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Classroom Assessment : Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction,9780205297511
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Classroom Assessment : Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205297511

ISBN10:
020529751X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $62.00

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 5/1/2000.
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Summary

Classroom Assessmentembodies the notion that student evaluation is an integral part of teaching, not something merely done after instruction to measure what students have learned. The second edition is designed to provide prospective and practicing teachers with: (1) a concise presentation of principles that clearly and specifically relate assessment to instruction and to high-stakes accountability systems; (2) current research and new directions in the field of assessment; and (3) practical and realistic examples and suggestions. The book's emphasis is on helping teachers understand the importance of establishing credible performance standards, communicating these standards to students, and providing feedback to students on their progress.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
The Role of Assessment in Teaching
1(22)
Integrating Instruction and Assessment
2(7)
The Realities of Teaching
2(3)
Instructional Decision Making and Assessment
5(4)
What Is Classroom Assessment?
9(3)
Purpose
9(1)
Measurement
10(1)
Evaluation
10(1)
Use
11(1)
Diagnosis
11(1)
Grading
12(1)
Instruction
12(1)
Research on Learning, Motivation, and Instruction: Implications for Assessment
12(2)
Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment
14(3)
Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices Decision Making
17(1)
Assessment Standards for Teachers
18(1)
Summary
19(1)
What's Coming
20(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
20(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
21(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
22(1)
Establishing Learning Targets
23(28)
What Are Learning Targets?
24(15)
Educational Goals
24(1)
Objectives
25(3)
Standards-Based Education
28(4)
Criteria
32(4)
Expectations
36(1)
Learning Targets
37(2)
Types of Learning Targets
39(2)
Knowledge and Simple Understanding Learning Targets
40(1)
Deep Understanding and Reasoning Learning Targets
40(1)
Skill Learning Targets
41(1)
Product Learning Targets
41(1)
Affective Learning Targets
41(1)
Sources of Learning Targets
41(6)
Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives
42(1)
Professional Preparation
43(1)
Textbooks
44(1)
Existing Lists of Objectives
44(1)
National and State Standards
45(2)
Criteria for Selecting Learning Targets
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
49(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
49(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
50(1)
Establishing High-Quality Classroom Assessments
51(29)
What Is High-Quality Classroom Assessment?
52(1)
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets
53(1)
Appropriateness of Assessment Methods
53(6)
Types of Assessment Methods
53(2)
Matching Targets with Methods
55(1)
Knowledge and Simple Understanding
56(1)
Deep Understanding and Reasoning
57(1)
Skills
58(1)
Products
58(1)
Affect
58(1)
Validity
59(6)
What Is a Valid Assessment?
59(1)
How Is Validity Determined?
59(1)
Content-Related Evidence
60(2)
Criterion-Related Evidence
62(1)
Construct-Related Evidence
63(2)
Reliability
65(3)
Fairness
68(4)
Student Knowledge of Learning Targets and Assessments
68(1)
Opportunity to Learn
69(1)
Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills
69(1)
Avoiding Stereotypes
69(1)
Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks and Procedures
70(2)
Accomodating Special Needs
72(1)
Positive Consequences
72(1)
Positive Consequences on Students
72(1)
Positive Consequences on Teachers
73(1)
Practicality and Efficiency
73(2)
Teacher Familiarity with the Method
74(1)
Time Required
74(1)
Complexity of Administration
74(1)
Ease of Scoring
75(1)
Ease of Interpretation
75(1)
Cost
75(1)
Summary
75(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
76(2)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
78(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
78(2)
Assessment before Instruction
80(22)
Before School Begins: What Do You Know about Your Students?
81(9)
School Records
81(3)
Standardized Tests
84(1)
Norm-Referenced Achievement Test Batteries
84(2)
Criterion (Standards)-Referenced Achievement Tests
86(1)
Aptitude Tests
87(1)
Readiness Tests
88(1)
State and District Achievement Tests
88(1)
Uses of Standardized, State, and District Tests
88(1)
Information Cards
89(1)
After the First Week: Now What Do You Know about Your Students?
