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Taking the study of atmospheric science beyond the daily weather map,Climatologyexplores the broader impacts of weather and climate. The authors cover multiple facets of climate, many of which play a significant role in everyday life-and examine many topics, such as past climates, that are seldom adequately covered in other introductions to the subject. The science behind widely publicized events is explained within the systematic coverage of climate and climatology. The relationships between climate and peopleare discussed in detail, and readers are shown how common things ranging from wind-chill to architecture are understood in the wider context of climate. In the Third Edition, data and information have been updated throughout and significant coverage is devoted to climate change. Climatology in the World Today; Energy and the Climate System; Atmospheric Temperatures; Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle; Wind and Circulation Patterns; Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology; Climatology of Atmospheric Storms; Natural Causes of Climate Change; Reconstruction of Past Climates; Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming; Climate Change and the Physical Environment; Climate Change and the Living World; Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry; Regional Climates: Scales of Study; Tropical Climates; Mid-Latitude Climates; Polar and Highland Climates; The Human Response to Climate; Climate, Agriculture, and Industry. A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earthrs"s climate and weather.
John Hidore is retired from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. John’s work has taken him to regions across the globe—including the Middle East, where he conducted research for a year in the Sudan, and later witnessed the breakout of civil war in Beirut, Lebanon in 1975. He has also worked and traveled in Saudi Arabia and Israel.
Richard Snow and Mary Snow are both Associate Professors of Meteorology at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, where their program focuses on the theory and study of climatology, as well as its applications to industrial and business operations. They are new to this edition of Climatology.
John E. Oliver, deceased, received a bachelor’s degree from London University and his master’s and doctoral degrees from Columbia University in New York. He taught at Columbia University and in 1973 joined the faculty at Indiana State University in Terre Haute, Indiana. During his tenure at Indiana State, John served terms as Chair of the Geography-Geology Department and as the Associate Dean, College of Arts and Science. He was Professor Emeritus at the time of his death in May 2008. John Oliver distinguished himself as the author of numerous books and articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He wrote extensively in the areas of climatology and physical geography. Among his major works is the Encyclopedia of World Climatology (2005), which he edited. John was co-founder of the journal Physical Geography and served as climatology editor of the journal from 1979-2000. In honor of his teaching, research, and university administration, he received the Distinguished Professor award from the College of Arts and Science at Indiana State University. The Climate Specialty Group in the Association of American Geographers presented him the first Lifetime Achievement Award (1998) for his many contributions to the study of climatology and to that professional organization.
Table of Contents
Part 1. PHYSICAL AND DYNAMIC CLIMATOLOGY
Chapter 1 Climatology in the World Today The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Sciences Climatology: A Brief History The Content of Climatology Atmospheric Variables and Data Availability Data Representation Units The Standard Atmosphere Atmospheric chemistry Constant gases The Gas Laws Variable Gases Vertical Structure of Earth's Atmosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Above the Stratosphere Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 2 Energy and the Climate System The Solar Source Photosphere Chromosphere Sunspots Energy Transfer The Nature of Radiation The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation Reflection Scattering Absorption Transmission The Planetary Energy Budget The Greenhouse Effect Earth's Surface and Solar Radiation The Steady-State System Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 3 Atmospheric Temperatures The Seasons Daily Temperature Changes Daytime Heating Nighttime Cooling Daily Temperature Range Seasonal Lag and Extreme Temperatures Factors Influencing the Vertical Distribution of Temperature Factors Influencing the Horizontal Distribution of Temperature Latitude Surface Properties Aspect and Topography Dynamic Factors Temperatures over the Earth’s Surface Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 4 Climate and the Hydrologic Cycle Changes of State The Hydrologic Cycle Relative Humidity Evaporation and Transpiration Condensation Near the Ground: Dew, Mist and Fog Foggy Places Condensation Above the Surface: Clouds Cloud Forms and Classification Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere Adiabatic Heating and Cooling Lapse Rates Regional Variation in Precipitation Variation in Precipitation Through Time The Water Balance A method for Calculating the Water Balance Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 5 Wind and Circulation Patterns Atmospheric Pressure Factors Influencing Air Motion Newton’s Laws of Motion Pressure Gradient Coriolis Effect Friction Rotational Forces The Resulting Patterns The General Circulation Meridional Circulation Zonal Circulation Tropical Circulation Trade Winds The Intertropical Convergence Zone Mid-latitude Circulation Polar Circulation Seasonal Changes in the Global Pattern Monsoons Asian Monsoon Periodic Local Winds Land and Sea Breezes Mountain and Valley Breezes Föhn Winds Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 6 Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions Ocean Currents The Thermohaline Circulation The Walker Circulation El Niño El Niño Episode of 1982-1983 El Niño Event of 1997-1998 El Niño and