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Clinical Phonetics,9780024102133
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Clinical Phonetics

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780024102133

ISBN10:
002410213X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $121.00
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Summary

For more than 20 years, Clinical Phonetics has been the leading resource for those interested in acquiring both the academic content and the transcription skills required for responsible clinical decision-making. Clinical Phonetics, Third Edition, is a comprehensive introduction to the art and science of clinical transcription. The three primary strengths of Clinical Phonetics continue to be: a) authoritative coverage of the phonetics of American English, b) tested skills teaching in clinical transcription using four hours of audio examples, and c) discussion of a wealth of clinically-relevant topics throughout the text and numerous appendices. For professional in the fields of linguistics and language pathology.

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
Preface to the First Edition xix
Notes to Instructors xxi
Contents of Audiocassette Tapes xxv
Overview of Clinical Phonetics
1(4)
Welcome
1(1)
Clinical Phonetics
1(2)
The Informational Domain of Clinical Phonetics
1(1)
The Perceptual Domain of Clinical Phonetics
1(2)
Summary
3(1)
Exercises
3(2)
Linguistic Phonetics
5(10)
Language, Speech, and Dialect
5(1)
The Morpheme
6(1)
The Phoneme
7(1)
Phonology and Phonetics
8(1)
The Allophone
8(1)
The Morph and the Phone
9(1)
The Alphabet and the Allograph
10(1)
Positional and Contextual Terminology for Phonetic Descriptions
10(2)
Glossary
12(1)
Exercises
12(3)
The Three Systems of Speech Production
15(10)
The Respiratory System
15(1)
The Laryngeal System
16(2)
The Supralaryngeal System
18(4)
Velopharynx: Velum and Pharyngeal Walls
18(2)
Jaw
20(1)
Tongue
20(1)
Lips
21(1)
Conclusion
22(1)
Glossary
22(1)
Exercises
23(2)
Vowels and Diphthongs
25(38)
Vowel Articulation
26(3)
Tongue Height
26(1)
Tongue Advancement
27(1)
Tenseness or Length
28(1)
Lip Configuration (Rounding)
29(1)
Vowel Description: Tongue Height, Tongue Advancement, Tenseness, and Lip Rounding
29(1)
The Front Series
29(5)
Vowel / ¡ / (He)
29(3)
Vowel / I / (Hid)
32(1)
Vowel / e / (Chaos---First Syllable)
32(1)
Vowel / ϵ / (Head)
33(1)
Vowel / æ / (Had)
33(1)
Vowel / a /
34(1)
The Central Series
34(3)
Vowel / 3∧ / (Her)
34(1)
Vowel / 3 / (British or Southern Her)
35(1)
Vowel (Further, Sometimes Called Schwar)
35(1)
Vowel / λ / (Hub)
36(1)
Vowel (Above, Sometimes called Schwa)
36(1)
The Back Series
37(3)
Vowel / u / (Who)
37(1)
Vowel / v / (Book)
38(1)
Vowel / o / (Hoe)
38(1)
Vowel / a / (Awl)
39(1)
Vowel / a / (Hop)
39(1)
Diphthong Articulation
40(4)
Diphthong / aI / (Bye)
42(1)
Diphthong / I / (Boy)
43(1)
Diphthong / au / (Bough)
43(1)
Diphthong / eI / (Bay)
43(1)
Diphthong / ov / (Bow)
44(1)
Special Notes on the Phonetic Properties of Vowels
44(2)
Some Cautions About Vowel Features
44(1)
Tongue and Jaw Interaction
45(1)
Lip and Jaw Interaction
45(1)
Some Common Articulatory Modifications of English Vowels
46(2)
Diphthongization
46(1)
Monophthongization
46(1)
Nasalization
46(1)
Reduction
47(1)
Rhotacization and Derhotacization
48(1)
Other Modifications
48(1)
Allographs of the Vowel Phonemes of English
48(1)
Frequency of Occurrence for English Vowels
49(1)
Glossary
49(1)
Exercises
50(1)
Transcription Training
51(12)
Consonants
63(34)
Manner of Articulation: Stops
64(1)
Manner of Articulation: Fricatives
64(1)
Manner of Articulation: Nasals
65(1)
Manner of Articulation: Liquids
65(1)
Manner of Articulation: Glides
66(1)
Manner of Articulation: Affricates
67(1)
Place of Articulation
67(1)
Place of Articulation: Bilabials / b / / p / m / w / / m /
67(2)
Place of Articulation: Labiodentals / f / / v /
69(1)
Place of Articulation: Interdentals (or Dentals) / &thetas; / /
