CART

(0) items

Classroom Assessment : Concepts and Applications,9780072322729
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!
FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Classroom Assessment : Concepts and Applications

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072322729

ISBN10:
0072322721
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/21/2000
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

Related Products


  • Classroom Assessment
    Classroom Assessment
  • Classroom Assessment
    Classroom Assessment
  • Classroom Assessment with PowerWeb Bind-In Card
    Classroom Assessment with PowerWeb Bind-In Card





Summary

Airasian presents complex concepts clearly so that pre-service teachers can understand them, and solidly grounds these concepts in best practice through practical, real, well-integrated examples. He talks to, not at users. The text conceives of classroom assessment in a broader way than many other texts. It focuses not only on the assessment needs of testing, grading, interpreting standardized tests, and performance assessments but also on assessment concerns in organizing a classroom at the start of school, planning and implementing instruction, and strategies of teacher self reflection. Classroom Assessment: Concepts and Applications views classroom assessment as an everyday, ongoing, integral part of teaching, not something that is separated from life in classrooms. The text is organized in a manner that follows the natural progression of teacher decision making, from organizing the class as a learning community to planning and conducting instruction to the formal evaluation of learning and, finally, to grading.

Author Biography

Peter W. Airasian is Professor of Education at Boston College, where he is Chair of the Department of Counseling, Developmental Psychology, and Research Methods.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
The Classroom as an Assessment Environment
1(26)
Purposes of Assessment
4(4)
Establishing Classroom Equilibrium
4(1)
Planning and Conducting Instruction
5(1)
Placing Pupils
5(1)
Providing Feedback and Incentives
5(1)
Diagnosing Pupil Problems
6(1)
Judging and Grading Academic Learning and Progress
6(2)
Some Definitions: Assessment, Test, Measurement, and Evaluation
8(2)
Methods of Collecting Assessment Information
10(3)
Paper-and-Pencil Methods
10(1)
Observation Methods
11(1)
Oral Questioning Methods
12(1)
Standardized and Nonstandardized Assessments
13(1)
Standardized Assessments
13(1)
Nonstandardized Assessments
14(1)
Individual and Group Assessment
14(2)
Individually Administered Assessments
14(1)
Group Administered Assessments
15(1)
Characteristics of Good Assessment: Validity and Reliability
16(5)
Validity
18(1)
Reliability
19(2)
Ethical Issues and Responsibilities
21(6)
Chapter Summary
23(1)
Questions for Discussion
24(1)
Reflection Exercise
24(1)
Activity
25(1)
Review Questions
25(1)
References
25(2)
Learning About Pupils: Sizing-Up Assessment
27(36)
Gathering Sizing-Up Assessment Information
31(6)
Preclassroom Sizing-Up Information
31(2)
Classroom Sizing-Up Information
33(4)
Forming Pupil Descriptions
37(3)
Characteristics of Sizing-Up Assessments
40(4)
Stability of Sizing-Up Assessments
41(1)
Observation in Sizing-Up Assessments
41(3)
The Validity and Reliability of Sizing-Up Assessments
44(7)
Problems That Affect Validity
44(7)
Sizing-Up Effects on Pupils
51(2)
Improving Sizing-Up Assessments
53(10)
Chapter Summary
59(1)
Questions for Discussion
60(1)
Reflection Exercises
60(1)
Activities
60(1)
Review Questions
61(1)
References
61(2)
Lesson Planning: Objectives, Standards, and Accommodations
63(52)
Education, Curriculum, and Instruction
64(1)
The Instructional Process
65(9)
Teacher's Views of the Instructional Process
66(1)
Teacher Planning
67(2)
Pupil Characteristics
69(1)
Teacher Characteristics
70(1)
Instructional Resources
71(3)
Characteristics of Objectives
74(2)
Types of Objectives: Global, Educational, and Instructional
74(2)
Stating Cognitive Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy
