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Classroom Assessment for Students in Special and General Education,9780131193536

Classroom Assessment for Students in Special and General Education

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131193536

ISBN10:
0131193538
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $124.20

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Summary

Written for future teachers and experienced educators, Classroom Assessment for Students in Special and General Education, second edition provides the skills needed to effectively use assessment, particularly informal assessment, in understanding the needs of the whole student. The primary book on classroom assessment procedures is now revised with the latest in authentic, curriculum and performance-based assessment measures with direct connections to instruction, IEP development, and reporting to parents. The focus is on providing teachers with a variety of assessment procedures, the why, what and how of testing, directions on how to construct, administer, score, interpret, graph, monitor, write, and report assessment results. General K-12 Inservice Teachers.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Overview of the Assessment Process
1(120)
The Process of Assessment: The Role of the Teacher
2(42)
Introduction to the Process of Assessment
4(2)
Section 1: The Prereferral Process
6(7)
Identifying the Problem
6(1)
Individual Screening Procedures
6(1)
Group Screening Procedures
7(1)
Preschool and Kindergarten Screening for Students ``At-Risk''
7(1)
Early Intervening Services
7(3)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
10(3)
Section 2: The Referral and Classification Process
13(14)
Initiating the Referral Process
13(1)
Parental Safeguards and Protections
14(1)
Gathering Information for the Referral
15(2)
The Evaluation Process
17(1)
The Evaluation Plan
17(2)
IDEA Requirements for Eligibility Evaluation
19(1)
IEP Multidisciplinary Team Membership
19(1)
Classification Eligibility
19(8)
Section 3: IEP Development and Evaluation Process
27(5)
Developing of the Individualized Education Plan
27(1)
Information Required in the IEP
27(4)
Coordinating Assessment Results in IEP Development
31(1)
Section 4: Placement and Service Determination Process
32(4)
Placement Determination
32(3)
Related Services Determination
35(1)
Assistive Technology Services and Devices
35(1)
Section 5: The Program Review Process
36(2)
Evaluating Progress
36(1)
The Annual Review
36(1)
Reevaluation
37(1)
Mediation and Due Process
38(1)
Summary Points
38(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
39(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
40(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 1
41(3)
Standardized Assessment: Types, Scores, Reporting
44(32)
Introduction to Standardized Assessment
46(1)
Section 1: Types of Formal Assessments
46(4)
Tests of Aptitude
47(1)
Tests of Achievement
47(1)
Norm-Referenced Tests
47(3)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
50(1)
Section 2: Choosing the Type of Test to Use
50(6)
Determining Which Type of Test Is Appropriate
51(3)
Determining How Testing Should Be Administered
54(1)
Determining Whether to Use Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced Tests
55(1)
Section 3: Administering Standardized Tests
56(3)
Preparing for Testing
57(1)
Determining Exact Chronological Age
57(1)
The Test Environment
58(1)
Prompts and Questioning
58(1)
Evaluating Test Behavior
58(1)
Administering the Test
59(1)
Section 4: Scoring and Interpreting Standardized Tests
59(7)
Raw Score
59(2)
Correct/Incorrect Possible Score
61(1)
Standard Score
61(1)
Stanine
62(1)
Percentiles
62(1)
Standard Error of Measurement
63(1)
Confidence Interval
63(1)
Grade and Age Equivalent Score
64(2)
Section 5: Technology---Computerized Assessments
66(3)
Types of Assistive Technologies
67(1)
Pros and Cons of Using Technology in Assessments
67(1)
Assessment Computer Systems
67(2)
Section 6: Writing and Reporting Test Results
69(2)
Writing Test Reports
69(1)
Reporting Test Results
69(2)
Summary Points
71(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
72(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
72(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 2
73(3)
Informal Assessment: Selecting, Scoring, Reporting
76(45)
Introduction to Informal Assessments
78(3)
Section 1: Types of Achievement Assessment Measures
81(18)
Informal (Nontraditional) Assessments
81(18)
Section 2: Types of Informal Scoring Procedures
99(7)
Rubrics
99(1)
Analytic Scoring
100(1)
Holistic Scoring
101(1)
Selecting Existing Rubrics
102(1)
Adapting Existing Rubrics
103(1)
Rating Scales
103(1)
Anchor Papers
