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Civil Avionics Systems,9781118341803
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Civil Avionics Systems

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 10/14/2013.
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Civil Avionics Systems, Second Edition, is an updated and in-depth practical guide to integrated avionic systems as applied to civil aircraft and this new edition has been expanded to include the latest developments in modern avionics. It describes avionic systems and potential developments in the field to help educate students and practitioners in the process of designing, building and operating modern aircraft in the contemporary aviation system.

Integration is a predominant theme of this book, as aircraft systems are becoming more integrated and complex, but so is the economic, political and technical environment in which they operate.

Key features:
• Content is based on many years of practical industrial experience by the authors on a range of civil and military projects
• Generates an understanding of the integration and interconnectedness of systems in modern complex aircraft
• Updated contents in the light of latest applications
• Substantial new material has been included in the areas of avionics technology, software and system safety

The authors are all recognised experts in the field and between them have over 140 years’ experience in the aircraft industry. Their direct and accessible style ensures that Civil Avionics Systems, Second Edition is a must-have guide to integrated avionic systems in modern aircraft for those in the aerospace industry and academia.

Author Biography

Ian Moir, Moir Associates, UK, After 20 years in the royal Air Force as an engineering officer, Ian went on to Smiths Industries in the UK where he was involved in a number of advanced projects. Since retiring from Smiths he is now in demand as a highly respected consultant. Ian has broad and detailed experience working in aircraft avionics systems in both military and civil aircraft. From the RAF Tornado and Apache helicopter to the Boeing 777, Ian's work has kept him at the forefront of new system developments and integrated systems in the areas of more-electric technology and systems implementations. He has a special interest in fostering training and education in aerospace engineering.

Allan Seabridge, Seabridge Systems Ltd, UK, Allan Seabridge retired as Head of Flight Systems Engineering after a long career with BAE Systems. He has 36 years experience in aerospace systems engineering, business development and research & development, with major projects worked on including Canberra, Jaguar, Tornado, EAP, Typhoon & Nimrod. Since retiring he has developed an interest in engineering education leading to the design and delivery of systems and engineering courses at a number of UK universities at undergraduate and postgraduate level. He also provides technical consultancy to companies in the aerospace industry.

Malcolm Jukes, UK, Malcolm Jukes has over 35 years experience in the aerospace industry, mostly working for the Smiths Group at Cheltenham, UK, Among his many responsibilities as Chief Engineer for Defence Systems Cheltenham, Malcolm managed the design and experimental flight trials of the first UK Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS).  Malcolm is now an aerospace consultant operating in the areas of displays, display systems, and mission computing.

Table of Contents

About the Authors xix

Series Preface xxi

Preface to Second Edition xxii

Preface to First Edition xxiii

Acknowledgements xxv

List of Abbreviations xxvi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Advances since 2003 1

