9780721684222

Clinical Blood Gases : Assessment and Intervention

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780721684222

  • ISBN10:

    072168422X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 8/4/2004
  • Publisher: SAUNDERS W B CO

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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
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Summary

This text provides a thorough resource on arterial blood gases, covering the full scope of applications. This book is the first of its kind to focus on the needs of educators, students, and practitioners alike. The new edition has been completely updated, providing the latest information from the field, including facts on technical issues, basic physiology, clinical oxygenation, clinical acid base, non-invasive techniques, just to name a few. Instructor resources are available; please contact your Elsevier sales representative for details. An Evolve Course Management System is available, allowing instructors to customize their own course content, conduct interactive exercises with students, and much more. This books amazing content coverage offers a wealth of useful material, including illustrations, tables, examples, and case studies. This new edition is up-to-date with the latest in technology and information, ensuring the most current information is available. New figures and tables enhance the understanding of chapter material. The addition of an NBRC (National Board of Respiratory Care) Challenge at end of each chapter helps readers learn, understand, and put the information together to master the subject. The incorporation of two new On Call Cases per chapter provides further opportunity to practice clinical application of content learned, as well as helping readers utilize their critical thinking skills. Reorganized and improved table of contents presents the material in a more logical, efficient manner.

Author Biography

William J. Malley, MS, RRT, CPFT: Administrative Director, Respiratory Services, The Western Pennsylvania Hospital; Program Director, School of Respiratory Care, Indiana University of Pennsylvania/The Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh

Table of Contents

Unit I Introduction to Blood Gases
1(58)
Arterial Blood Gases
3(32)
Introduction
3(1)
Normal Blood Gas Values
4(3)
Arterial versus Venous Blood
7(1)
Technique
8(17)
Arterial Cannulation
25(3)
Arterial Line/Blood Gas Controversy
28(1)
Capillary Sampling
29(1)
AARC Clinical Practice Guidelines
30(1)
Exercises
31(4)
Blood Gas Classification
35(24)
Introduction
35(1)
Systematic Approach
36(1)
Acid-Base Status
36(2)
Basic (Primary) Acid-Base Disturbance(s)
38(4)
Compensation Assessment
42(4)
Acid-Base Classification versus Interpretation
46(1)
Oxygenation Status
46(2)
Complete Blood Gas Classification
48(1)
Alternative Terminology
48(2)
Exercises
50(9)
Unit II Technical Issues in Blood Gas Analysis
59(74)
Blood Gas Sampling Errors
61(21)
Introduction
61(1)
Basic Physics of Gases
61(5)
Potential Sampling Errors
66(9)
Measurement of Blood Gases and Electrolytes from a Single Sample
75(1)
Exercises
76(6)
Blood Gas Electrodes and Quality Assurance
82(32)
Blood Gas Electrodes
82(8)
Total Quality Management
90(1)
Quality Assurance
91(1)
Quality Control
92(11)
Continuous Monitoring of Blood Gases
103(3)
Point-of-Care Testing
106(1)
Regulations and Laboratory Accreditation
107(1)
Exercises
107(7)
Accuracy Check and Metabolic Acid-Base Indices
114(19)
Accuracy Check
114(6)
Metabolic Acid-Base Indices
120(6)
Exercises
126(7)
Unit III Basic Physiology
133(92)
Oxygenation and External Respiration
135(30)
Introduction
135(3)
External Respiration
138(21)
Exercises
159(6)
Oxygen Transport and Internal Respiration
165(31)
Introduction
165(1)
Blood Oxygen Compartments
165(14)
Quantitative Oxygen Transport
179(2)
Hemoglobin Abnormalities
181(5)
Internal Respiration
186(4)
Exercises
190(6)
Acid-Base Homeostasis
196(29)
Hydrogen Ions and pH
196(2)
The Lungs and Regulation of Volatile Acid
198(7)
The Kidneys and Acid-Base Balance
205(1)
Buffer Systems
206(4)
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
210(8)
Exercises
218(7)
Unit IV Clinical Oxygenation
225(80)
Assessment of Hypoxemia and Shunting
227(19)
Overview
227(1)
Assessment of Hypoxemia
228(1)
Effects of Cardiac Output on PaO2
228(4)
Assessment of Physiologic Shunting
232(4)
Differential Diagnosis of Hypoxemia
236(3)
Clinical Appearance of the Patient with Hypoxemia/Hypercapnia
239(1)
Hyperoxemia
239(1)
Exercises
240(6)
Treatment of Hypoxemia and Shunting
246(26)
Treatment
246(1)
Oxygen Therapy
247(9)
Mechanical Ventilation
256(2)
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure
258(6)
Body Positioning
264(2)
Nitric Oxide
266(1)
Long-term Oxygen Therapy
267(1)
Exercises
267(5)
Hypoxia: Assessment and Intervention
272(33)
Overview
272(1)
Oxygen Supply Variables
273(17)
Key Indicators of Hypoxia
290(8)
Exercises
298(7)
Unit V Clinical Acid Base
305(80)
Regulation of Acids, Base, and Electrolytes
307(25)
Overview
307(1)
Regulation of Ventilation
308(5)
Renal Function
313(1)
Body Fluids and Electrolytes
314(3)
Sodium Regulation in the Kidney
317(5)
Urinary Buffers and H+ Excretion
322(1)
Plasma pH and [K+]
323(1)
Law of Electroneutrality
324(2)
Stewart's Strong Ion Difference
326(1)
Exercises
327(5)
Differential Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disturbances
332(29)
Introduction
333(1)
Respiratory Acidosis
334(6)
Respiratory Alkalosis
340(3)
Metabolic Acidosis
343(7)
Metabolic Alkalosis
350(6)
Exercises
356(5)
Mixed Acid-Base Disturbances and Treatment
361(24)
Overview
361(1)
Factors That May Complicate Clinical Acid-Base Data
362(2)
Mixed Acid-Base Disturbances
364(5)
Acid-Base Treatment
369(10)
Exercises
379(6)
Unit VI Noninvasive Techniques and Case Studies
385(56)
Noninvasive Blood Gas Monitoring
387(32)
Introduction
388(1)
Oximetry
388(5)
Pulse Oximetry
393(10)
Transcutaneous PO2/PCO2 Monitoring
403(3)
Capnometry
406(9)
Exercises
415(4)
Arterial Blood Gas Case Studies
419(22)
Narcotic Overdose
419(1)
Unexplained Acidemia
420(1)
Gastrointestinal Disturbance
420(1)
Status Asthmaticus
421(1)
Acute Respiratory Acidemia
422(1)
Nasogastric Suction
422(1)
Unexplained Alkalemia
423(1)
Oxygenation Disturbance
423(1)
Diabetic Patient
424(1)
Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
425(1)
Mitral Valve Replacement
426(1)
Patient with Burns
427(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Congestive Heart Failure
429(1)
Pulmonary Edema
430(2)
Answers to Arterial Blood Gas Case Studies
432(9)
References 441(19)
Answers 460(37)
Illustration Credits 497(4)
Index 501

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