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Climatology : An Atmospheric Science

by ; ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321602053

ISBN10:
0321602056
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/20/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map,Climatologyexplores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life-and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change. Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry. A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earthrs"s climate and weather.

Author Biography

John Hidore is retired from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. John’s work has taken him to regions across the globe—including the Middle East, where he conducted research for a year in the Sudan, and later witnessed the breakout of civil war in Beirut, Lebanon in 1975. He has also worked and traveled in Saudi Arabia and Israel.
 
Richard Snow and Mary Snow
are both Associate Professors of Meteorology at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, where their program focuses on the theory and study of climatology, as well as its applications to industrial and business operations. They are new to this edition of Climatology.

John E. Oliver,
deceased, received a bachelor’s degree from London University and his master’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia University in New York.  He taught at Columbia University and in 1973 joined the faculty at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. During his tenure at Indiana State, John served terms as Chair of the Geography-Geology Department and as the Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science.  He was Professor Emeritus at the time of his death in May 2008.
    John Oliver distinguished himself as the author of numerous books and articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He wrote extensively in the areas of climatology and physical geography. Among his major works is the Encyclopedia of World Climatology (2005), which he edited.  John was co-founder of the journal Physical Geography  and served as climatology editor of the journal from 1979-2000.  In honor of his teaching, research, and university administration, he received the Distinguished Professor award from the College of Arts and Science at Indiana State University.  The Climate Specialty Group in the Association of American Geographers presented him the first Lifetime Achievement Award (1998) for his many contributions to the study of climatology and to that professional organization.

Table of Contents

Part 1.  PHYSICAL AND DYNAMIC CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 1    Climatology in the World Today
The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences
Climatology: A Brief History
         The Content of Climatology
Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability
        Data Representation
         Units
The Standard Atmosphere
         Atmospheric chemistry
         Constant gases
         The Gas Laws
         Variable Gases
Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere
         Troposphere
         Stratosphere
         Above the Stratosphere
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 2    Energy and the Climate System
The Solar Source
         Photosphere
         Chromosphere
         Sunspots
Energy Transfer
The Nature of Radiation
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation
         Reflection
         Scattering
         Absorption
         Transmission
The Planetary Energy Budget
         The Greenhouse Effect
Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation
The Steady-State System
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 3    Atmospheric Temperatures    
The Seasons
Daily Temperature Changes
         Daytime Heating
         Nighttime Cooling
         Daily Temperature Range
Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures    
Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature
Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature
         Latitude
         Surface Properties
         Aspect and Topography
         Dynamic Factors
Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 4    Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle
Changes of State
The Hydrologic Cycle
Relative Humidity
Evaporation and Transpiration
Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog
Foggy Places
Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds
Cloud Forms and Classification
Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere
         Adiabatic Heating and Cooling
         Lapse Rates
Regional Variation in Precipitation
Variation in Precipitation Through Time
The Water Balance
        A method for Calculating the Water Balance
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 5    Wind and Circulation Patterns
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors Influencing Air Motion
         Newton’s Laws of Motion
         Pressure Gradient
         Coriolis Effect
         Friction
         Rotational Forces
The Resulting Patterns
The General Circulation
         Meridional Circulation
         Zonal Circulation
Tropical Circulation
         Trade Winds
         The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Mid-latitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern
         Monsoons
         Asian Monsoon
Periodic Local Winds
         Land and Sea Breezes
         Mountain and Valley Breezes
         Föhn Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
  
Chapter 6    Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions
Ocean Currents
The Thermohaline Circulation
The Walker Circulation
         El Niño
         El Niño Episode of 1982-1983
         El Niño Event of 1997-1998
         El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather
         Counterpoint-La Niña
The Impacts of El Niño
         Agricultural Losses
         Disease Outbreaks
         Wildlife Losses
Forecasting El Niño
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Interannual Variation in the Monsoons
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 7    Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology
Air Masses
Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones
         Cyclogenesis
         Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation
Synoptic Climatic Studies
        The Hemispheric Scale
Satellite Climatology
         Orbits and Sensors
         Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 8    Climatology of Atmospheric Storms
Tropical Cyclones
         Formation of Tropical Cyclones
         The Time and Place of Occurrence
         Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding
         North American Hurricanes
         Hurricane Hazard in the United States
Thunderstorms
         Associated Hazards
Tornadoes
         Formation of Tornadoes
         Distribution of Tornadoes
         Hazards of Tornadoes
         Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974
         Tornado Forecasting
         Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting
         Doppler Radar
Floods
Drought
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part  2.  CLIMATE CHANGE