90(4)
Informal Observation
90(2)
Structured Exercises
92(1)
Pretests
93(1)
Teacher Expectations
94(2)
High-Quality Preinstructional Assessment
96(3)
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets
96(1)
Appropriateness of Assessment Methods
97(1)
Validity
97(1)
Reliability
98(1)
Fairness
98(1)
Positive Consequences
98(1)
Practicality and Efficiency
98(1)
Summary
99(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
99(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
100(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
100(2)
Assessing Student Progress during Instruction
102(28)
Formative and Summative Assessment
104(1)
Informal Observation
105(8)
Assessing Nonverbal Behavior
105(1)
Facial Expressions
106(2)
Body Language
108(1)
Assessing Voice-Related Cues
109(3)
Sources of Error in Informal Observation
112(1)
Using Questions to Assess Student Progress
113(7)
Purposes of Questioning
114(1)
Characteristics of Effective Questioning to Assess Student Progress
115(5)
Providing Feedback and Praise
120(5)
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
120(3)
Characteristics of Effective Praise
123(2)
Summary
125(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
125(2)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
127(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
128(2)
Assessing Knowledge and Simple Understanding: Completion, Short-Answer, and Selected-Response Items
130(34)
Preparing for Summative Assessment
131(5)
Representative Sampling
132(1)
Length and Number of Assessments
132(1)
Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook Publishers
133(1)
Preparing Students for Summative Assessments
134(1)
Scheduling the Summative Assessment
135(1)
When Summative Assessments Should Be Constructed
135(1)
Types of Knowledge and Understanding Targets
136(3)
Knowledge Representation
136(1)
Declarative Knowledge and Understanding
136(2)
Procedural Knowledge and Understanding
138(1)
Assessing Recall Knowledge
139(13)
Completion and Short-Answer Items
139(1)
Completion Items
139(3)
Short-Answer Items
142(2)
Matching Items
144(2)
True/False and Other Binary-Choice Items
146(3)
Multiple-Choice Items
149(3)
Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application
152(4)
Assessing Comprehension
152(2)
Assessing Application
154(2)
Putting Tests Together
156(3)
Preparing Test Directions
157(1)
Arranging Items
157(1)
Physical Layout of the Test
157(2)
Summary
159(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
160(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
161(2)
Suggestions for Action Research
163(1)
Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning: Selected-Response, Short-Answer, and Essay Items
164(31)
What Are Reasoning Skills?
165(9)
Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
166(1)
Ennis's Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities
167(1)
Quellmalz and Hoskyn's Framework for Reasoning Strategies
167(2)
Marzano's Dimensions of Learning
169(5)
Assessing Reasoning and Deep Understanding
174(16)
Short-Answer and Selected-Response Items
175(1)
Short Answer
175(1)
Binary Choice
175(1)
Multiple Choice
175(3)
Interpretive Exercises
178(6)
Essay Items
184(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages
184(1)
Constructing Essay Items
185(3)
Scoring Essays
188(2)
Summary
190(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
191(2)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
193(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
193(2)
Assessing Deep Understanding, Reasoning, and Skills: Performance-Based Assessments
195(38)
What Is Performance-Based Assessment?
196(1)
Strengths and Limitations of Performance-Based Assessments
197(2)
Learning Targets for Performance-Based Assessments
199(6)
Skills
200(1)
Communication and Presentation Skills
200(2)
Psychomotor Skills
202(1)
Products
203(2)
Constructing Performance-Based Tasks
205(11)
Restricted- and Extended-Type Performance-Based Tasks
206(2)
Performance-Based Task Descriptions and Contexts
208(1)
Performance-Based Task Question or Prompt
209(7)
Scoring Criteria, Rubrics, and Procedures
216(12)
Performance Criteria
216(1)
Rating Scales
217(4)
Rubrics
221(2)
Developing Rubrics
223(5)
Summary
228(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
229(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
230(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
231(2)
Using Portfolios to Assess Understanding, Reasoning, Skills, and Products
233(27)
What Are Portfolios?
234(4)
Advantages
236(1)
Disadvantages
237(1)
Planning for Portfolio Assessment
238(5)
Purpose
239(1)
Learning Targets
239(1)
Uses
240(1)
Identify Physical Structure
241(1)
Determine Sources of Content
241(2)
Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines and Scoring Criteria
243(1)
Implementing Portfolio Assessment
243(12)
Review with Students
243(1)
Supplying Portfolio Content
244(2)
Student Self-Evaluations
246(3)
Teacher Evaluation
249(1)
Checklists of Contents
249(1)
Portfolio Structure Evaluation
249(3)
Evaluations of Individual Entries
252(1)
Evaluation of Entire Contents
252(3)
Student-Teacher Conferences
255(1)
Summary
255(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
256(2)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
258(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
258(2)
Assessing Affective Traits and Learning Targets
260(35)
Are Affective Targets Important?
260(2)
What Are Affective Traits and Learning Targets?