69(1)
Place of Articulation: Alveolars / t / / d / / s / / z / / l / / n /
69(3)
Lingua-Alveolar Stops: / t / and / d /
69(1)
Lingua-Alveolar Fricatives: / s / and / z /
70(1)
Lingua-Alveolar Lateral: / l /
70(1)
Lingua-Alveolar Nasals / n /
71(1)
Place of Articulation: Palatals / ∫ / / 3 / / t∫ / / d3 / / r / / j /
72(2)
Lingua-Palatal Fricatives: / ∫ / and / 3 /
72(1)
Lingua-Palatal Affricates: / t∫ / and / d3 /
72(1)
Palatal Rhotic: / r /
72(2)
Lingua-Palatal Glide: / j /
74(1)
Place of Articulation: Velars / k / / g / / ŋ / / w / / m /
74(2)
Place of Articulation: Glottals / h / / ? /
76(1)
Place of Articulation: Summary by Manner of Articulation
76(1)
Place of Articulation: Summary by Articulation
77(1)
The Voicing Contrast
78(3)
Allographs of the Consonant Phonemes of English
81(1)
Frequency of Occurrence and Place of Articulation
81(1)
Glossary
82(2)
Exercises
84(1)
Transcription Training
85(12)
Diacritics and Sounds in Context
97(36)
Suprasegmentals: Prosody and Paralinguistics
97(13)
Prosody
97(4)
The Bases of Prosody
101(3)
Paralinguistic Aspects
104(1)
Clinical Assessment of Suprasegmentals
105(5)
Coarticulation
110(1)
Diacritic Marks: An [æ] Is Not an [æ] Is Not an [æ:]
110(1)
Onglide Symbols
111(1)
Stress Symbols
111(2)
Primary Stress [ t 1u b ]
111(1)
Secondary Stress [ 2ϵ m b a r k]
111(1)
Tertiary Stress [ b t]
111(2)
Nasal Symbols
113(1)
Nasalized [m æ n]
113(1)
Nasal Emission [s m |]
113(1)
Denasalized [r æ n]
113(1)
Lip Symbols
113(1)
Rounded (or Protruded) Vowel [ s w i t]
113(1)
Unrounded (or Unprotruded) Vowel [h cu]
113(1)
Liabialized Consonant [kw wm i n]
113(1)
Nonlabialied Consonant [w i d]
113(1)
Inverted Lip [bx i n]
114(1)
Tongue Symbols
114(2)
Dentalized [w i d &thetas;]
114(1)
Palatized [sj i |]
114(1)
Lateralized [ s | i p]
114(1)
Rhotacized (or Retroflexed) [h a r ∫ ]
114(1)
Velarized [f i |]
115(1)
Centralized [w I n d o]
115(1)
Retracted [ b ϵ t]
115(1)
Advanced [p t]
115(1)
Raised [b ϵ d]
115(1)
Lowered [h ϵ d]
115(1)
Fronted [s n ov]
115(1)
Backed [z u]
115(1)
Derhotacized [r e d]
116(1)
Sound Source Symbols
116(1)
Partially Voiced [æ b s n t]
116(1)
Partially Devoiced [d g]
116(1)
Glottalized (or Creaky Voice) [b k s]
116(1)
Breathy (or Murmured) [p | eI I ŋ]
116(1)
Frictionalized (or Spirantized) [s t a p]
116(1)
Whistled (or Hissed) [s i]
116(1)
Trilled [t r I]
116(1)
Syllabic Symbol
116(1)
Offglide Symbols
116(1)
Stop Release Symbols
117(1)
Aspirated [t h a p]
117(1)
Unaspirated [s t = a p]
117(1)
Unreleased [ | æ p⌝]
117(1)
Timing and Juncture Symbols
117(2)
Lengthened [s i:]
118(1)
Shortened [w e >]
118(1)
Close Juncture [aI d I d I t] (I Did It)
118(1)
Open Juncture [e n I s+ m æ n] Versus [ n + I s m æ n]
118(1)
Internal Open Juncture [| ϵ t s h ϵ | p ld3 eI n]
118(1)
Falling Terminal Juncture [t v d eI ↓]
118(1)
Rising Terminal Juncture [t v d eI ↑]
118(1)
Checked or Held Juncture [t v d eI →]
118(1)
Other Symbols
119(1)
Synchronic Tie [dz u]
119(1)
Unintelligible Syllable [*]
119(1)
Questionable Segment or ?
119(1)
Stress and Other Suprasegmental Features
119(1)
Stress Marking in the IPA
119(1)
Stress Marking by Number
119(1)
Syllabification [b ∧ t n] [b æ t &berbar;] [r ∧ b m]
120(1)
Abbreviatory Devices in Phonetic Description
120(1)
Some Guidelines for Using Diacritic Marks
121(1)
Glossary
122(1)
Exercises
122(1)
Transcription Training
123(10)
Clinical Scoring and Transcription
133(20)
Factors That Influence Scoring and Transcription
133(3)
Client Factors
133(1)
Task Factors
134(1)
Speech Sampling and Audio-Video Recording
135(1)
Preparation for Clinical Transcription
136(11)
Selecting a System
136(1)
Selecting a Set of Symbols
137(1)
Selecting a Recording Form
137(6)
Determining Response Definitions
143(3)
Determining Transcription Conventions
146(1)
The Process of Scoring or Transcription
147(6)
Setting Up
147(1)
Previewing the Tape
147(1)
First Presentation of the Target Behavior
148(1)
Second and Subsequent Presentations (Replays)
