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Classroom Assessment : What Teachers Need to Know,9780205333042

Classroom Assessment : What Teachers Need to Know

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205333042

ISBN10:
0205333044
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $56.60
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Summary

Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Knowis a brief, practical guide to assessment issues raised in classrooms. In a friendly, often humorous way, James Popham illustrates the relationship between classroom assessment and the daily instructional decisions a teacher must make. In addition to addressing more traditional issues such as validity and reliability, this book also provides coverage of alternative assessments.

Table of Contents

To the Reader xi
Why Do Teachers Need to Know about Assessment?
1(26)
Assessment versus Testing
2(3)
Why Should Teachers Know about Assessment? Yesteryear's Answers
5(5)
Why Should Teachers Know about Assessment? Today's Answers
10(5)
Pressure from ``Higher Ups''
11(4)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Assessment?
15(5)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
17(2)
Parent Talk
19(1)
A Three-Chapter Preview
20(2)
Chapter Summary
22(1)
Self-Check
22(2)
Pondertime
24(1)
Self-Check Key
25(1)
Additional Stuff
25(1)
Nonprint Stuff
26(1)
Cyber Stuff
26(1)
Reliability of Assessment
27(20)
Stability Reliability
29(3)
Quibbling over Quizzes
30(2)
Alternate-Form Reliability
32(1)
Internal Consistency Reliability
33(2)
Three Coins in the Reliability Fountain
35(2)
Parent Talk
36(1)
The Standard Error of Measurement
37(3)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
39(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Reliability?
40(1)
Chapter Summary
41(1)
Self-Check
42(2)
Pondertime
44(1)
Self-Check Key
44(1)
Endnote
45(1)
Additional Stuff
45(1)
Cyber Stuff
46(1)
Validity
47(26)
A Quest for Defensible Inferences
47(3)
Group-Influenced Grading
49(1)
Validity Evidence
50(2)
Content-Related Evidence of Validity
52(7)
Criterion-Related Evidence of Validity
59(3)
Parent Talk
61(1)
Construct-Related Evidence of Validity
62(3)
Sanctioned and Unsanctioned Forms of Validity Evidence
65(1)
The Relationship between Reliability and Validity
66(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Validity?
66(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
67(1)
Chapter Summary
68(1)
Self-Check
68(3)
Pondertime
71(1)
Self-Check Key
71(1)
Additional Stuff
71(1)
Cyber Stuff
72(1)
Absence-of-Bias
73(22)
The Nature of Assessment Bias
73(4)
Choose Your Language, Children!
76(1)
Disparate Impact and Assessment Bias
77(1)
Judgmental Approaches
78(3)
Empirical Approaches
81(1)
Bias Detection in the Classroom
81(3)
Parent Talk
83(1)
Assessment Accommodations for Students Who Need Them
84(2)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Absence-of-Bias?
86(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
87(1)
Chapter Summary
88(1)
Self-Check
89(3)
Pondertime
92(1)
Self-Check Key
92(1)
Additional Stuff
93(1)
Cyber Stuff
94(1)
Deciding What to Assess and How to Assess It
95(30)
What to Assess
95(7)
On Demand Assessment
99(3)
A Different Taxonomic Table
102(6)
NAEP Frameworks
108(2)
How to Assess It
110(7)
Parent Talk
114(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
116(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about What to Assess and How to Assess It?
117(1)
Chapter Summary
118(1)
Self-Check
118(3)
Pondertime
121(1)
Self-Check Key
121(1)
Endnote
122(1)
Additional Stuff
122(1)
Nonprint Stuff
123(1)
Cyber Stuff
124(1)
Selected-Response Tests
125(26)
Ten (Divided by Two) Item-Writing Commandments
126(3)
Binary-Choice Items
129(3)
Multiple Binary-Choice Items
132(2)
Multiple-Choice Items
134(6)
Multiple-Guess Test Items?
137(2)
Parent Talk
139(1)
Matching Items
140(3)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Selected-Response Tests?
143(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
144(1)
Chapter Summary
145(1)
Self-Check
145(2)
Pondertime
147(1)
Self-Check Key
148(1)
Additional Stuff
149(1)
Nonprint Stuff
149(1)
Cyber Stuff
149(2)
Constructed-Response Tests
151(22)
Short-Answer Items
152(3)
Essay Items: Development
155(5)
Forests or Trees?
156(4)
Essay Items: Scoring Students' Responses
160(7)
Parent Talk
165(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
167(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Constructed-Response Tests?
167(1)
Chapter Summary
168(1)
Self-Check
168(3)
Pondertime
171(1)
Self-Check Key
171(1)
Additional Stuff
172(1)
Nonprint Stuff
172(1)
Cyber Stuff
172(1)
Performance Assessment
173(26)
What Is a Performance Test?
173(3)
Why Performance Assessment?
176(1)
Identifying Suitable Tasks for Performance Assessment
177(5)
Grow, Plants, Grow!
178(4)
Identifying Scoring Criteria
182(2)
Two Illustrative Performance-Test Tasks and a Scoring System
184(3)
