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Cities and Urban Life

by ;
ISBN13:

9780131113954

ISBN10:
013111395X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $96.20
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Summary

Authored by two of the best-known writers in the field, this third edition ofCities and Urban Life provides a comprehensive introduction to urban sociology, urban anthropology, and urban studies. Primarily sociological in approach, it incorporates historical, social, psychological, geographical, and anthropological insights. The book, while strongly focused on the classical theories of urban sociology, also gives extensive attention to the "new" political economy approach to urban studies, using global cities as case studies to provide more relevance. Due to the increasing trend of urbanization, this book is especially relevant for today's urban sociologists, urban anthropologists, and others involved in urban planning.

Table of Contents

Special Features xvii
Preface xxi
PART I UNDERSTANDING THE CITY
Chapter 1 Exploring the City
1(25)
Why Study the City?
2(1)
The Complexity of the City: Various Perspectives
3(13)
The City in History
5(2)
The Emergence of Urban Sociology
7(1)
Social Psychology: The Urban Experience
8(1)
Urban Geography and Ecology
8(5)
Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture
13(2)
The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism
15(1)
The Anatomy of Modern North American Cities
16(3)
The City in World Perspective
19(3)
Urban Sociology and the Quality of City Life
22(4)
PART II HISTORY OF CITIES AND NEW TREND
Chapter 2 The Origins and Development of the World's Cities
26(37)
Urban Origins
27(4)
Archaeology: Digging the Early City
27(1)
The First Permanent Settlements
28(1)
The City Emerges
29(2)
The First Urban Revolution: City-States and Urban Empires
31(18)
The Near East: Mesopotamia and Egypt
33(6)
The Indus Region
39(1)
A Glance Eastward: China
39(1)
A Glance Westward: The Americas
40(2)
Summary: Traits of Early Cities
42(1)
Crete and Greece
43(1)
Rome
44(1)
Decline: The Middle Ages
45(2)
Revival: Medieval and Renaissance Cities
47(2)
The Second Urban Revolution: The Rise of Modern Cities
49(11)
CASE STUDY: London-The History of a World City
51(37)
Beginnings:
55
B.C.E-1066 C.E.
52(1)
The Medieval City: 1066-1550
53(1)
The World City Emerges: 1550-1800
54(2)
Industrialization and Colonization: 1800-1900
56(1)
The Modern Era: 1900 to the Present
57(3)
Summary
60(2)
Conclusion
62(1)
Chapter 3 The Development of North American Cities
63(44)
The Colonial Era: 1600-1800
64(4)
Beginnings
65(1)
The Character of the Early Cities
65(3)
The Revolutionary War Era
68(1)
Growth and Expansion: 1800-1870
68(4)
Cities as Big Business
69(1)
The Beginnings of Industrialization
70(1)
Urban-Rural/North-South Tensions
71(1)
The Era of the Great Metropolis: 1870-1950
72(7)
Technological Advance
72(3)
The Great Migration
75(1)
Politics and Problems
75(1)
The Quality of Life in the New Metropolis
76(2)
Trends Through 1950
78(1)
The North American City Today: 1950 to the Present
79(9)
Decentralization
79(4)
The Sunbelt Expansion
83(5)
The Coming of the Postindustrial City
88(6)
Deterioration and Regeneration
89(2)
The Future
91(1)
The Human Cost of Economic Restructuring
92(1)
CASE STUDY: New York--The "Big Apple"
93(1)
The Colonial Era
94(10)
Growth and Expansion
96(1)
The Great Metropolis Emerges
96(3)
New York Today
99(4)
Beyond the Devastation
103(1)
Summary
104(2)
Conclusion
106(1)
Chapter 4 Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty-First Century
107(32)
Urban and Suburban Sprawl
108(10)
What Is Sprawl?
108(2)
Why Do We Have Sprawl?
110(1)
Where Does Sprawl Occur?
110(1)
The Problems of Sprawl
110(6)
Solutions to Sprawl
116(2)
Edge Cities
118(8)
Characteristics and Commonalities
119(1)
Types of Edge Cities
119(2)
Evolving Middle-Class Centers
121(1)
Three Edge City Variations
121(5)
Gated Communities
126(4)
Types of Gated Communities
127(1)
A Sense of Community
128(2)
Common-Interest Developments (CIDs)
130(7)
CASE STUDY; Portland., Oregon
132(98)
The Physical Setting
133(1)
History
133(1)