104(2)
Section 3: Planning, Constructing, and Administrating Scoring Procedures
106(3)
How and Why to Use a Rubric
106(1)
Components of Rubrics
106(1)
Constructing a Rubric
107(2)
Rubrics Scoring
109(1)
Section 4: Grading and Progress Reporting to Parents
109(6)
Special Education Law Mandates
109(1)
Monitoring, Graphing, and Reporting Academic Progress
110(1)
Coordinating Portfolio Criteria with Grading Standards
111(2)
Progress Reporting Systems
113(2)
Summary Points
115(2)
Chapter Check-Ups
117(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
117(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 3
118(3)
PART 2 Preliminary Assessment Issues
121(56)
Accountability, Accommodations, and Alternate Assessment
122(28)
Introduction to Accountability, Accommodations, Alternate Assessments
124(1)
Section 1: IDEA-2604: Mandates for Assessment and Accountability
125(2)
Reasons for Reform
125(2)
Section 2: Issues of Accountability
127(3)
Variations in Assessment Among States and Districts
128(1)
Determining Student Participation
128(1)
Deciding Which Students Need Accommodations
129(1)
Section 3: Testing Accommodations and Modifications
130(10)
Accommodations
131(1)
Guidelines for Providing Accommodations
132(1)
Categories of Accommodations
133(3)
Modifications
136(1)
Correlating Accommodations with Specific Learning Characteristics
137(3)
Section 4: Alternate Assessments
140(5)
Measurement Procedures
140(1)
Criteria for Alternate Assessments
141(4)
Section 5: Assessment Accommodations and Modifications for Students with Physical and Special Health Needs
145(1)
Summary Points
146(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
146(1)
Practice Application Assessment Activities
147(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 4
147(3)
Gathering Preliminary Assessment Data
150(27)
Introduction to Preliminary Assessment Data Collection
152(1)
Section 1: Teacher Interview
152(3)
Section 2: Parent Interview
155(3)
Section 3: Record Review
158(3)
Cumulative Files
158(1)
Confidential Files
158(3)
Health Records
161(1)
Section 4: Work-Sample Analysis
161(1)
Section 5: Student Observation
162(9)
Observations in Group Settings
166(1)
Observations During the Testing Session
167(1)
Characteristics of Visual and Auditory Acuity to Observe
168(2)
Visual and Auditory Processing or Perceptual Problems
170(1)
Analysis of the Classroom Environment
171(1)
Section 6: Student Interview
171(2)
Summary Points
173(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
174(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
174(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 5
175(2)
PART 3 Basic Skills and Content-Subject Assessment
177(268)
Oral and English Language Learner/Bilingual Assessment
178(40)
Introduction to Speech and Oral Language Assessment
180(6)
Section 1: Speech Assessment
186(2)
Types of Speech Disorders
186(2)
Section 2: Language Assessment
188(6)
Receptive and Expressive Language Assessment
188(1)
Assessing Language Samples
188(1)
Testing Rapid Automized Naming
189(1)
Assessing Language Content, Form, and Use
190(4)
Section 3: Assessment of Students with Cultural or Linguistic Diversity
194(10)
IDEA Requirements for Assessing CLD Students
196(1)
Assessment Issues: Language Disorders vs. Differences
197(1)
Identifying the Second-Language-Acquisition Phenomena
198(1)
Distinguishing Between Social and Academic Language Proficiency
199(3)
Assessing Language Proficiency
202(2)
Section 4: English Language Learner and Bilingual Assessment
204(9)
Traditional CLD Assessment Measures
204(1)
Informal Authentic Assessment Measures
204(2)
Parental Contribution to the Assessment Process
206(1)
Observational Assessment Procedures
207(1)
Types of Authentic Assessments
208(3)
Criteria for Evaluators of ELLs and Bilingual Students
211(1)
Issues to Consider When Making Test Accommodations for Students with CLD
212(1)
Adaptations to Test Administration and Test Accommadations for Students with CLD
212(1)
Summary Points
213(2)
Chapter Check-Ups
215(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
215(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 6
216(2)
Reading Assessment
218(66)
Introduction to Reading Assessment
220(1)
Section 1: Emergent Literacy Assessment
221(6)
Oral Language
222(1)
Phonemic Awareness
222(1)
Print Awareness
223(2)
Knowledge of the Alphabet
225(2)
Section 2: Phonics Assessment
227(1)
Phonetic Analysis
227(1)
Structural Analysis
227(1)
Section 3: Vocabulary Assessment
228(14)
Word Meaning
231(1)
Word Recognition
232(3)
Oral Reading
235(1)
Reading Error Pattern Analysis
236(6)
Section 4: Reading Fluency Assessment
242(7)
Reading Fluency
243(6)
Section 5: Reading Comprehension Assessment
249(10)