262(9)
Attitude Targets
262(3)
Value Targets
265(1)
Motivation Targets
266(1)
Academic Self-Concept Targets
266(1)
Social Relationship Targets
267(2)
Classroom Environment Targets
269(1)
Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
270(1)
Methods of Assessing Affective Targets
271(20)
Teacher Observation
272(1)
Unstructured Observation
273(1)
Structured Observation
273(3)
Student Self-Report
276(1)
Student Interview
276(2)
Questionnaires and Surveys
278(1)
Constructed-Response Formats
279(1)
Selected-Response Formats
280(5)
Constructing Self-Report Items
285(1)
Peer Ratings
286(1)
Guess-Who Approach
286(1)
Sociometric Approach
286(2)
Which Method or Combination of Methods Should I Use?
288(2)
Ensuring Anonymity
290(1)
Summary
291(2)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
293(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
294(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
294(1)
Assessing Mainstreamed Students
295(23)
Legal Mandates
295(2)
Assessing Students for Identification
297(5)
Steps before Identification
298(1)
Identification
299(1)
Mental Retardation
299(1)
Sensory Impairment
300(1)
Physical Impairment
300(1)
Learning Disability
300(1)
Emotional Disturbance
300(2)
Assessment Problems Encountered by Students with Disabilities
302(4)
Comprehension Difficulties
303(1)
Auditory Difficulties
303(1)
Visual Difficulties
304(1)
Time Constraint Difficulties
305(1)
Anxiety
305(1)
Embarrassment
305(1)
Variability of Behavior
305(1)
Assessment Accommodations
306(5)
Adaptations in Test Directions and Construction
306(1)
Short-Answer and Essay Items
307(1)
Multiple-Choice Items
308(1)
Binary-Choice Items
308(1)
Completion Items
308(1)
Performance-Based Assessments
308(1)
Portfolios
308(1)
Adaptations in Test Administration
309(2)
Adaptations in Testing Site
311(1)
Grading and Reporting Accommodations
311(3)
Grading Accommodations
311(1)
IEP Grading
311(1)
Shared Grading
312(1)
Contracting
312(1)
Reporting Accommodations
313(1)
Summary
314(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
315(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
316(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
317(1)
Using Assessment for Grading and Reporting
318(33)
Teachers' Judgments
318(3)
Functions of Marking, Grading, and Reporting
321(13)
Functions of Marking and Grading in the Classroom
322(1)
Level of Detail Communicated
322(1)
Factors Other Than Performance
322(3)
Basis of Comparison
325(4)
Approaches to Marking and Grading
329(1)
Letter Grades
329(1)
Percentage Correct
330(2)
Pass-Fail
332(1)
Checklists
332(1)
Written Descriptions
333(1)
Functions of Grading and Reporting Outside the Classroom
333(1)
Determining Report Card Grades
334(11)
Select What to Include in the Final Grade
334(2)
Select Weights for Each Assessment
336(1)
Combining Different Scores and Grades
337(1)
Eyeball Method
337(1)
Percent Correct Method
338(3)
Total Points Method
341(1)
Combining Relative Scores and Grades
342(1)
Suggestions for Fair Grading
343(2)
Reporting Student Progress to Parents
345(2)
Written Information
345(1)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
346(1)
Summary
347(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
348(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
349(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
350(1)
Administering and Interpreting Standardized Tests
351(32)
Fundamental Descriptive Statistics
352(9)
Frequency Distributions
352(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
352(3)
Measures of Variability
355(3)
Measures of Relationship
358(1)
Scatterplot
358(1)
Correlation Coefficient
359(2)
Types of Derived Standardized Test Scores
361(5)
Standard Scores
361(1)
Z-Score
362(1)
T-Score
362(1)
Normal Curve Equivalent
362(1)
Stanines
363(1)
Developmental Standard Score
364(1)
Deviation IQ and Standard Age Scores
364(1)
Other Standard Scores
364(1)
Grade Equivalent Scores
364(2)
Interpreting Standardized Tests
366(6)
Standard Error of Measurement
366(1)
Interpretation of Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests
367(1)
Types of Standardized Test Norms
367(1)
Using Test Norms
368(2)
Criterion (Standards)-Referenced Interpretations
370(2)
Understanding Standardized Test Score Reports
372(3)
Interpreting Test Reports for Parents
375(2)
Preparing Students to Take Standardized Tests
377(1)
Administering Standardized Tests
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Self-Instructional Review Exercises
380(1)
Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises
381(1)
Suggestions for Action Research
382(1)
References 383(4)
Appendix A National Content Standards Projects 387(2)
Appendix B The Scope of a Teacher's Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment 389(3)
Appendix C Software Packages for Grading and Item Banking 392(2)
Appendix D Glossary 394(4)
Index 398


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