Urban Decline and the Planners' Response to Sprawl
133(3)
Portland Today
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Conclusion
137(2)
PART III DISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES
Chapter 5 Urban Sociology: The Classic Statements
139(30)
The European Tradition: 1846-1921
140(12)
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: From Barbarism to Civilization
140(1)
Ferdinand Tonnes: From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft
141(4)
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
145(1)
Georg Simmel: The Mental Life of the Metropolis
146(2)
Max Weber: The Historical and Comparative Study of Cities
148(3)
The European Tradition: An Evaluation
151(1)
Urban Sociology in North America: 1915-1938
152(8)
Robert Park and Sociology at the University of Chicago
153(2)
Louis Wirth and Urban Theory
155(4)
The U.S. Tradition: An Evaluation
159(1)
The Classic Theories and Modern Research: Myths and Realities
160(7)
Tolerance in the City
160(1)
Impersonality in the City
161(2)
Density and Urban Pathology
163(3)
Urban Malaise
166(1)
The New Urban Sociology
167(1)
Summary
167(1)
Conclusion
168(1)
Chapter 6 Social Psychology: The Urban Experience
169(29)
The Physical Environment
170(6)
Kevin Lynch: The Image of the City
170(3)
Stanley Milgram: More on Mental Maps
173(3)
The Social Environment: Gesellschaft
176(7)
The Pedestrian: Watching Your Step
177(2)
A World of Strangers
179(4)
Class, Race, and the Urban Experience
183(1)
The City as Gesellschaft: A Reassessment
183(1)
The Social Environment: Gemeinschaft
183(9)
Urban Networks
183(7)
Identifying with the City
190(1)
The City as Gemeinschaft: A Reassessment
191(1)
The Texture of the City
192(2)
Humanizing the City
194(2)
Summary
196(1)
Conclusion
197(1)
Chapter 7 Geography and Spacial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space
198(26)
Urban Geography
199(4)
The Location of Cities
200(2)
Why Cities Are Where They Are
202(1)
The Shape of the City
203(4)
The Radiocentric City
205(1)
The Gridiron City
206(1)
City Growth: Horizontal, Vertical, and Interstitial
206(1)
City Shape and Quality of Life
206(1)
Urban Ecology: The Chicago School
207(6)
The Ecological Theory of Urban Development
207(1)
The Concentric Zone Hypothesis
208(3)
Criticisms of the Chicago School
211(2)
Urban Ecology: Other Theories
213(8)
The Sector Theory
213(1)
The Multiple Nuclei Theory
214(1)
Social Area Analysis
215(1)
Factorial Ecology
216(5)
The Los Angeles School and Postmodernism
221(1)
Summary
222(1)
Conclusion
223(1)
Chapter 8 Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture
224(30)
Prologue: Six Months in Ibadan
225(1)
The City and Culture
226(1)
The City and the Hinterland
226(4)
Interdependencies
227(1)
Urban Dominance
228(2)
The City and Civilization
230(11)
Oswald Spengler
231(2)
Lewis Mumford
233(1)
CASE STUDY: Ming Peking
234(3)
Physical Structure
235(1)
Symbolism
235(2)
CASE STUDY: Hellenic Athens
237(5)
The Preclassical Period
237(2)
The Golden Age
239(1)
Behind the Glory
240(1)
Ming Peking and Athens: A Comparison
241(1)
The Culture of Capitalism and the City
242(10)
The Capitalist City
244(1)
The Industrial Revolution
244(1)
Urban Life as Economics
245(2)
Assets and Debits
247(1)
CASE STUDY: Communist Beijing
248(78)
The Emergence of Modern Beijing
248(1)
Urban Life as Politics
249(1)
The Difficulties of Urban Life
250(1)
Economic Reform
251(1)
A Rising Consumerism
251(1)
Summary
252(1)
Conclusion
253(1)
Chapter 9 The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism
254(31)
Urban Economics: The Traditional Perspective
255(7)
Central Place Theory
255(3)
The General Pattern of Land Use
258(1)
Criticisms of the Basic Theory
259(2)
Urban Areas as Theme Parks
261(1)
Political Economy: The "New" Perspective
262(7)
Henri Lefebvre: Redefining the Study of Cities
262(1)
David Harvey: The Baltimore Study
263(1)
Manuel Castells: Updating Marx
264(2)
Allen Scott: Business Location and the Global Economy
266(1)
John Logan and Harvey Molotch: Urban Growth Machines
267(2)
The Global Economy
269(6)
A World System
270(5)
Urban Political Economy: Four Principles
275(1)
The Urbanization of Poverty