Ratings and Observations
187(4)
Sources of Error in Scoring Student Performances
191(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
192(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Performance Assessment?
193(1)
Parent Talk
194(1)
Chapter Summary
194(1)
Self-Check
195(1)
Pondertime
195(1)
Self-Check Key
196(1)
Additional Stuff
196(1)
Nonprint Stuff
197(1)
Cyber Stuff
198(1)
Portfolio Assessment
199(18)
Classroom Portfolio Assessment versus Large-Scale Portfolio Assessment
199(4)
Does Self-Evaluation Equal Self-Grading?
202(1)
Key Ingredients in Classroom Portfolio Assessment
203(6)
The Pros and Cons of Portfolio Assessment
209(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
209(2)
Parent Talk
211(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Portfolio Assessment?
211(1)
Chapter Summary
212(1)
Self-Check
213(2)
Pondertime
215(1)
Self-Check Key
215(1)
Additional Stuff
216(1)
Nonprint Stuff
216(1)
Cyber Stuff
216(1)
Affective Assessment
217(20)
Why Assess Affect?
217(3)
Where Went Wonder?
219(1)
The Other Side of the Argument
220(1)
Which Affective Variables Should Be Assessed?
221(2)
How Should Affect Be Assessed in Classrooms?
223(1)
Self-Report Assessment
224(3)
A Set of Modifiable Affective Inventories
227(3)
Parent Talk
229(1)
What Kind of Inferences Are at Stake in Affective Assessment?
230(1)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
231(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Affective Assessment?
231(1)
Chapter Summary
232(1)
Self-Check
233(1)
Pondertime
234(1)
Self-Check Key
235(1)
Additional Stuff
235(1)
Nonprint Stuff
236(1)
Improving Teacher-Developed Assessments
237(18)
Judgmentally Based Improvement Procedures
238(4)
Empirically Based Improvement Procedures
242(6)
Parent Talk
245(1)
To Catch a Culprit: Teacher or Test
246(2)
Item Analysis for Criterion-Referenced Measurement
248(2)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
249(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Improving Their Assessments?
250(1)
Chapter Summary
250(1)
Self-Check
251(2)
Pondertime
253(1)
Self-Check Key
253(1)
Additional Stuff
254(1)
Nonprint Stuff
254(1)
Instructionally Oriented Assessment
255(28)
Instructional Decisions and Assessment Results
256(6)
Planning Instruction to Achieve Assessment-Exemplified Objectives
262(16)
At What Cost Boosting?
263(13)
Parent Talk
276(2)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Instructionally Oriented Assessment?
278(1)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
279(1)
Chapter Summary
279(1)
Self-Check
280(1)
Pondertime
280(1)
Self-Check Key
281(1)
Additional Stuff
281(1)
Nonprint Stuff
282(1)
Cyber Stuff
282(1)
Making Sense Out of Standardized Test Scores
283(22)
Standardized Tests
284(1)
Which Test to Believe
285(1)
Group-Focused Test Interpretation
285(2)
Individual Student Test Interpretation
287(13)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
298(1)
Parent Talk
299(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Interpreting Standardized Test Scores?
300(1)
Chapter Summary
300(1)
Self-Check
301(1)
Pondertime
302(1)
Self-Check Key
303(1)
Additional Stuff
303(1)
Nonprint Stuff
304(1)
Cyber Stuff
304(1)
Appropriate and Inappropriate Test-Preparation Practices
305(16)
High-Stakes Assessment Arrives
305(1)
Assessment Results as Inference Illuminators
306(1)
Was It Really Wrong?
307(1)
Two Evaluative Guidelines
307(3)
Five Test-Preparation Practices
310(1)
Applying the Two Guidelines
311(2)
Parent Talk
312(1)
What about ``Teaching to the Test''?
313(3)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
315(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Test-Preparation Practices?
316(1)
Chapter Summary
316(1)
Self-Check
316(2)
Pondertime
318(1)
Self-Check Key
319(1)
Additional Stuff
319(1)
Nonprint Stuff
320(1)
Cyber Stuff
320(1)
Evaluating Teaching and Grading Students
321(34)
Distinction Drawing
321(1)
Evaluation of Teaching and the Use of Assessment Data
322(2)
An Alternative Data-Gathering Design
324(3)
What's in a Name?
327(1)
A Standardized Test's Function
328(1)
Differentiation as a Demigod
328(2)
Measuring Temperature with a Tablespoon
330(1)
Testing-Teaching Mismatches
330(2)
A Tendency to Eliminate Important Test Items
332(1)
Causality Confusion
332(5)
What's a Teacher to Do?
337(1)
Right Task, Wrong Tools
338(1)
Assessment-Based Grading
338(6)
Should Level-of-Effort Be Rewarded?
338(6)
Hodgepodge Grading
344(1)
Electronic Record Keeping
344(4)
Parent Talk
345(3)
But What Does This Have to Do with Teaching?
348(1)
What Do Classroom Teachers Really Need to Know about Assessment-Based Evaluation of Teaching and Grading of Students?
348(1)
Chapter Summary
349(1)
Self-Check
350(1)
Pondertime
351(1)
Self-Check Key
352(1)
Additional Stuff
352(1)
Nonprint Stuff
353(1)
Cyber Stuff
354(1)
Appendix: Four Self-Report Affective Inventories: Description and Use 355(8)
Glossary 363(4)
Index 367


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