163(10)
William E. Benitz
Ann M. Arvin
Introduction
163(1)
Epidemiological Correlations
164(3)
Pathogenetic Mechanisms
167(6)
References
169(4)
Ventilation Strategies and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
173(36)
W. Alan Hodson
Introduction
173(1)
Barotrauma Versus Volutrauma
174(2)
Site of Pathology and Ventilatory Strategy
176(5)
Modes of Conventional Ventilators
181(2)
High-Frequency Ventilation
183(3)
Strategies to Minimize Barotrauma
186(6)
Liquid Ventilation
192(3)
Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation
195(1)
Other Forms of Respiratory Support
196(2)
Future Needs
198(1)
Summary
199(10)
References
200(9)
Effect of Respiratory Care Practices on the Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
209(28)
Michael R. Gomez
Thomas N. Hansen
Introduction
209(1)
Gas Temperature and Humidity
210(19)
Aspiration
229(3)
Conclusions
232(5)
References
233(4)
Influence of Surfactant Replacement on Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
237(20)
Alan H. Jobe
Statement of the Question
237(1)
Review of the Clinical Data
238(3)
Why Should Surfactant Treatments Decrease BPD?
241(5)
Why Surfactant Treatment Might Not Affect the Incidence of BPD
246(5)
Summary
251(6)
References
252(5)
Drug Treatment for Established BPD
257(28)
Thomas A. Hazinski
Introduction
257(2)
Oxygen Therapy
259(1)
Diuretic Therapy
260(4)
Inhaled Bronchodilator Therapy
264(3)
Anti-Inflammatory Therapy
267(2)
Nutrition Therapy
269(3)
Other Drug Treatments for BPD
272(1)
Future Research Directions
273(2)
Summary
275(10)
References
276(9)
Nutritional Issues in Chronic Lung Disease of Premature Infants
285(12)
Ilene R.S. Sosenko
Michael T. Kinter
Robert J. Roberts
Introduction
285(1)
Negative Influence of General Undernutrition and Protein Malnutrition on Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury
286(1)
Lipid and Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury: Helpful or Harmful?
287(4)
Influence of Additional Nutrients (Inositol, Selenium, and Vitamin A) on Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury
291(2)
Conclusion
293(4)
References
293(4)
Pulmonary Function in BPD and Its Aftermath
297(24)
Eric C. Eichenwald
Ann R. Stark
Introduction
297(1)
Clinical Evaluation of Infants and Children with BPD
298(1)
Growth Failure in Infants with BPD
299(1)
Exacerbations with Intercurrent Illness
300(1)
Techniques, Interpretation, and Limits of Pulmonary Function Testing in Infants with BPD
301(5)
Pulmonary Function in BPD: Infancy and Beyond
306(7)
Conclusions and Future Directions
313(8)
References
314(7)
Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
321(36)
Michael Apkon
Rodrigo A. Nehgme
George Lister
Introduction
321(2)
Disturbances in Cardiovascular Function
323(13)
Therapeutic Strategies
336(10)
Summary
346(11)
References
346(11)
Long-Term Recovery from Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
357(10)
Solomon Alkrinawi
Victor Chernick
Introduction
357(2)
Physical Examination
359(1)
Pulmonary Function
359(2)
Airway Hyperreactivity
361(1)
Radiographic Study of the Chest
362(2)
Concluding Remarks
364(3)
References
364(3)
The Goal: Prevention of BPD
367(10)
Mildred T. Stahlman
Introduction
367(2)
Predisposing Factors
369(8)
References
374(3)
Part Two NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ALVEOLAR AND AIRWAY DEVELOPMENT
Unique Features of the Immature Lung That Make It Vulnerable to Injury
377(28)
Scott H. Randell
Stephen L. Young
Introduction
377(1)
The Airways
378(9)
The Parenchyma
387(18)
References
396(9)
Hormonal Effects on Lung Maturation and Disease
405(26)
Philip L. Ballard
Roberta A. Ballard
Introduction
405(1)
Prental Corticosteroid Therapy and Newborn Lung Disease
406(2)
Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Lung Maturation
408(1)
Combined Glucocorticoid and Thyroid Hormone Treatment
409(10)
Clinical Trials of Antenatal Corticosteroid Plus TRH Therapy
419(3)
Summary
422(9)
References
423(8)