Chapter 9    Natural Causes of Climate Change
Short-Term Changes
         Variation in Solar Irradiance
         Sunspot Activity
         Variation in Atmospheric Dust
         Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface
Long-Term Climatic Changes
         Earth–Sun Relationships
         Distribution of Continents
         Variation in the Oceans
         Extraterrestrial Impacts
Other Theories
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 10    Reconstruction of Past Climates
Evidence from Ice
         Glaciers and Glaciation
         Ice Sheets and Cores
         Periglacial Evidence
Ancient Sediments
Sea Level Changes
Past Life
         The Faunal Evidence
         The Floral Evidence
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
Climate Since the Ice Retreat
Evidence from the Historical Period
         The Last 1000 Years
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 11    Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Carbon in the Environment
Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming
Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide
Other Greenhouse Gases
        Methane
        Permafrost and methane
        Nitrogen oxides
        Chlorofluorocarbons
        Thermal Pollution
Changes in the Temperature Record
Future Changes in Global Temperatures
Politics of Climate Change
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 12    Climate Change and the Physical Environment
Antarctic Warming
Arctic Warming
        Greenland
        Sea Ice
        Arctic Ice Shelves
        Melting Permafrost
Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers
        Asia
        Africa
        Europe and the Americas
Ocean Properties   
        Rising Temperatures
        Rising Sea Level
        Future Sea Level
Changing Weather Systems
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 13    Climate Change and the Living World   
Terrestrial Systems
        Length of Growing Season
        North American Forests
        Climate Change and Agriculture
Aquatic Systems
        Coral Reefs
        Fresh Water Systems
Impact of Rising Sea Level
Climate Change and Human Health
Spread of Tropical Diseases
        Malaria
         West Nile Encephalitis Virus
         Dengue Fever
         Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea)
         Cholera
         Plague   
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 14    Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric Pollutants
         Particulates
         Carbon Monoxide
         Sulfur Compounds
         Nitrogen Oxides
         Surface Ozone
         Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Acid precipitation
         Global Distribution of Acid Rain
         Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems
         Acid Rain and Human Health
         Impact of Acid Rain on Structures
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
         Stratospheric Ozone
         Chlorofluorocarbons
         Antarctic Ozone Hole
         Global Decline in Ozone
         International Response to Ozone Depletion
         Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms
         Ultraviolet-B and Human Health
         Future Depletion of Ozone
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 3.  REGIONAL CLIMATOLOGY 

Chapter 15    Regional Climates: Scales of Study
Definitions
Microclimates
         General Characteristics of Microclimates
         Role of Surface Cover
         Role of Topography
Local and Mesoscale Climates
         Forest Climates
         Mesoscale Climates
Macroscale Climates
Classification of World Climates
         Approach to Classification
The Köppen System
Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation
         Forests
         Deserts
         Grasslands
         Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra
         Disturbed Formations
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 16    Tropical Climates           
Radiation and Temperature
Precipitation
The tropical rainforest Climate (Af)
         The Rainforest Biome
         Species Diversity
         Tropical Deforestation
         Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley
         The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region
         Global Warming in the Tropics
The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw)
The Tropical Deserts (BWh)
Coastal Deserts
Desert Storms
Desertification
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 17    Mid-Latitude Climates
General Characteristics
         Middle latitude Circulation
         Summer
         Winter
Climatic Types
         Midlatitude Wet Climates
         Marine West-Coast Climates
         Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates
         Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates
         Midlatitude Deserts
Warming in North America
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 18    Polar and Highland Climates
The Arctic Basin
         Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes
The Polar Wet and Dry Climate
The Antarctic Continent
        The Energy Balance
         The Windy Continent
         Precipitation
The Polar Wet Climate
Highland Climates
Chinook Winds
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Part 4.  APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY

Chapter 19    The Human Response to Climate
The Physiological Response
Biometeorological Indices
Solar Radiation and People
Climate and Health
         Climatotherapy
         Morbidity and Mortality
Climate and Architecture
         Climate and Primitive Constructions
         Climate and Modern Structures
         Heating and Cooling Degree Days
         The Building Fabric
         Regional House Design
Urban Climates
         The Modified Processes
         The Observed Results
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Chapter 20    Climate, Agriculture, and Industry
Agriculture
         Climate and Crop Distribution
         Extending the Climatic Limits
         Climate and Crop Yields
Industry
         Industrial Location
         Energy Production
Transportation
         Air Transport
         Shipping
         Land Transportation
Tourism and Commerce
         Tourism
         Commerce
Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions

Appendix
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
 


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