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Cities and Urban Life

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205645336

ISBN10:
020564533X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/29/2009
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $138.80

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Summary

For Urban Sociology, Urban Political Economy, Urban Anthropology, and Urban Studies courses taught out of the sociology, political science and urban studies departments. Cities and Urban Life, authored by two of the best-known textbook writers in the field, provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies courses. Primarily sociological in approach, this book incorporates historical, social, psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. While strong in the classical urban sociology, it also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies. Also, the authors use global cities as case studies for more relevance to students.

Author Biography

John J. Macionis  was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.

 

John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education.

 

In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis’ most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson).

 

John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college’s multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college’s faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students.

 

In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks.

 

Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, “I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher—a passion for teaching animates everything I do.”

 

At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal.

 

The Macionis family—John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney—live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York’s Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.


 

Vincent N. Parrillo was born and raised in Paterson, New Jersey. He received his B.S. degree from Seton Hall University, his M.A. from Montclair State University, and his doctorate from Rutgers University.

His books include: Strangers to These Shores 9th ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2008); Diversity in America 3rd ed. (Pine Forge Press, 2008); Contemporary Social Problems 6th ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2005); Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations 3rd ed. (Allyn & Bacon, 2008); William Paterson University (Arcadia, 2005); Millennium Haze: Comparative Inquiries About Society, State and Community (FrancoAngeli, 2000); Ridgewood (Arcadia, 1999); and (ed.) Rethinking Today's Minorities (Greenwood Press, 1991). He is General Editor of the two-volume interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Social Problems (Sage, 2008).

He is the executive producer and writer of two award- winning PBS television documentaries: Smokestacks and Steeples: A Portrait of Paterson (1992) and Ellis Island: Gateway to America (1991).