276(7)
The Developing World
276(4)
The Developed World
280(3)
Summary
283(1)
Conclusion
284(1)
PART IV THE ANATOMY OF THE CITY
Chapter 10 Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles
285(25)
Urban Diversity: Multiple Views
286(10)
Louis Wirth: Urbanism as a Way of Life
286(1)
Herbert Gans: Urbanism as Many Ways of Life
287(6)
Wirth and Gans: A Comparison
293(2)
Claude Fischer: A Subcultural Theory of Urbanism
295(1)
Life Beyond the City Limits: A Brief History of Suburbs
296(4)
Suburbs and the Gilded Age
296(1)
Streetcar Suburbs
297(1)
The Arrival of the Automobile
298(1)
The Postwar Era: 1945-1970
298(1)
1970 to the Present
299(1)
Suburban Lifestyles
300(8)
The Aristocratic Life
300(1)
The New Suburbia
301(2)
Contemporary Suburbia: Complexity and Diversity
303(2)
The Exurbs
305(3)
Urban Culture and the Suburbs
308(1)
Summary
308(1)
Conclusion
309(1)
Chapter 11 Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity
310(28)
Cities and Immigrants
311(3)
Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity
312(1)
Ethnic Change
312(2)
Racial and Ethnic Minorities
314(12)
African Americans
314(4)
Hispanic Americans
318(3)
Asian Americans
321(4)
Native Americans
325(1)
Women and the City
326(10)
Work
326(1)
Urban Space
327(1)
The Public Sphere
327(1)
CASE STUDY: Chicago, "City of the Big Shoulders"
328(103)
Early Chicago
329(1)
The Burning and Rebuilding of Chicago
330(1)
Jane Addams and Hull House
331(1)
Chicago in the Early Twentieth Century
332(1)
The Postwar Period
333(2)
Chicago Today
335(1)
Summary
336(1)
Conclusion
337(1)
Chapter 12 Housing, Education, Crime: Confronting Urban Problems
338(30)
Housing: A Place to Live
339(15)
Adequate Housing: Who Has It?
339(1)
Housing Problems: A Brief History
340(1)
Public Housing
341(3)
Deterioration and Abandonment in the Inner City
344(1)
The Inner City Today: A Revival?
345(5)
The New Urbanism
350(4)
Education: The Urban Challenge
354(4)
Magnet Schools
355(1)
School Vouchers
356(1)
Charter Schools
356(2)
Crime: Perception and Reality
358(8)
Public Perception of Crime
358(2)
Explaining High-Crime Areas
360(3)
Effects of Crime on Everyday Life
363(1)
What Is the Solution?
364(2)
Summary
366(1)
Conclusion
367(1)
PART V GLOBAL URBANIZATION
Chapter 13 Cities in the Developing World
368(43)
Historical Context
369(20)
Latin American Cities
369(6)
African Cities
375(5)
Middle Eastern Cities
380(4)
Asian Cities
384(4)
Common Legacies
388(1)
The Modern Era
389(13)
Latin American Cities
389(1)
African Cities
390(1)
Middle Eastern Cities
391(1)
Asian Cities
392(9)
Common Problems
401(1)
Summary: World Urbanization in Perspective
402(3)
The Future: Theories and Possible Solutions
405(5)
Modernization Theory
406(1)
Dependency Theory
407(1)
Interventionist Theory
408(1)
The City Is Not the Problem: Jane Jacobs's Theory
408(2)
Conclusion
410(1)
PART VI TRIE PLANNING ANIL EVALUATION OF CITIES
Chapter 14 Planning the Urban Environment
411(30)
Visions
412(1)
City Planning in World History
413(4)
Why Plan?
413(2)
Planning in the Industrial Era: 1800-1900
415(1)
The "City Beautiful" Movement
416(1)
"Till We Have Built Jerusalem": The New Towns Movement
417(7)
A Socialist-Feminist New Town
417(1)
Later New Towns in Great Britain
417(1)
New Towns in Western Europe, Australia, and Brazil
418(2)
New Towns in the United States
420(2)
Have They Worked? Criticisms of New Towns
422(2)
Utopia Unlimited: Architectural Visions
424(1)
Le Corbusier: The Radiant City
424(4)
Frank Lloyd Wright: Broadacre City
425(1)
Paolo Solen: The Arcology
425(2)
Utopia's Limitations: A Critique
427(1)
Meanwhile ... Downtown: More Focused Urban Planning
428(3)
Sidewalks, Neighborhoods, and Local Initiative
428(1)
Open Spaces: Squares, Parks, and Architecture
429(1)
Rouse Revisited: The Middle Ground
430(1)
The Realities of Urban Planning
431(6)
Economics and Politics
431(1)
The Difference That Values Make
431(2)
CASE STUDY; Toronto, Ontario
433(4)
The Physical Setting
433(1)
History
434(1)
Creation of a Metropolitan Government
434(1)
Two Phases of Urban Planning
435(1)
Toronto Today
436(1)
Conclusion
437(4)
References 441(16)
Photo Credits 457(2)
Index 459