76(3)
A Second Dimension of Objectives: Three Types of Knowledge
79(9)
Combining Cognitive Processes and Types of Knowledge
83(3)
Stating Objectives
86(1)
Questions About Objectives
86(2)
Other Sources of Objectives
88(9)
Textbook Objectives
88(3)
State and School District Learning Standards
91(6)
Improving Planning Assessment
97(5)
Addressing Pupil Accommodations
102(13)
Legal Issues
102(4)
Disabilities and Accommodations
106(3)
Chapter Summary
109(2)
Questions for Discussion
111(1)
Reflection Exercise
111(1)
Activities
112(1)
Review Questions
112(1)
References
112(3)
Assessing During Instruction
115(28)
Teachers' Tasks During Instruction: Two Metaphors
117(1)
Aligning Objectives and Instruction
118(6)
Remembering Factual Knowledge
120(1)
Understanding Conceptual Knowledge
120(1)
Applying Procedural Knowledge
121(1)
Instructional Approaches from State Standards
122(2)
Teacher Thinking During Instruction
124(2)
Instructional Assessment
126(4)
Assessing Abnormal and Normal Behavior
127(1)
The Need for Practical Knowledge
128(2)
The Quality of Instructional Assessments: Validity and Reliability
130(3)
Problems That Affect Validity
130(2)
Problems That Affect Reliability
132(1)
Improving Assessment During Instruction
133(2)
Questioning: Purposes and Strategies
135(8)
Purposes of Questioning
135(3)
Questioning Strategies
138(2)
Chapter Summary
140(1)
Questions for Discussion
141(1)
Reflection Exercises
141(1)
Activities
141(1)
Review Questions
141(1)
References
142(1)
Official Assessment: Developing Tests and Assessments
143(24)
Formative and Summative Assessment
144(3)
Developing Formal Assessments
147(1)
Preparing Official Assessments: Four Concerns
148(8)
Mr. Wysocki's Class
148(2)
What Should Be Tested?
150(1)
What Types of Assessments Should Be Used?
151(1)
How Long Should the Assessment Take?
152(3)
Should a Teacher-Made Assessment or a Textbook Assessment Be Used?
155(1)
Preparing Pupils for Official Assessments
156(11)
Issues of Test Preparation
157(2)
Provide Good Instruction
159(1)
Review Before Testing
159(1)
Ensure Familiarity with Question Formats
160(1)
Scheduling the Test
161(1)
Giving Pupils Information About the Test
162(1)
Chapter Summary
162(2)
Questions for Discussion
164(1)
Reflection Exercise
164(1)
Activity
164(1)
Review Questions
164(1)
References
165(2)
Paper-and-Pencil Test Questions
167(36)
Types of Test Items: Selection and Supply
168(5)
Selection Items
169(2)
Supply Items
171(2)
Higher-Level Test Questions
173(5)
Interpretive Exercises
174(4)
General Guidelines for Writing and Critiquing Test Items
178(15)
Cover Important Content and Behaviors
178(4)
Writing Paper-and-Pencil Items: Six Rules
182(11)
Review Items Before Testing
193(1)
Aligning Instruction with Paper-and-Pencil Assessments
193(10)
Alignment of Instruction and Assessment: Remembering Factual Knowledge
193(1)
Alignment of Instruction and Assessment: Understanding Conceptual Knowledge
194(2)
Alignment of Instruction and Assessment: Applying Procedural Knowledge
196(2)
Chapter Summary
198(1)
Questions for Discussion
199(1)
Reflection Exercise
199(1)
Activities
200(1)
Review Questions
201(1)
References
201(2)
Administering, Scoring, and Improving Paper-and-Pencil Tests
203(24)
Assembling the Test
204(2)
Administering the Test
206(2)
Physical Setting
206(1)
Keeping Track of Time
207(1)
Psychological Setting
207(1)
Issues of Cheating
208(4)
Types of Cheating
210(1)
Deterring Cheating
210(2)
Scoring Paper-and-Pencil Tests
212(6)
Scoring Selection Items
213(1)
Scoring Short-Answer and Completion Items
214(1)
Scoring Essay Items
215(3)
Posttest Item Analysis: Implications for Validity
218(3)
Discuss Test Results with Pupils
221(1)
Testing Pupils with Disabilities
221(6)
Chapter Summary
223(1)
Questions for Discussion
224(1)
Reflection Exercises
225(1)
Activities
225(1)
Review Questions
225(1)
References
226(1)
Performance Assessment
227(34)
Performance Assessment in Schools and Classrooms
231(3)
Performance-Oriented Subjects
232(1)
Early Childhood and Special Needs Pupils
233(1)
Developing Performance Assessments
234(16)
Define the Purpose of Assessment