Table of Contents

Preface
Understanding the City, Its Origin And Development
Exploring The City
Why Study the City?
Deciding What Is Urban
The Urban Transformation
Urbanization as a Process
Levels of Urbanization
Urbanism as a Way of Life
The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives
The City in History
The Emergence of Urban Sociology
Critical Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism
Social Psychology: The Urban Experience
Geography and Spatial Perspectives
Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture
The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities
The City in Global Perspective
The Quality of City Life
Key Terms
Internet Activities
The Origins and Development of the World's Cities
Urban Origins
Archaeology: Digging the Early City
The First Permanent Settlements
The City Emerges
The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires
The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt
The Indus Region
A Glance Eastward: China
A Glance Westward: The Americas
Summary: Traits of Early Cities
Crete and Greece
Rome
Decline: The Middle Ages
Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities
The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities
Case Study: London-The History of a World City
Beginnings: l55 b - l1066 T
The Medieval City: 1066-1550
The World City Emerges: 1550-1800
Industrialization and Colonization: 1800-1900
The Modern Era: l1900 to the Present
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
The Development of North American Cities
The Colonial Era: 1600-1800
Colonial City Characteristics
The City-Instigated Revolutionary War
Growth and Expansion: 1800-1870
The Beginnings of Industrialization
Urban-Rural/North-South Tensions
The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870-1950
Technological Advance
Suburbs and the Gilded Age
The Great Migration
Politics and Problems
The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis
The North American City Today: l1950 to the Present
Decentralization
The Sunbelt Expansion
The Coming of the Postindustrial City
Deterioration and Regeneration
The Future
The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring
Case Study: New York-The Big Appl
The Colonial Era
Growth and Expansion
The Great Metropolis Emerges
New York Today
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Today's Cities and Suburbs
Urban and Suburban Sprawl
What Is Sprawl?
Why Do We Have Sprawl?
Sprawl Consequences
Smart Growth
Land Purchases
Urban Growth Boundaries
Revitalizing Existing Cities and Towns
Transit-Oriented Approaches
Exurbs
The New Cities
Characteristics and Commonalities
Types of Edge Cities
Evolving Middle-Class Centers
Three Edge City Variations
Gated Communities
Types of Gated Communities
A Sense of Community
Common-Interest Developments;Case Study: Portland, Oregon
The Physical Setting
History
Urban Decline and the Planners'
Response to Sprawl
Portland Today
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Disciplinary Perspectives
Urban Sociology: Classic and Modern Statements
The European Tradition: 1846-1921
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization
Ferdinand Tönnies: FromGemeinschaft
toGesellschaft
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis
Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities
The European Tradition: An Evaluation
Urban Sociology in North America: 1915-1970
Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago
Louis Wirth and Urban Theory
Herbert Gans and the Urban Mosaic
Wirth and Gans: A Comparison
The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities
Tolerance in the City
Impersonality in the City
Density and Urban Pathology
Urban Malaise
New Directions in Urban Sociology
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space
Urban Geography
The Location of Cities
Why Cities Are Where They Are
The Shape of the City
The Radiocentric City
The Gridiron City
Urban Ecology
Concentric Zones
Sectors
Multiple Nuclei
Limitations
Social Area Analysis and Mapping
GIS Mapping
Limitations
The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism
Building Blocks
Main Arguments
Limitations
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Critical Urban Sociology
Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective
Central Place Theory
The General Pattern of Land Use
Limitations
Political Economy: The Ne
Perspective
Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities
Urban Areas as Themed Environments
David Harvey: The Baltimore Study
Manuel Castells: Updating Marx
Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy
John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines
The Global Economy
Deindustrialization
Economic Restructuring
World-Systems Analysis
Urban Political Economy: Four Principles
The Urbanization of Poverty
The Developing World
The Developed World
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Social Psychology: The Urban Experience
The Physical Environment
Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City
Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps
The Social Environment:Gesellschaft
The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step
A World of Strangers
Class, Race, and the Urban Experience
The City asGesellschaft: A Reassessment
The Social Environment:Gemeinschaft
Urban Networks
Identifying with the City
The City asGemeinschaft: A Reassessment
The Texture of the City
Humanizing the City
Social Movements and City Life
Suburban Life
The Stereotypes
The Physical Environment
The Social Environment
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture
The City and the Countryside
Interdependencies
Urban Dominance
The City and Civilization
Oswald Spengler: The Sou of the City
Lewis Mumford: The City as the Center of Civilization
Daniel J. Monti: The Civic Culture of the City
The City and Societal Culture
Case Study: Ming Peking
Physical Structure
Symbolism
Case Study: Hellenic Athens
The Preclassical Period
The Golden Age
Behind the Glory
Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison
The Culture of Capitalism and the City
The Capitalist City
The Industrial Revolution
Urban Life as Economics
Assets and Debits
Case Study: Communist Beijing
The Emergence of Modern Beijing
Urban Life as Politics
The Difficulties of Urban Life
Economic Reform and Environmental Issues
A Rising Consumerism
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
The Structure of the City
Stratification and Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles
Social Stratification
Social Class Distinctions
Income Distribution Nationwide
Incomes Within and Outside Cities
Poverty Nationwide
Poverty Within and Outside Cities
A Cautionary Note
Urban Social Class Diversity
Upper-Class Urban Neighborhoods
Middle-Class Urban Neighborhoods
Working-Class Urban Neighborhoods
Mixed-Income Urban Neighborhoods
Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods
The Homeless
Suburban Social Class Diversity
Upper-Income Suburbs
Middle-Income Suburbs
Working-Class Suburbs
Suburban Cosmopolitan Centers
Minority Suburbs
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity
Cities and Immigrants
Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity
Ethnic Change
Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Blacks
Asians
Hispanics
Muslims
Native Peoples
Women and Urban Life
Work
Urban Space
The Public Sphere
Case Study: Chicago, City of the Big Shoulder
Early Chicago
The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago
Jane Addams and Hull House
Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century
The Postwar Period
Chicago Today
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Chapter12
Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems
Housing: A Place to Live
Adequate Housing: Who Has It?
Housing Problems: A Brief History
Public Housing
Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City
The Inner City Today: A Revival?
The New Urbanism
Education: The Urban Challenge
Meeting the No Child Left Behin
Challenge
Magnet Schools
School Vouchers
Charter Schools
Crime: Perception and Reality
Public Perception of Crime
Explaining High-Crime Areas
Effects of Crime on Everyday Life
What Is the Solution?
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Global Urban Developments
Cities in the Developing World
Latin American Cities
Early Cities
European Dominance
Modern Cities
African Cities
Early Cities
European Dominances
Modern Cities
Middle Eastern Cities
Islamic Cities
European Dominance
Modern Cities
Asian Cities
India
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
Common Legacies
Economic Legacies
Political Legacies
Common Problems
Spiraling Populations
Quality of Life
Environment
Shantytowns
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
Internet Activities
Planning the Urban Environment
Visions
City Planning in World History
Why Plan?
Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800-1900
The City Beautifu
Movement
The New Towns Movement
A Socialist-Feminist New Town
British New Towns
New Towns Worldwide
New Towns in North America
What Makes New Towns Succeed or Fail?
Architectural Visions
The Radiant City
Broadacre City
The Arcology
TRY-2004
Utopia's Limitations
More Focused Urban Planning
Sidewalks and Neighborhoods
Squares and Parks
The Middle Ground
The Realities of Urban Planning
Economics and Politics
The Importance of Values
Case Study: Toronto, Ontario
The Physical Setting
History
Creation of a Metropolitan Government
Two Phases of Urban Planning
Toronto Today
Summary
Conclusion
Key Terms
References
Photo Credits
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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