Excerpts

Now that we have entered a new century--indeed, a new millennium--the world stands on the brink of a historic landmark: In a few years, a majority of the planet's people will live in cities. Urban living is rapidly becoming the norm for members of our species. Surely, there is no more compelling reason to undertake the study of cities and urban life. THE BASIC APPROACH The approach of this text is multidisciplinary but fundamentally sociological. Readers will find here the enduring contributions of the classical European social thinkers, including Max Weber, Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tunnies, Georg Simmel, and Emile Durkheim, as well as those of early pioneers in North America, including Robert Park and Louis Wirth. Of course, many men and women have stood on the shoulders of these giants and extended our understanding. Thus, this text also considers the ideas of a host of contemporary urbanists, including Henri Lefebvre, Jane. Jacobs, Manuel Castells, John Logan, Harvey Molotch, Kevin Lynch, Lyn Lofland, Carol Stack, Herbert Gans, Michael Sorkin, and Michael Dear. Yet, as this string of well-known names suggests, urban studies rests on research and theory developed within many disciplines.Cities and Urban Life,therefore, is truly a multidisciplinary text that draws together the work of historians (Chapter 2: "The Origins and Development of the World's Cities," and Chapter 3: "The Development of North American Cities"); sociologists (Chapter 4: "Cities and Suburbs of the Twenty First Century," Chapter 5: "Urban Sociology: The Classic Statements," Chapter 10: "Social Class: Urban and Suburban Lifestyles," Chapter 11: "Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Urban Diversity," and Chapter 12: "Housing, Education, (:rime: Confronting Urban Problems"); social psychologists (Chapter 6: "Social Psychology: The Urban Experience"); geographers and urban ecologists (Chapter 7: "Geography and Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space"); political economists working within various disciplines (Chapter 9: "The New Urban Sociology: The City and Capitalism"); anthropologists (Chapter 8: "Comparative Urbanism: The City and Culture," and Chapter 13: "Cities in the Developing World"); and architects as well as city planners (Chapter 14: "Planning the Urban Environment"). THE ORGANIZATION OF THIS TEXT Part I of the text, "Understanding the City," introduces the main questions and themes that resonate throughout the book (Chapter 1). Part II, "History of Cities and New Trends," surveys the historical development of cities, noting how urban life has often differed in striking ways from contemporary patterns we take for granted (Chapters 2 and 3), and the current trends of sprawl, edge cities, and gated communities that are shaping the cities and suburbs of the new century (Chapter 4). Part III, "Disciplinary Perspectives," highlights the various disciplinary orientations that, together, have so advanced our understanding of cities (Chapters 5 through 9). Part IV, "The Anatomy of the City," focuses on the social organization of today's cities in North America, highlighting how urban living reflects the importance of social class (Chapter 10), race, ethnicity, and gender (Chapter 11), as well as forcing us to confront vexing problems such as housing, education, and crime (Chapter 12). Part V, "Global Urbanization," offers a look at the history and current urbanization in four major world regions: Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (Chapter 13). It is in these areas of the world that urbanization is now most rapid, with cities reaching unprecedented size. Finally, Part VI, "The Planning and Evaluation of Cities," examines the architectural, social, and political dimensions of urban planning, as well as points out the problems that prevent cities from living up to their promise of improving everyone's lives (Chapter 14). FOUR KEY THEMES This attempt to tell the urban story will


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