Mechanisms and Physiological Sequelae of Reactive Species Injury to the Alveolar Epithelium
431(26)
Imad Y. Haddad
Sha Zhu
Samuel J. Tilden
Sadis Matalon
Introduction and Purpose
431(1)
Structure of the Newborn and Adult Alveolar Epithelium
432(1)
Oxidant Stress in the Developing Lung
433(1)
Biology of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species
434(5)
NO-Derived Effects on the Alveolar Epithelium
439(10)
Lesson from Basic Research: Development of Rational Therapeutic Interventions to Limit Oxidant Injury
449(8)
References
450(7)
Surfactant in Chronic Lung Injury
457(22)
Richard J. King
Samuel Hawgood
Introduction
457(1)
Composition and Functions of Pulmonary Surfactant
458(4)
Experimental Studies on Surfactant in Chronic Lung Injury
462(7)
Involvement of Surfactant in Patients with Chronic Lung Injury
469(2)
Conclusions
471(8)
References
472(7)
The Regulation of the Formation of Pulmonary Alveoli
479(14)
Donald J. Massaro
Gloria D. Massaro
Introduction
479(1)
Architectural Maturation of the Lung's Gas-Exchange Region: From Saccules to Alveoli
480(1)
Formation of Alveoli
481(7)
Relation of Experimental Work to the Lung and Its Development in Prematurely Born Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
488(5)
References
489(4)
Factors Mediating Cell Growth in Lung Injury
493(42)
A. Keith Tanswell
Shilpa Buch
Mingyao Liu
Martin Post
Introduction
493(1)
Regulation of Cell Division
494(4)
Regulation of Normal Lung Growth by Growth Factors
498(5)
The Influence of Physical Factors on Lung Cell Growth
503(3)
The Influence of Oxygen on Lung Cell Growth
506(3)
Epithelial--Mesenchymal Interactions in Lung Injury
509(1)
Specific Growth Factors in Lung Injury
510(3)
Problems of Interpretation
513(1)
Foci for Future Research
514(21)
References
515(20)
Developmental Airway Structure and Function in Health and Chronic Lung Injury
535(34)
Howard B. Panitch
Thomas H. Shaffer
Introduction
535(1)
Developmental Morphology
536(11)
Functional Characteristics of the Immature Airway
547(8)
Clinical Assessment of Airway Function
555(6)
Summary
561(8)
References
562(7)
Part Three NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE LUNG CIRCULATION AND INTERSTITIUM
Lung Development and the Effects of Chronic Hypoxia
569(28)
Sheila G. Haworth
Introduction
569(1)
Normal Development of the Human Lung
569(10)
Effect of Chronic Hypoxia on Lung Development
579(10)
The Future: Where Do We Go from Here?
589(8)
References
591(6)
Altered Development of the Pulmonary Circulation in Chronic Lung Injury
597(22)
Marlene Rabinovitch
Introduction
597(1)
Structural Changes in Pulmonary Arteries
598(1)
Acute and Chronic Infection
598(11)
Hypoxia
609(1)
Oxygen Toxicity and Barotrauma
610(1)
High Flow and Pressure
610(4)
Chronic Lung Injury: Questions to Be Solved
614(5)
References
614(5)
Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy: Pathogenesis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment
619(50)
Steven H. Abman
Introduction
619(2)
Perinatal Pulmonary Circulation: Developmental Aspects
621(5)
Effects of Lung Injury on the Developing Pulmonary Circulation
626(7)
Pulmonary Hypertension in Premature Neonates with Severe RDS
633(3)
Pulmonary Hypertension in CLD of Infancy
636(13)
Conclusions and Future Directions
649(20)
References
650(19)
Connective Tissues in Lung Development and Diseases in Early Infancy
669(42)
David J. Riley
Introduction
669(1)
Extracellular Matrix: General
670(15)
ECM Proteins in Lung Development
685(3)
Connective Tissue Changes in Lung Diseases of Early Infancy
688(7)
Future Directions
695(16)
References
697(14)
Pulmonary Edema After Premature Birth: Progression from Acute to Chronic Lung Disease
711(38)
Richard D. Bland
David P. Carlton
Introduction
711(2)
Lung Fluid Balance During Fetal Development
713(5)
Postnatal Lung Fluid Balance
718(17)
Lingering Questions
735(14)
References
737(12)
Part Four MECHANISMS OF LUNG INJURY AND REPAIR DURING DEVELOPMENT
Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen-Induced Lung Injury
749(30)
Charles Vincent Smith
Stephen E. Welty
Introduction
749(1)
Possible Roles of Hyperoxic Lung Injury in CLD
750(3)
Reactive Oxygen Species in Hyperoxic Lung Injury
753(1)
Biomarkers of Reactive Oxygen Species in Biological Systems
754(14)
Roles of Iron Metabolism in Reactive Oxygen-Mediated Tissue Injury
768(1)
Summary and Conclusions
769(10)
References
769(10)
Assessment of Tissue Injury from Reactive Oxygen Metabolites
779(14)
Michael J. Thomas
Timothy W. Robinson amd
Henry Jay Forman
Introduction
779(4)
Methods
783(3)
Future Directions
786(7)
References
786(7)
Chronic Lung Disease of Early Infancy: Role of Neutrophils
793(20)
Diane E. Lorant
Kurt Albertine
John F. Bohnsack
Introduction
793(1)
Mechanisms of Neutrophil-Mediated Injury and Recruitment to the Lung
793(3)
Pathological and Clinical Studies of Neutrophil Involvement in BPD
796(5)
The Role of Neutrophils in Animal Models of BPD
801(3)
Conclusions
804(9)
References
806(7)
The Role of Pulmonary Macrophages in Chronic Lung Disease of Early Infancy
813(28)
Michael P. Sherman
William E. Truog
Introduction
813(1)
Emergence of Pulmonary Macrophage Populations and the Pathophysiology of CLD of Early Infancy
814(2)
The Role of Pulmonary Macrophages and Lung Infection in the Pathophysiology of CLD of Early Infancy
816(6)
Interactions of Lung Macrophages with Other Pulmonary Cells by Direct Cell-to-Cell Communication and Secretory Activity
822(8)
Limitations to the Study of Alveolar Macrophages in CLD of Early Infancy and Future Directions
830(11)
References
832(9)
Oxidants and Antioxidants: What Role Do They Play in Chronic Lung Disease?
841(18)
H. Lee Frank
Ilene R.S. Sosenko
Introduction
841(1)
General Principles of Oxidants and Antioxidants
842(3)
Evidence Linking Oxygen Radicals and CLD
845(1)
Development of the AOE System in the Fetal Lung
845(2)
Vulnerability of the premature Infant Relative to Antioxidant Defenses
847(2)
Experimental and Potential Therapeutic Modification of Antioxidant Defenses
849(3)
Oxygen Toxicity, Antioxidant Enzymes, and CLD: Unanswered Questions and Future Clinical Applications
852(7)
References
853(6)
Proteolytic Enzymes and Their Inhibitors in Lung Health and Disease
859(24)
John R. Hoidal
Mari K. Hoidal
Introduction
859(1)
Classification of Proteases
860(3)
Control of Proteolytic Enzymes
863(5)
Functions of Proteolytic Enzymes
868(2)
Proteases and Pulmonary Diseases
870(2)
Proteases and Chronic Lung Disease of Early Infancy
872(1)
What Lies Ahead?
873(10)
References
875(8)
Site- and Mechanism-Directed Interventions for Tissue Free Radical Injury
883(28)
William R. Berrington
Margaret M. Tarpey
Bruce A. Freeman
Bruce R. Pitt
Introduction
883(1)
Oxidant-Protective Reactions of Nitric Oxide
884(6)
Targeting Catalytic Radical Scavengers to the Extracellular Compartment
890(4)
Targeting Catalytic Radical Scavengers to the Intracellular Compartment
894(4)
Gene Therapy Strategies for Enhancing Pulmonary Antioxidant Defenses
898(2)
Summary
900(11)
References
901(10)
Part Five MODELS OF LUNG INJURY AND REPAIR DURING DEVELOPMENT
Genetic Models for the Study of Autocrine-Paracrine Signaling in Lung Development and Repair
911(16)
Jeffrey A. Whitsett
Thomas R. Korfhagen
Introduction
911(1)
Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors
912(5)
TGF-α and EGF-R Signaling and Pulmonary Fibrosis and Airspace Remodeling
917(6)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
923(1)
Summary
924(3)
References
924(3)
Animal Models of Chronic Lung Injury
927(30)
Jacqueline J. Coalson
Steven R. Seidner
Robert A. De Lemos
Introduction
927(1)
What Is the Human Disease That Needs to Be Modeled?
928(1)
Contributors to the Development of BPD
929(12)
Potential Uses of Transgenic Models for Future Studies
941(4)
Summary and Future Needs
945(12)
References
946(11)
Author Index 957(86)
Subject Index 1043

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