235(1)
Identify Performance Criteria
235(7)
Provide a Setting to Elicit and Observe the Performance
242(1)
Develop a Score to Describe the Performance
243(7)
Validity and Reliability of Performance Assessments
250(11)
Validity
252(1)
Reliability
253(2)
Chapter Summary
255(1)
Questions for Discussion
256(1)
Reflection Exercises
257(1)
Activities
257(1)
Review Questions
258(1)
References
258(3)
Applications of Performance Assessment
261(28)
Rubrics: Construction and Applications
262(5)
Factors in Using Rubrics
266(1)
Types and Examples of Rubrics
267(5)
Portfolios: Construction and Applications
272(3)
Developing and Scoring Portfolios
275(14)
Purpose of Portfolios
276(1)
Performance Criteria
277(1)
Setting
278(1)
Scoring Criteria
278(7)
Chapter Summary
285(1)
Questions for Discussion
286(1)
Reflection Exercise
286(1)
Activities
286(1)
Review Questions
286(1)
References
287(2)
Grading Pupil Performance
289(48)
Grading: Its Rationale and Difficulties
291(7)
Why Grade?
291(5)
The Difficulty of Grading
296(2)
Grading as Judgment
298(1)
Grading: Four Standards of Comparison
299(9)
Comparisons with Other Pupils
300(1)
Comparison to Predefined Standards
301(4)
Comparison to a Pupil's Ability
305(2)
Comparison to Pupil Improvement
307(1)
Grading for Cooperative Learning and Pupils with Disabilities
308(4)
Grading in Cooperative Learning
308(1)
Grading Pupils with Disabilities
309(3)
Selecting Pupil Performances for Grading
312(3)
Academic Achievement
313(1)
Affective Performances
314(1)
Summarizing Varied Types of Assessment
315(10)
What Should Be Included in a Grade?
319(1)
Selecting Weights for Assessment Information
320(1)
Combining Different Assessment Information
320(3)
Computing Pupils' Overall Scores
323(2)
Assigning Grades to Pupils: Two Approaches
325(2)
A Criterion-Referenced Example
325(1)
A Norm-Referenced Example
326(1)
Other Methods of Reporting Pupil Progress
327(10)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
328(3)
Other Reporting Methods
331(1)
Chapter Summary
332(1)
Questions for Discussion
333(1)
Reflection Exercises
333(1)
Activity
334(1)
Review Questions
335(1)
References
335(2)
Standardized Achievement Tests
337(44)
Teacher's Perceptions of Standardized Tests
339(3)
Commerical Achievement Tests
342(5)
Test Construction
342(5)
Administering Commercial Achievement Tests
347(1)
Interpreting Commercial Achievement Test Scores
348(4)
Percentile Rank Scores
349(1)
Stanine Scores
350(1)
Grade Equivalent Scores
350(2)
Three Examples of Test Interpretation
352(9)
Example 1: Pupil Performance Report
353(4)
Example 2: Class Performance Report
357(2)
Example 3: Summary Report for Parents
359(2)
The Validity of Commercial Achievement Tests
361(3)
Coverage of Objectives Taught
361(1)
Test Norms
362(1)
Test Administration
362(1)
Interpreting Commercial Test Results
363(1)
Reporting Standardized Test Results to Parents
364(2)
Statewide Assessments
366(15)
Construction of Statewide Assessments
368(1)
Scoring Statewide Assessments
369(1)
An Example of Statewide Assessment
369(5)
Chapter Summary
374(1)
Questions for Discussion
375(1)
Reflection Exercises
376(1)
Activities
376(2)
Review Questions
378(1)
References
378(3)
Teacher Self-Assessment
381(17)
Need for Teacher Self-Assessment
382(1)
Informal and Formal Approaches
383(3)
Informal Approaches
383(1)
Formal Approaches
384(2)
Self-Assessment Examples
386(2)
Pupil Feedback Example
386(1)
Self-Reflection Example
387(1)
Video Recording or External Observer Example
388(1)
Classroom Assessment: Summing Up
388(5)
Collecting Assessment Information
389(1)
Interpreting Assessment Information: Five Guidelines
390(3)
Final Thoughts
393(5)
Chapter Summary
395(1)
Questions for Discussion
395(1)
Reflection Exercise
396(1)
Activity
396(1)
Review Questions
396(1)
References
396(2)
Appendix A: Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students 398(7)
Appendix B: Statistical Applications for Classroom Assessment 405(9)
Appendix C: Websites 414(6)
Glossary 420(5)
Name Index 425(2)
Subject Index 427


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...