This book provides prospective and current teachers with a concise, non-technical and practical guide to conducting a full range of high-quality classroom assessments. The text emphasizes assessment in the context of the realities of teaching and teacher decision-making, as well as on how assessment is integrated with instruction. Assessment methods are integrated with instruction and presented according to when teachers evaluate students (before, during, and after an instructional unit) and the learning targets that are measured. There is considerable emphasis on the nature of learning targets and how different assessments are most appropriate for different targets. For each assessment technique, suggestions for effective practice are presented with examples and case studies. There are separate chapters on contemporary assessment techniques and issues, such as performance and portfolio assessments, as well as separate chapters on assessing affective targets and students with disabilities included in the regular classroom. A balance is provided with traditional forms of assessment and the need for teachers to administer, interpret, and use results from standards-based large scale assessments and other standardized tests.
All chapters conclude with “Summary,” “Self-Instructional Review Exercises,” “Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises,” and “Suggestions for Action Research.”
1. The Role of Assessment in Teaching.
Integrating Instruction and Assessment.
The Realities of Teaching. Instructional Decision-Making and Assessment.
What Is Classroom Assessment?
Purpose. Measurement. Evaluation. Use.
Research on Learning, Motivation, Instruction, and Curriculum: Implications for Assessment.
Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment.
Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices Decision-Making.
Assessment Standards for Teachers.
2. Establishing Learning Targets.
What Are Learning Targets?
Educational Goals. Objectives. Standards-Based Education. Criteria. Expectations. Learning Targets.
Types of Learning Targets.
Knowledge and Simple Understanding Learning Targets. Deep Understanding and Reasoning Learning Targets. Skill Learning Targets. Product Learning Targets. Affective Learning Targets.
Sources of Learning Targets.
Bloom's Taxonomy. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Objectives. Taxonomy Professional Preparation. Textbooks. Existing Lists of Objectives. National Standards.
Criteria for Selecting Learning Targets.
3. Establishing High Quality Classroom Assessments.
What Is High Quality Classroom Assessment?
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets.
Appropriateness of Assessment Methods.
Types of Assessment Methods. Matching Targets with Methods.
What Is a Valid Assessment? How Is Validity Determined?
What is a Reliable Score?
Sources of Reliability.
Evidence Based on Stability. Evidence Based on Equivalent Forms. Evidence Based on Internal Consistency. Evidence Based on Decision Consistency.Factors Influencing Reliablity Estimates.
Student Knowledge of Learning Tasks and Assessments. Opportunity to Learn. Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills. Avoiding Stereotypes. Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks and Procedures. Accommodating Special Needs.
Positive Consequences on Students. Positive Consequences on Teachers.
Practicality and Efficiency.
Teacher Familiarity with the Method. Time Required. Complexity of Administration. Ease of Scoring. Ease of Interpretation. Cost.
4. Assessment Prior to Instruction.
Before School Begins: Learning About Your Students.
Norm-Referenced Achievement Test Batteries. Criterion Referenced and Standards-Based Tests. Aptitude Tests. Readiness Tests. Use of Standardized Tests.Information Cards.
After the First Week: Now What Do You Know about Your Students?
Informal Observation. Structured Exercises. Pretests.
High Quality Pre-Instructional Assessment.
Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets. Appropriateness of Assessment Methods. Validity. Reliability. Fairness. Positive Consequences. Practicality and Efficiency.
5. Assessing Student Progress during Instruction.
Formative and Summative Assessment.
Assessing Nonverbal Behavior. Facial Expressions. Body Language. Gestures. Assessing Voice-Related Cues. Sources of Error in Informal Observation.
Using Questions to Assess Student Progress.
Purposes of Questions. Characteristics of Effective Questioning to Assess Student Progress.
Providing Feedback and Praise.
Characteristics of Effective Feedback. Characteristics of Praise.
6. Completion, Short Answer, and Selected-Response Items: Assessing Knowledge and Simple Understanding.
Preparing for Summative Assessment.
Representative Sampling. Length and Number of Assessments. Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook Publishers. Preparing Students for Summative Assessments. Scheduling the Summative Assessment. When Summative Assessments Should Be Constructed.
Types of Knowledge and Simple Understanding Targets.
Knowledge Representation. Declarative Knowledge and Understanding. Procedural Knowledge and Understanding.
Completion and Short-Answer Items. Matching Items. True-False and Other Binary-Choice Items. Multiple-Choice Items.
Assessing Simple Understanding: Comprehension and Application.
Assessing Comprehension. Assessing Application.
Putting Objective Tests Together.
Preparing Test Directions. Arranging Items. Physical Layout of the Test.
7. Assessing Deep Understanding Knowledge and Reasoning: Selected-Response, Short-Answer, and Essay Items.
What Are Reasoning Skills?
Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain. Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy. Ennis Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities. Quellmalz and Hoskyn's Framework for Reasoning Strategies. Marzano's Dimensions of Learning.
Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning.
Short-Answer and Selected-Response Items. Essay Items.
8. Performance Assessment: Assessing Deep Understanding, Reasoning, and Skill.
What Is Performance-Based Assessment?
Learning Targets for Performance Assessments.
Constructing Performance Tasks.
Restricted- and Extended-Type Performance Tasks. Performance Task Descriptions and Contexts. Performance Task Question or Prompt.
Scoring Criteria, Rubrics, and Procedures.
Performance Criteria. Rating Scales. Developing Rubrics.
9. Portfolios: Assessing, Understanding, Reasoning, Skills, and Products.
What Are Portfolios?
Planning for Portfolio Assessment.
Purpose. Identify Physical Structure. Determine Sources of Content. Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines and Scoring Criteria.
Implementing Portfolio Assessment.
Review with Students. Supplying Portfolio Content. Student Self-Evaluations. Teacher Evaluation. Student-Teacher Conferences.
10. Assessing Affective Traits and Dispositions.
Are Affective Targets Important?
What Are Affective Traits and Learning Targets?
Attitude Targets. Value Targets. Motivation Targets. Academic Self-Concept Targets. Social Relationship Targets. Classroom Environment Targets. Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Methods of Assessing Affective Targets.
Teacher Observation. Student Self-Report. Peer Ratings. Which Method or Combination of Methods Should I Use? Assuring Anonymity.
11. Assessing Students With Special Needs in Inclusive Settings.
Assessing Students for Identification.
Steps Prior to Identification. Identification. Limited English-Proficient Students.
Assessment Problems Encountered by Students with Special Needs.
Comprehension Difficulties. Auditory Difficulties. Visual Difficulties. Time Constraint Difficulties. Anxiety. Embarrassment. Variability of Behavior.
Adaptations in Test Directions and Construction. Adaptations in Test Administration. Adaptations in Testing Site. Grading Accommodations. Reporting Accommodations.
12. Grading and Reporting Student Performance.
Functions of Marking, Grading, and Reporting.
Functions of Marking and Grading in the Classroom. Approaches to Marking and Grading. Functions of Grading and Reporting Outside the Classroom.
Determining Report Card Grades.
Select What to Include in the Final Grade. Select Weights for Each Assessment. Combining Different Scores and Grades. Suggestions for Fair Grading.
Reporting Student Progress to Parents.
Report Cards. Written Information. Parent-Teacher Conferences. Student-Led Conferences.
13. Administering and Interpreting Standardized Tests.
Fundamental Descriptive Statistics.
Frequency Distributions. Measures of Central Tendency. Measures of Variability. Measures of Relationship. Standard Scores. Grade Equivalents.
Types of Derived Standardized Test Scores.
Standard Scores. Grade Equivalent Scores.
Interpretating Standardized Tests.
Standard Error Measurement. Interpretating of Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests. Criterion-Referenced Interpretations.
Understanding Standardized Test Score Reports.
Interpreting Test Reports for Parents.
Preparing Students for Taking Standardized Tests.
Administering Standardized Tests.
Appendix A: National Content Standards Projects.
Appendix B: The Scope of Teachers' Professional Role and Responsibilities for Student Assessment.
Appendix C: Software Packages for Grading and Item Banking.
Appendix D: Glossary.