148(1)
Strategies for Difficult Words
149(1)
Four Parameters of Phonetic Transcription
149(1)
Some Final Suggestions
149(4)
Transcription Training
153(104)
Transcription of Vowel and Diphthong Sound Changes
153(1)
Background Information
153(1)
The Problem of Transcribing Lip Rounding-Unrounding
153(1)
Distribution and Frequency of Occurrence Data for Vowels and Diphthongs: Implications for Clinical Transcription
154(1)
Training Modules
154(1)
Overview
154(1)
Vowel and Diphthong Substitutions
155(2)
Vowel and Diphthong Modifications
157(3)
Central Vowels
160(3)
Vowel-Diphthong Substitutions, Modifications, and Central Vowels
163(2)
Multiple Element Changes
165(5)
Vowel and Diphthong Lengthening
170(3)
Vowel and Diphthong Nasalization
173(2)
Summary Quiz
175(3)
Transcription of Stop Sound Changes
177(1)
Background Information
178(1)
Description of Stops
178(1)
Distribution and Frequency of Occurrence of Stops
178(1)
Training Modules
178(1)
Stop Substitutions
178(4)
Voicing of Voiceless Stops
182(3)
Devoicing of Voiced Stops
185(2)
Glottal Stop Substitutions
187(2)
Stop Deletions
189(3)
Frictionalized Stops
192(3)
Summary Quiz
195(3)
Transcription of Fricatives and Affricate Sound Changes
198(1)
Background Information
198(1)
Description of Fricatives
198(1)
Distribution and Frequency of Occurrence of Fricatives
198(1)
Training Modules
199(1)
Overview
199(1)
/ f / and / v / Changes
199(2)
/ h / Deletions
201(2)
Voiceless and Voiced th Changes
203(3)
Fricative and Affricate Voicing Changes
206(4)
Fricative and Affricate Substitutions
210(4)
Dentalized Sibilants
214(4)
Lateralized Sibilants
218(3)
Retroflexed Sibilants
221(2)
Sibilants Quiz
223(2)
Summary Quiz
225(3)
Transcription of Glide and Liquid Sound Changes
228(1)
Background Information
228(1)
Description of Glides and Liquids
228(1)
Distribution
228(1)
Training Modules
228(1)
Glide Changes
228(2)
/ | / Substitutions
230(3)
Velarized / | /
233(3)
Derhotacized / r / , / 3 / , / /
236(4)
/ r / Quiz
240(3)
Velarized / r /
243(2)
Summary Quiz
245(3)
Transcription of Nasal Sound Changes
248(1)
Background Information
248(1)
Description and Distribution of Nasals
248(1)
Training Modules
248(1)
Nasal Deletions
248(3)
Summary Quiz
251(2)
Grand Quiz
253(4)
Transcription and Scoring Practice
257(44)
Practice Modules
257(1)
Single-Sound Articulation Test
257(7)
Multiple-Sound Articulation Test
264(8)
/ s / in Continuous Speech; Sample 1
272(3)
/ s / in Continuous Speech; Sample 2
275(4)
/ s / in Continuous Speech; Sample 3
279(5)
/ r / in Continuous Speech; Sample 1
284(5)
/ r / in Continuous Speech; Sample 2
289(2)
/ r / in Continuous Speech; Sample 3
291(3)
All Sounds in Continuous Speech; Sample 1
294(3)
All Sounds in Continuous Speech; Sample 2
297(4)
Acoustic Phonetics
301(32)
Basic Concepts of Acoustics
301(5)
The Basic Dimensions of Sound
301(5)
Vowel Acoustics
306(3)
Consonant Acoustics
309(5)
Source of Energy
309(2)
Manner or Degree of Vocal Tract Constriction
311(1)
Place of Constriction
311(3)
Speech Disorders: Some Examples of Acoustic Analysis
314(2)
Speech Perception: An Integrative Process
316(3)
Summary of the Acoustic Properties of Vowels and Consonants
319(7)
Articulatory-Acoustic Relations for Vowels
319(1)
Articulatory-Acoustic Relations for Consonants
320(6)
A Look Toward the Future
326(1)
Glossary
327(1)
Exercises
328(5)
Appendix A Phonetics Symbols and Terms 333(10)
Appendix B Distributional, Structural, and Proportional Occurrence Data for American English Sounds, Syllables, and Words 343(16)
Appendix C Distinctive Features 359(6)
Appendix D Procedures to Calculate Transcription Reliability and Research Findings 365(8)
Appendix E Procedures for Speech Sampling and Audiotape Recording 373(4)
Appendix F Multicultural and Multilingual Considerations in Phonetic Transcription 377(26)
Appendix G Infant Vocalizations 403(8)
Answers to Exercises 411(6)
References 417(6)
Index 423


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