Components of Reading Comprehension
249(1)
Interest Inventory
250(2)
Explicit, Implicit and Critical Comprehension
252(1)
Cloze Procedure
253(2)
Maze Procedure
255(1)
Think-Aloud Procedure
256(1)
Retell Procedure
256(2)
Metacognition
258(1)
Section 6: General Reading Assessment Measures
259(18)
Portfolio Assessment
259(10)
Readability Graph
269(1)
Curriculum-Based Measurement
269(5)
Performance-Based Assessment
274(3)
Summary Points
277(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
277(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
278(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 7
278(6)
Written Language Assessment
284(62)
Introduction to Written Language
286(1)
Section 1: Written Language Assessment Procedures
287(7)
Interest Inventory
287(1)
Analyzing the Classroom Writing Environment
288(6)
Section 2: Written Expression Assessment
294(8)
Assessing the Writing Process
294(1)
Written Expression Error Analysis
294(2)
Portfolio Assessment of Written Expression
296(1)
Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement
297(5)
Performance-Based Assessment
302(1)
Diagnostic Inventory
302(1)
Section 3: Spelling Assessment
302(15)
Spelling Error Analysis
305(1)
Spelling Demons
306(1)
Dictated Spelling Tests
307(1)
Informal Spelling Inventory
307(1)
Cloze Procedure
308(5)
Performance Spelling Assessment
313(2)
Phonemic Awareness Spelling Assessment
315(2)
Inventory of Word Knowledge
317(1)
Spelling Word Test: Flow List
317(1)
Section 4: Handwriting Assessment
317(10)
Handwriting Sample Assessment
319(2)
Curriculum-Based Measurement: Handwriting Probes
321(1)
Handwriting Error Analysis
321(1)
Error Analysis Procedure
322(2)
Zaner-Bloser Evaluation Scale
324(3)
Section 5: Written Language Scoring-Rating Methods
327(12)
Holistic Scoring
327(2)
Analytic Scoring
329(10)
Summary Points
339(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
339(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
339(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 8
340(6)
Mathematical Assessment
346(54)
Introduction to Mathematical Assessment
348(3)
Section 1: Mathematical Procedures
351(6)
Interviews: Teachers, Parents and Students
351(2)
Analysis of Math Work Samples
353(1)
Observation During Math Activities
353(1)
Student Self-Assessment
354(2)
Peer Assessment
356(1)
Section 2: Assessment of Common Mathematical Problem Areas
357(7)
Mathematical Language Assessment
357(1)
Cultural and Language Differences
358(1)
Cognitive Factors
359(1)
Attitudes Toward Math and Emotional Factors
359(1)
Ineffective Instruction
360(1)
Poor Abstract or Symbolic Thinking
361(1)
Poor Reading Skills
361(1)
Failure To Use Common Sense in Mathematics
361(1)
Information Processing Problems
362(2)
Section 3: Mathematical Assessment Measures
364(25)
Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measurement
364(1)
Curriculum-Based Math Probes
365(2)
Graphing Math Probe Results
367(1)
Mathematical Error Analysis
368(9)
Oral Math Interview
377(2)
Task Analysis
379(3)
Checklists
382(1)
Math Inventory
382(1)
Mathematical Journal Writing
383(1)
Performance-Based Assessment
384(2)
Math Portfolio
386(1)
Life Consumer Skills
387(2)
Section 4: Mathematical Scoring-Rating Procedures
389(5)
Mathematical Holistic and Analytic Scoring
389(1)
Mathematical Rubrics
389(1)
Mathematical Rating Scales
389(5)
Summary Points
394(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
394(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
394(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 9
395(5)
Content Area and Related Arts Assessment
400(45)
Introduction to Content Area Subjects: Science and Social Studies
402(1)
Section 1: The Process of Content Area Assessment
403(3)
Evaluating Instruction in Relation to Student Needs
403(3)
Section 2: Content Area Subject Assessment Procedures
406(6)
Observation and Interview in the Content Area
406(1)
Student Self-Assessment Reflection
406(3)
Peer Assessment
409(1)
Learning Logs and Journals
409(3)
Section 3: Content Area Subject Assessment Measures
412(8)
Performance-Based Assessment
412(1)
Content Area Subject Curriculum-Based Measures
413(2)
Drawing Mental Models
415(1)
Concept Map Assessment
416(2)
Content Area Oral Interview
418(1)
Content Area Subject Portfolio Assessment
418(1)
Checklist for Content Area Subjects
419(1)
Section 4: Textbook Evaluation
420(4)
Section 5: Related Arts: The Assessment Process
424(3)
Physical Education: The Related Arts Subject
424(1)
Adaptive Physical Education: The Special Service
424(2)
Arts Education
426(1)
Computer and Library Research Education
427(1)
Section 6: Related Arts Assessment Procedures
427(5)
Cognitive Assessment of Performance Skills
427(2)
Performance Assessment
429(1)
Self and Peer Assessment Activities
429(1)
Portfolio Assessment
429(1)
Related Arts Journals or Activity Log
430(1)
Observations and Interviews in Related Arts Activities
431(1)
Motor Skills Screening Tests
431(1)
Section 7: Content Area and Related Arts Scoring and Grading Measures
432(1)
Summary Points
433(2)
Chapter Check-Ups
435(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
436(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 10
436(9)
Part 4 Special Focus Assessment
445
Study Skills Assessment and Test-Taking Skills
446(22)
Introduction to Study and Test-Taking Skill Assessment
448(1)
Section 1: Work-Study Skill Assessment Strategies
448(8)
Listening Skills: Attention
449(1)
Retention and Recall: Memory Skills
449(2)
Time Management and Organizational Skills
451(1)
Metacognitive Reflection
451(1)
Note Taking
452(1)
Research Skills
453(2)
Contract System
455(1)
Section 2: Factors Influencing Test-Taking Performance
456(4)
Test Preparation
456(2)
Test Anxiety
458(2)
Attitude and Motivational Factors
460(1)
Appropriate Accommodations
460(1)
Section 3: Test Taking Skills Techniques
460(3)
Helping Students to Become ``Test Wise''
460(3)
Summary Points
463(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
464(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
464(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 11
464(4)
Emotional, Social, and Character Education
468(32)
Introduction to Emotional, Social, and Character Assessment
470(1)
Section 1: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
470(1)
Section 2: Behavioral Analysis Procedures
471(2)
Section 3: General and Direct Observation and Interview Procedures
473(1)
General Observation Interview
473(1)
Section 4: Types or Direct Observation
474(6)
Event Recording
474(1)
Duration Recording
475(1)
Latency Recording
475(1)
Interval Recording
476(1)
Running Record
477(1)
Anecdotal Records
478(2)
Interviews
480(1)
Section 5: Functional Behavioral Assessment
480(2)
Categories of Functional Assessment
482(1)
Section 6: Character Education Assessment
482(4)
Section 7: Social Skill Assessment
486(9)
Social Skills Development
486(5)
Sociograms
491(4)
Rating Scales
495(1)
Summary Points
495(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
496(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
496(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 12
497(3)
Transition Assessment: Across the Ages
500
Introduction to Transition Assessment from Early Childhood to Postsecondary School
502(1)
Section 1: Transition Legislation
503(5)
Early Childhood Transition Legislation
504(2)
Secondary-Level Transition Legislation
506(1)
Comprehensive Data Collection
506(2)
Section 2: Transition from Preschool to the Primary Grades
508(5)
Early Childhood Assessment
508(3)
Components of Early Childhood Assessment
511(1)
Developmental Assessment
512(1)
Section 3: Transition During the Middle Years: Elementary to Middle to High School
513(1)
Transition from Elementary to Middle School
513(1)
Transition from Middle to High School
513(1)
Section 4: Transition from Special Education to General Education and from Hospital/Home to School
514(2)
The Transition from Special to Regular Education
514(1)
The Transition from Hospital/Rehabilitation/Home to School
515(1)
Section 5: Secondary to Postsecondary Transition
516(3)
From Assessment to Transition Planning
516(1)
Components of Secondary Transitions
516(2)
Reasonable Accommodations for Postsecondary Settings
518(1)
Section 6: The Secondary-Level Assessment Process
519(2)
Section 7: Assessments at the Critical Transition Points: Preschool to Elementary School
521(10)
Early Childhood Standardized Tests
521(1)
Preschool to Elementary School Informal Assessment Procedures
522(1)
Observational Assessment
522(1)
Play-Based Assessment
523(1)
Arena Assessment
524(1)
Self-Evaluation
525(1)
Portfolios
526(1)
Curriculum-Based Assessment
526(2)
Specific Skill Checklists
528(3)
Videotape, Audiotape, and Photographic Recordings
531(1)
Section 8: Assessments at the Critical Transition Points: Middle School through the Secondary School Years
531(17)
Person-Centered Planning
531(1)
Situational Assessment
532(1)
The Interview Process
533(1)
Career Assessment
533(1)
Work Sample Analysis
533(8)
Self Determination Assessment
541(2)
Checklists and Rating Scales
543(1)
Performance Assessment
543(1)
Portfolios
543(1)
Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment
543(5)
Summary Points
548(1)
Chapter Check-Ups
548(1)
Practical Application Assessment Activities
549(1)
Connection Between CEC, PRAXIS, and INTASC Standards and Chapter 13
549
References 1(1)
Index 1


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