1.2 Comparison of Boeing and Airbus Solutions 2

1.3 Outline of Book Content 2

1.4 The Appendices 4

2 Avionics Technology 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Avionics Technology Evolution 8

2.3 Avionics Computing 11

2.4 Digital Systems Input and Output 19

2.5 Binary Arithmetic 29

2.6 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 34

2.7 Software 43

2.8 Microprocessors 53

2.9 Memory Technologies 59

2.10 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) 64

2.11 Integrated Circuits 70

2.12 Integrated Circuit Packaging 73

3 Data Bus Networks 79

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Digital Data Bus Basics 80

3.3 Transmission Protocols 84

3.4 ARINC 429 88

3.5 MIL-STD-1553B 91

3.6 ARINC 629 97

3.7 ARINC 664 Part 7 100

3.8 CANbus 110

3.9 Time Triggered Protocol 113

3.10 Fibre-optic Data Communications 113

3.11 Data Bus Summary 115

4 System Safety 119

4.1 Introduction 119

4.2 Flight Safety 120

4.3 System Safety Assessment 124

4.4 Reliability 128

4.5 Availability 134

4.6 Integrity 138

4.7 Redundancy 141

4.8 Analysis Methods 148

4.9 Other Considerations 151

5 Avionics Architectures 159

5.1 Introduction 159

5.2 Avionics Architecture Evolution 159

5.3 Avionic Systems Domains 169

5.4 Avionics Architecture Examples 172

5.5 IMA Design Principles 188

5.6 The Virtual System 189

5.7 Partitioning 194

5.8 IMA Fault Tolerance 195

5.9 Network Definition 197

5.10 Certification 198

5.11 IMA Standards 201

6 Systems Development 205

6.1 Introduction 205

6.2 System Design Guidelines 206

6.3 Interrelationship of Design Processes 210

6.4 Requirements Capture and Analysis 213

6.5 Development Processes 217

6.6 Development Programme 224

6.7 Extended Operations Requirements 226

6.8 ARINC Specifications and Design Rigour 229

6.9 Interface Control 231

7 Electrical Systems 235

7.1 Electrical Systems Overview 235

7.2 Electrical Power Generation 239

7.3 Power Distribution and Protection 248

7.4 Emergency Power 254

7.5 Power System Architectures 259

7.6 Aircraft Wiring 268

7.7 Electrical Installation 276

7.8 Bonding and Earthing 280

7.9 Signal Conditioning 282

7.10 Central Maintenance Systems 284

8 Sensors 291

8.1 Introduction 291

8.2 Air Data Sensors 292

8.3 Magnetic Sensors 301

8.4 Inertial Sensors 306

8.5 Combined Air Data and Inertial 317

8.6 Radar Sensors 323

9 Communications and Navigation Aids 329

9.1 Introduction 329

9.2 Communications 332

9.3 Ground-Based Navigation Aids 347

9.4 Instrument Landing Systems 350

9.5 Space-Based Navigation Systems 354

9.6 Communications Control Systems 362

10 Flight Control Systems 365

10.1 Principles of Flight Control 365

10.2 Flight Control Elements 368

10.3 Flight Control Actuation 371

10.4 Principles of Fly-By-Wire 379

10.5 Boeing 777 Flight Control System 383

10.6 Airbus Flight Control Systems 389

10.7 Autopilot Flight Director System 396

10.8 Flight Data Recorders 401

11 Navigation Systems 405

11.1 Principles of Navigation 405

11.2 Flight Management System 413

11.3 Electronic Flight Bag 427

11.4 Air Traffic Management 430

11.5 Performance-Based Navigation 433

11.6 Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast 442

11.7 Boeing and Airbus Implementations 442

11.8 Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS) 444

12 Flight Deck Displays 449

12.1 Introduction 449

12.2 First Generation Flight Deck: the Electromagnetic Era 450

12.3 Second Generation Flight Deck: the Electro-Optic Era 455

12.4 Third Generation: the Next Generation Flight Deck 463

12.5 Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) System 465

12.6 Standby Instruments 468

12.7 Head-Up Display Visual Guidance System (HVGS) 469

12.8 Enhanced and Synthetic Vision Systems 473

12.9 Display System Architectures 486

12.9.1 Airworthiness Regulations 486

12.9.2 Display Availability and Integrity 486

12.9.3 Display System Functional Elements 487

12.9.4 Dumb Display Architecture 488

12.9.5 Semi-Smart Display Architecture 490

12.9.6 Fully Smart (Integrated) Display Architecture 490

12.10 Display Usability 491

12.11 Display Technologies 498

12.12 Flight Control Inceptors 506

13 Military Aircraft Adaptations 511

13.1 Introduction 511

13.2 Avionic and Mission System Interface 512

13.3 Applications 519

Reference 531

Further Reading 531

Appendices 533

Introduction to Appendices 533

Appendix A: Safety Analysis – Flight Control System 534

A.1 Flight Control System Architecture 534

A.2 Dependency Diagram 535

A.3 Fault Tree Analysis 537

Appendix B: Safety Analysis – Electronic Flight Instrument System 539

B.1 Electronic Flight Instrument System Architecture 539

B.2 Fault Tree Analysis 540

Appendix C: Safety Analysis – Electrical System 543

C.1 Electrical System Architecture 543

C.2 Fault Tree Analysis 543

Appendix D: Safety Analysis – Engine Control System 546

D.1 Factors Resulting in an In-Flight Shut Down 546

D.2 Engine Control System Architecture 546

D.3 Markov Analysis 548

Simplified Example (all failure rates per flight hour) 549

Index 551

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