Northern Hemisphere Weather Counterpoint-La Niña The Impacts of El Niño Agricultural Losses Disease Outbreaks Wildlife Losses Forecasting El Niño The Pacific Decadal Oscillation Interannual Variation in the Monsoons Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 7 Air Mass and Synoptic Climatology Air Masses Fronts and Middle Latitude Cyclones Cyclogenesis Cyclones and Upper Air Circulation Synoptic Climatic Studies The Hemispheric Scale Satellite Climatology Orbits and Sensors Limitations and Opportunities of Satellite Studies Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 8 Climatology of Atmospheric Storms Tropical Cyclones Formation of Tropical Cyclones The Time and Place of Occurrence Hurricane Surge and Coastal Flooding North American Hurricanes Hurricane Hazard in the United States Thunderstorms Associated Hazards Tornadoes Formation of Tornadoes Distribution of Tornadoes Hazards of Tornadoes Tornado Outbreaks of 1925 and 1974 Tornado Forecasting Radar-Tool for Analysis and Forecasting Doppler Radar Floods Drought Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Part 2. CLIMATE CHANGE
Chapter 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change Short-Term Changes Variation in Solar Irradiance Sunspot Activity Variation in Atmospheric Dust Human-Induced Changes in Earth’s Surface Long-Term Climatic Changes Earth–Sun Relationships Distribution of Continents Variation in the Oceans Extraterrestrial Impacts Other Theories Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 10 Reconstruction of Past Climates Evidence from Ice Glaciers and Glaciation Ice Sheets and Cores Periglacial Evidence Ancient Sediments Sea Level Changes Past Life The Faunal Evidence The Floral Evidence Climatic Change over Geologic Time Climate Since the Ice Retreat Evidence from the Historical Period The Last 1000 Years Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Carbon in the Environment Changing Levels of Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide and the Theory of Global Warming Future Changes in Carbon Dioxide Other Greenhouse Gases Methane Permafrost and methane Nitrogen oxides Chlorofluorocarbons Thermal Pollution Changes in the Temperature Record Future Changes in Global Temperatures Politics of Climate Change Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 12 Climate Change and the Physical Environment Antarctic Warming Arctic Warming Greenland Sea Ice Arctic Ice Shelves Melting Permafrost Melting of Earth's Mountain Glaciers Asia Africa Europe and the Americas Ocean Properties Rising Temperatures Rising Sea Level Future Sea Level Changing Weather Systems Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 13 Climate Change and the Living World Terrestrial Systems Length of Growing Season North American Forests Climate Change and Agriculture Aquatic Systems Coral Reefs Fresh Water Systems Impact of Rising Sea Level Climate Change and Human Health Spread of Tropical Diseases Malaria West Nile Encephalitis Virus Dengue Fever Chikungunya (Chicken Guinea) Cholera Plague Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 14 Changes in Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Pollutants Particulates Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Compounds Nitrogen Oxides Surface Ozone Atmospheric Brown Clouds Acid precipitation Global Distribution of Acid Rain Impact of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Systems Acid Rain and Human Health Impact of Acid Rain on Structures Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Stratospheric Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons Antarctic Ozone Hole Global Decline in Ozone International Response to Ozone Depletion Ultraviolet Radiation and Living Organisms Ultraviolet-B and Human Health Future Depletion of Ozone Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Part 3. REGIONAL CLIMATOLOGY
Chapter 15 Regional Climates: Scales of Study Definitions Microclimates General Characteristics of Microclimates Role of Surface Cover Role of Topography Local and Mesoscale Climates Forest Climates Mesoscale Climates Macroscale Climates Classification of World Climates Approach to Classification The Köppen System Climate and the Distribution of Vegetation Forests Deserts Grasslands Colder Realms: Taiga and Tundra Disturbed Formations Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 16 Tropical Climates Radiation and Temperature Precipitation The tropical rainforest Climate (Af) The Rainforest Biome Species Diversity Tropical Deforestation Deforestation in the Amazon River Valley The Galapagos: An Equatorial Dry Region Global Warming in the Tropics The Tropical Wet-and-Dry Climate(Aw) The Tropical Deserts (BWh) Coastal Deserts Desert Storms Desertification Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 17 Mid-Latitude Climates General Characteristics Middle latitude Circulation Summer Winter Climatic Types Midlatitude Wet Climates Marine West-Coast Climates Midlatitude Winter-Dry Climates Midlatitude Summer-Dry Climates Midlatitude Deserts Warming in North America Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 18 Polar and Highland Climates The Arctic Basin Polar Lows and Arctic Hurricanes The Polar Wet and Dry Climate The Antarctic Continent The Energy Balance The Windy Continent Precipitation The Polar Wet Climate Highland Climates Chinook Winds Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Part 4. APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY
Chapter 19 The Human Response to Climate The Physiological Response Biometeorological Indices Solar Radiation and People Climate and Health Climatotherapy Morbidity and Mortality Climate and Architecture Climate and Primitive Constructions Climate and Modern Structures Heating and Cooling Degree Days The Building Fabric Regional House Design Urban Climates The Modified Processes The Observed Results Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions
Chapter 20 Climate, Agriculture, and Industry Agriculture Climate and Crop Distribution Extending the Climatic Limits Climate and Crop Yields Industry Industrial Location Energy Production Transportation Air Transport Shipping Land Transportation Tourism and Commerce Tourism Commerce Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions