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Classic Philosophical Questions,9780131949614
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Classic Philosophical Questions

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780131949614

ISBN10:
0131949616
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $82.80
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Summary

A proven classic, this anthology stimulates readers' interest in philosophy through an innovative "sides of the argument" presentation, representing positions on each of the fundamental philosophical principles. Each reading contains a biographical sketch of the author, with a group of further readings for those wishing to pursue issues in further depth. Using debate and argument as a vehicle, the eleventh edition of Classic Philosophical Questions simultaneously gives readers the fundamentals of philosophy while demonstrating that philosophy is a discourse that has spanned centuries. Topics covered include knowledge, metaphysics, religion, ethics, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and the meaning of life. This anthology offers both classic and contemporary selections that challenge readers with the basic inquiries that philosophers have discussed throughout the ages.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART 1 PLATO AND THE TRIAL OF SOCRATES
WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?
1. Euthyphro: Defining Philosophical Terms
1(10)
2. The Apology, Phaedo, and Crito: The Trial, Immortality, and Death of Socrates
11(24)
PART 2 THE VALUE AND METHODS OF PHILOSOPHY
WHAT IS THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY?
3. Russell: The Valle of Philosophy
35(7)
WHAT Is THE BEST APPROACH TO PHILOSOPHY?
4. Peirce: Four Approaches to Philosophy
42(11)
5. Feigl: The Scientific Approach
53(12)
PART 3 PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
CAN WE PROVE THAT GOD EXISTS?
6. St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument
65(6)
7. St. Thomas Aquinas: The Cosmological Argument
71(7)
8. Paley: The Teleological Argument
78(6)
9. Pascal: It Is Better to Believe in God's Existence Than to Deny It
84(6)
10. Kierkegaard: Faith, Not Logic, Is the Basis of Belief
90(6)
DOES THE IDEA OF A GOOD GOD EXCLUDE EVIL?
11. Hume: A Good God Would Exclude Evil
96(8)
12. Hick: God Can Allow Some Evil
104(9)
PART 4 ETHICS
ARE HUMANS FREE?
13. Holbach: Humans Are Determined
113(10)
14. James: Humans Are Free
123(10)
ARE ETHICS RELATIVE?
15. Benedict: Ethics Are Relative
133(8)
16. Stace: Ethics Are Not Relative
141(12)
ARE HUMANS ALWAYS SELFISH?
17. Humans Are Always Selfish: Glaueon's Challenge to Socrates
153(4)
18. Rackets: Humans Are Not Always Selfish
157(11)
WHICH IS BASIC IN ETHICS: HAPPINESS OR OBLIGATION?
19. Aristotle: Happiness Is Living Virtuously
168(10)
20. Bentham: Happiness Is Seeking the Greatest Pleasure for the Greatest Number of People
178(10)
21. Kant: Duty Is Prior to Happiness
188(14)
22. Nietzsche: Power Is the Highest Value
202(8)
23. Sartre: Existentialist Ethics
210(10)
24. Held: Feminist Ethics Are Different
220(17)
PART 5 KNOWLEDGE
WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE?
25. Plato: Knowledge Is "Warranted, True Belief"
237(9)
HOW DO WE ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE?
26. Descartes: Knowledge Is Not Ultimately Sense Knowledge
246(13)
27. Locke: Knowledge Is Ultimately Sensed
259(13)
28. Kant: Knowledge Is Both Rational and Empirical
272(10)
HOW IS TRUTH ESTABLISHED?
29. Russell: Truth Is Established by Correspondence
282(7)
30. Bradley: Truth Is Established by Coherence
289(7)
31. James: Truth Is Established on Pragmatic Grounds
296(8)
CAN WE KNOW THE NATURE OF CAUSAL RELATIONS?
32. Hume: Cause Means Regular Association
304(7)
33. Hume: There Are No Possible Grounds for Induction
311(12)
PART 6 METAPHYSICS
WHY ISTHERE SOMETHING RATHER THAN NOTHING?
34. Parmenides: Being Is Uncaused
323(6)
35. Lao-Tzu: Non-Being Is the Source of Being
329(6)
IS REALITY GENERAL OR PARTICULAR?
36. Plato: Universals Are Red
335(10)
37. Hume: Particulars Are Real
345(6)
OF WHAT DOES REALITY CONSIST?
38. Descartes: Reality Consists of Mind and Matter
351(7)
39. Taylor: Reality Consists of Matter
358(14)
40. Berkeley: Reality Consists of Ideas
372(13)
41. Dewey: Reality Consists of Mental and Physical Qualities
385(8)
DO HUMANS HAVE AN IDENTICAL SELF?
42. Locke: Human Beings Have an Identical Self
393(10)
43. Hume: Human Beings Have No Identical Self
403(8)
PART 7 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
WHAT IS FREEDOM?
44. Dostoevski: Freedom and Authority
411(12)
45. Mill: Freedom Is Independence from the Majority's Tyranny
423(12)
46. King: Freedom and Racial Prejudice
435(11)
47. Tong: Feminism in the New Millennium
446(15)
WHICH GOVERNMENT IS BEST?
48. Hobbes: Monarchy Is Best
461(8)
49. Locke: Democracy Is Best
469(7)
50. Marx: Communism and Nonalienated Labor Is Best
476(16)
51. Tocqueviffe: Democracy Can Have Serious Problems
492(8)
52. Popper: Utopias Lead to Violence
500(11)
PART 8 APPLIED SOCIAL AND ETHICAL PROBLEMS
THE ABORTION ISSUE
53. English: Are Most Abortions Moral?
511(11)
THE PORNOGRAPHY ISSUE
54. Ward Should Pornography Be Censored?
522(10)
THE HOMOSEXUALITY ISSUE
55. Gould: Is Homosexuality Unnatural or Immoral?
532(7)
THE ANIMAL RIGHTS ISSUE
56. Singer: Do Animals Have Rights?
539(14)
PART 9 AESTHETICS
ARE ARTISTIC JUDGMENTS SUBJECTIVE?
57. Ducasse: Tastes Cannot Be Disputed
553(11)
58. Beardsley: Tastes Can Be Disputed
564(8)
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF ART?
59. Aristotle: Art Purges the Emotions
572(8)
60. Collingwood: Magic or Amusement?
580(12)
PART 10 THE MEANING OF LIFE
WHAT GIVES LIFE MEANING?
61. Tolstoy: Faith Provides Life's Meaning
592(12)
62. Camas: Each Person Determines His or Her Life's Meaning
604(11)
Glossary 615


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